Controlled Environment Agriculture – Production of Specialty Crops Providing Human Health Benefits through Hydroponics

Md. Asaduzzaman (Editor)
Olericulture Division, Horticulture Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Bangladesh

Series: Global Agriculture: Developments, Issues, and Research
BISAC: TEC003030




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Controlled Environment Agriculture – Production of Specialty Crops Providing Human Health Benefits through Hydroponics provides useful information on agricultural technology management that enables the grower to manipulate a crop’s environment to the desired conditions. Specialty/functional foods can be produced through simple modification of nutritional composition and environmental controls. Management of chemical composition of hydroponic culture solution and physical modification of growing environments can enhance the performance of agricultural produce.

Moreover, development and supplementation of special dietary components provides several human health benefits beyond basic nutrition. This book mainly include reviews and original research on the enchantment of growth and yield crop plants along with consistent production of secondary metabolites and antioxidants under controlled environments. Light quality mediated changes in nutritional quality and anti-oxidative properties of crop plants are also described.

The final chapter reviews the current sensory perception of hydroponically grown fruits and vegetables compared to soil cultivation. The aim of this book is to represent a new way of thinking about sustainable production of specialty/functional foods using specialized culture techniques and demand oriented distribution. Interesting research on controlled environment agriculture from around the world are brought together in this book to produce a valuable resource for teachers, researchers, commercial growers and advanced students of plant biological science.
(Imprint: Nova)


Chapter 1
Controlled Environment for Enhanced and Consistent Production of (Poly)Phenols in Specialty Crops
(Indu Bala Jaganath and Alizah Zainal, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia)

Chapter 2
Production of Secondary Metabolites in Medicinal Plants through Hydroponic Systems
(Soleyman Dayani and Mohammad R. Sabzalian, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran, and others)

Chapter 3
Light Emitting Diodes for Agricultural Science
(Naichia Gary Yeh, Center of General Education, MingDao University, Peetou, ChangHua, Taiwan)

Chapter 4
Light Quality-Mediated Enhancement of Medicinal Plant Production in Hydroponic System Under Controlled Environment
(Abinaya Manivannan, Prabhakaran Soundararajan and Byoung Ryong Jeong, Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea, and others)

Chapter 5
Enhancement of Growth, Yield, Antioxidative System and Secondary Metabolites of Medicinal Plants by Application of Brassinosteroids Under Normal, Abiotic Stress and Biotic Stress Conditions: A Review
(B. Vidya Vardhini, Department of Botany, Telangana University, Dichpally, Nizamabad – A.P. India)

Chapter 6
Priming with S-Methylmethionine Increases Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Content of Lettuce Leaves Exposed to Salt Stress
(Laszlo Fodorpataki, Botond Holinka and Eva Gtorgy, Babes-Bolyai University, Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, RO, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and others)

Chapter 7
Do Nitrogen Level and Genotype with Different Leaf Color Affect Spectral Absorbance (330 nm-800 nm) and Nutritional Quality of Hydroponic Lettuce?
((Yu Yi and Liu Wenke, Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China, and others)

Chapter 8
The Proof of Fruits and Vegetables Grown Hydroponically is in the Eating
(Chenin Treftz and Stanley T. Omaye, Agriculture, Nutrition and Veterinary Sciences Department and Environmental Sciences and Health Graduate Program, University of Nevada, Reno, USA)


"This is an edited collection of recent advances of research on specialty crop production through hydroponics under controlled environment agriculture. It includes eight chapters describing information mainly on enhanced production of bioactive compounds, antioxidants and secondary metabolites, light quality mediated metabolites production, and sensory evaluation of hydroponically grown vegetables under controlled environment. The contributor includes nutrigenomists, biotechnologists, physiologists, plant breeder, molecular biologists, botanists, ecologists, environmentalists, nutritionists, and also educationists from Malaysia, Iran, Taiwan, South Korea, India, Romania, China, and USA.

The first chapter reviews the background information on the health benefits of specialty crop production and the phenolic biochemistry in selected crops. It describes different biosynthetic pathways, focusing on where the potential controlling sites may exist mainly on (poly)phenol biosynthetic pathway. It also elaborate information on greenhouse agriculture, hydroponics and different in vitro systems under controlled environment agriculture. Finally it provides ideas towards the development of tailored specialty crops and high valued dietary ingredients.Chapter two address the current practices of plant secondary metabolite production mainly in medicinal plants species, plant nutrient regimen steered secondary metabolites biosynthesis, use of hydroponics as the ultimate tool for plant nutrient management to enhance the quality and quantity of their bio-compounds.Chapter three, briefly reviews the recent advancement on use of LEDs in indoor agriculture. It presents the LED supplemented research since 1990 on photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass production, plant tissue culture, and plant disease control. It also tabulated some common types of LEDs and their potential agricultural applications.Chapter four addresses the spectral quality mediated molecular regulation of secondary metabolites synthesis in medicinal plants grown in hydroponics under controlled environment agriculture.

It overviewed the hydroponic cultivation of several medicinal plants providing pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. It also listed the pharmaceutically important compounds elicited by different spectral qualities. Chapter five extensively reviews the role of brassinosteroids (BRs) as promoter of growth, yield and development, modulator of antioxidative system and secondary metabolites of medicinal plants grown under normal, biotic and abiotic stress condition.Chapter six is an original research and first reported results on influence of priming with S-methylmethionine, known as vitamin U on non-enzymatic antioxidant production such as carotenoid pigment, water soluble phenoloid, ascorbate and glutathione content of lettuce leaves exposed to salt stress through high concentration of sodium chloride in hydroponic solution. The results reveal that priming with S-methylmethionine enhances production of protective antioxidants especially glutathione and phenolic compounds in lettuce leaves grown under high salinity of nutrient solution, increasing health promoting quality of lettuce leaves.Chapter seven is also original research addresses the hypothesis “Do nitrogen level and genotype with different leaf color affect spectral absorbance (330 nm – 8000 nm) and nutritional quality of hydroponic lettuce?” The results showed that absorbance of red-leaf lettuce were significantly higher than green-leaf lettuce at 330 nm – 700 nm. Nitrogen levels did not significantly affect phenol, flavonoid, soluble sugar and ascorbic acid content of both red- and green-leaf lettuce.

The red-leaf lettuce contained greater anthocyanin and NO3-N content in leaves than green-leaf lettuce under low N supply.The final chapter described the sensory evaluation methods for agricultural produce grown hydroponically compared to its soil grown counterparts. General guidelines for sensory evaluation procedures are described stepwise. Agricultural factors such as genetics, pre and post-harvest factors affecting the quality of food are carefully discussed. In this chapter, flow chart of sequencing recommendations for sensory evaluation methodology is also highlighted step wisely. Finally it also reviewed and listed the recent literatures on sensory evaluation of hydroponic produce of different corps.This book presents the current research results on the increasing efficiency and quality of agricultural produce through modification of growing environmental factors, management of hydroponic nutrient solution, and use modern light technology innovations. It covers the reviews and original research on enhancement of growth, yield and also consistent production of secondary metabolites and modulation of antioxidative system in horticultural plants especially in medicinal plants under controlled environment. This book is informative and will be valuable to researchers, teachