Cosmic Ray History

Lev I. Dorman
Tel Aviv University, Golan Research Institute, Israel Space Agency, Israel; Pushkov’s IZMIRAN, Russia

Irina V. Dorman
Institute of History of Science and Technology of Russian Academy of Science, Russia

Series: Space Science, Exploration and Policies
BISAC: SCI098000

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$360.00

Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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In the present book, we consider the dramatic early history of cosmic ray discovery and research in all aspects up to about the middle of the 1950s (Part I, Chapters 1 − 14), the history of CR experimental basis development (Part II, Chapters 15 − 22), the history of studies in CR and on accelerators for elementary particle and high energy physics (Part III, Chapters 23 – 28), the history of studies of the influence of the Earth’s atmosphere and atmospheric processes on CR (Part IV, Chapters 29 – 37), the history of studies of CR influence on the Earth’s atmosphere and atmospheric processes (Part V, Chapters 38 – 43), histories on the beginning of solar wind theory and CR modulation development, on CR studies on mountains and during the International Geophysical Year and the International Quiet Sun Year, histories of CR stations and research in different CR aspects in many countries such as Armenia, Australia, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Russia and the former USSR (ground and regular balloon observations and research, observations and CR research in Yakutia), Slovakia, and Switzerland. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Acknowledgments

Frequently Used Abbreviations and Notations

Part I. Early Cosmic Ray History

Introduction to Part I

Chapter 1 - Early Studies of Air Ionization Sources and the Discovery of Cosmic Rays (pp. 1-24)

Chapter 2 - Early Studies of ‘High Altitude Radiation’ and Proofs of its Extra-Terrestrial Origin (pp. 25-44)

Chapter 3 - Early Studies of Primary and Secondary Cosmic Rays (pp. 45-62)

Chapter 4 - Early Cosmic Ray Research in Stratosphere (pp. 63-74)

Chapter 5 - Early Studies of Cosmic Ray Geomagnetic Effects (pp. 75-96)

Chapter 6 - Discovery of Positrons in Cosmic Rays (pp. 97-106)

Chapter 7 - Discovery and Early Studies of Cosmic Ray Showers (pp. 107-120)

Chapter 8 - Discovery and Research of Muons in Cosmic Rays (pp. 121-134)

Chapter 9 - Discovery and Research of Pions in Cosmic Rays (pp. 135-144)

Chapter 10 - Discovery and Research of Nuclear Interactions of Cosmic Rays (pp. 145-158)

Chapter 11 - Discovery in Cosmic Rays of Strange Elementary Particles (pp. 159-168)

Chapter 12 - Discovery of Cosmic Ray Variations and the Beginning of CR Geophysics and CR Space Physics (pp. 169-186)

Chapter 13 - Early Cosmic Ray Origin Theories and the Beginning of CR Astrophysics (pp. 187-206)

Chapter 14 - Cosmic Rays as a Universal Phenomenon in the Universe and Main Aspects of CR Research (pp. 207-218)

Part II. History of the Formation and Development of Experimental Basis for Cosmic Ray Research

Chapter 15 - History of Worldwide Networks of CR Observatories and CR Databases (pp. 212-226)

Chapter 16 - History of World-Wide Network of Ionization Chambers (pp. 227-230)

Chapter 17 - History of the World-Wide Muon Telescope Network (pp. 231-240)

Chapter 18 - History of the World-Wide Neutron Monitor Network (pp. 241-260)

Chapter 19 - History of the World-Wide Solar Neutron Telescope Network (pp. 261-266)

Chapter 20 - History of Experiments for Researching Very High Energy CR (pp. 267-278)

Chapter 21 - History of CR Experiments on Aircrafts and Balloons (pp. 279-288)

Chapter 22 - History of CR Experiments on Rockets, Satellites and Space-Probes (pp. 289-298)

Part III. History of Studies Using Cosmic Rays and Accelerators for Elementary Particle and High Energy Physics

Introduction to Part III

Chapter 23 - History of Direct Artificial Acceleration of Charged Particles (pp. 303-310)

Chapter 24 - History of Indirect Artificial Acceleration: Linear Accelerators and Cyclotrons (pp. 311-318)

Chapter 25 - History of Indirect Artificial Acceleration: The Betatron and Synchrotron (pp. 319-328)

Chapter 26 - History of Synchrocyclotron, Synchrophasotron, Counter Bunches, and Colliders (pp. 329-344)

Chapter 27 - History of Studies in Cosmic Rays and on Accelerators of Elementary Particle Physics (pp. 345-360)

Chapter 28 - History of Studies in Cosmic Rays and on Accelerators for High Energy Physics (pp. 361-370)

Part IV. History of Studies Influence of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Atmospheric Processes on Cosmic Rays

Introduction to Part IV

Chapter 29 - History of Studies of the Secondary Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere and Underground (pp. 375-390)

Chapter 30 - History of Studies of the Connection of Primary and Secondary Cosmic Rays (pp. 391-418)

Chapter 31 - Theory of CR Meteorological Effects: 1D - Approximation (pp. 419-430)

Chapter 32 - History of Experimental Studies of the CR Snow, Wind, and Barometric Effects (pp. 431-448)

Chapter 33 - History of Experimental Studies of CR Temperature and Humidity Effects (pp. 449-462)

Chapter 34 - History of Studies of the Atmospheric Electric Field Effects in Cosmic Rays (pp. 463-478)

Chapter 35 - History of Development of the Theory of CR Meteorological Effects (pp. 479-488)

Chapter 36 - History of CR Meteorological Effects Application to Latitude Survey Data Processing (pp. 489-502)

Chapter 37 - History of Inverse Problem: Using CR Data for the Estimation of Atmospheric Conditions (pp. 503-514)

Part V. History of Studies of Cosmic Ray Influence on the Earth’s Atmosphere and Atmospheric Processes

Introduction to Part V

Chapter 38 - The History of Studies on Nuclear Reactions of CR and Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides (pp. 519-538)

Chapter 39 - The History of Studies on Cosmic Ray Radiocarbon Coupling Functions and Elements Exchange (pp. 539-562)

Chapter 40 - The History of Studies on CR Influence on Atmospheric Electric Field Phenomena (pp. 563-578)

Chapter 41 - The History of Studies on CR Influence on the Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (pp. 579-586)

Chapter 42 - The History of Studies on CR Influence on Atmospheric Chemical Processes (pp. 587-600)

Chapter 43 - The History of Studies on CR Influence on Cloud Covering and Earth’s Climate (pp. 601-628)

Appendix. Histories on CR Stations and on CR Research in Different Countries

References for Appendix

References for Books and Monographs

Object Index

Author Index

"The book is very useful and comprehensive review of the milestones and of selected important results in cosmic ray (CR) physics obtained since its discovery until present, in the series of Space Science, Exploration and Policies of NOVA. Division into five parts including the chapters within each of the part, is done based on extensive and detailed knowledge of the important subjects related not only to CR physics, but also to high energy physics, physics of the atmosphere, space plasma physics etc., by the authors." READ MORE... - Karel Kudela, Professor, Institute of Experimental Physics, Former Head of Space Physics Department of IEP SAS in Kosice and PI of Cosmic Ray Observatory on Lomnitsky Stit.

We think that in our book the Part I (Chapters 1-14) on the early CR History will be most valuable to the broad reader as well as for scientists, students, and aspirants because this period is so dramatically with a lot of interesting discussions that it reads some times as detective or romantic stories (many scientists call this period as romantic period with dangerous flights and expeditions).
The Part II (Chapters 15-22) on the history of the CR experimental basis development will be more interesting for scientists, students, and aspirants.
The Part III (Chapters 23-28) on development of elementary particle and nuclear physics aspect by CR and on accelerators will be again most valuable to the broad reader, because it described a lot of dramatic histories of discoveries of new particles and how great scientists step by step came to the present picture of micro-world. This part will be also interesting for scientists, students, and aspirants.
The two first Chapters 29 and 30 of Part IV described history of research of primary CR interaction with the atmosphere and generation of different secondary CR, how the secondary CR related with primary CR coming from our Galaxy and from the Universe as well as from the Sun and from the Heliosphere (method of coupling functions, spectrographic method, method of circle stations, and matrix global method). These two Chapters, described how was developed the basis of CR research in the Earth’s atmosphere, will be most valuable to the broad reader and interesting and useful for scientists, students, and aspirants. The other Chapters 31-37 of the Part IV described the history of the development of the theory of meteorological effects (including barometric and temperature effects, humidity, gravitational, snow, and atmospheric electricity effects), and experimental research of them. We think that these Chapters 31-37 will be more interesting for scientists, students, and aspirants.
The Part V (Chapters 38-43) described the history how was step by step starts to solve much more difficult problem on the influence of cosmic rays on the Earth’s atmosphere and atmospheric processes through: nuclear reactions and formation a lot of cosmogenic nuclides (used in many applications) - Chapters 38 and 39; CR influence on the atmospheric electric field phenomena and, what it is especially important, the key role of CR in discharging processes-Chapter 40; ionization and influence on the ionosphere and radio-wave propagation – Chapter 41; CR influence on chemical processes in atmosphere (formation of nitrates, influence on ozone layer, nitrates in ice and information on the past – Chapter 42; CR and other space factors influence on the planetary cloudiness, experiment “Cloud” in CERN, possible role in global climate change – Chapter 43. We think that about all these Chapters will be interesting for broader reader as well as for scientists, students, and aspirants because considered problems are directly connected with people life.
The Appendix devoted to short histories on the formation theory of solar wind and its role in CR modulation, on the role of International Geophysical Year (IGY) and International Quiet Solar Year (IQSY) in development of CR research, on the historical role of CR research on mountains, how was developed CR research in different countries. We think that these dramatically stories will be interesting for broader reader as well as for scientists, students, and aspirants.

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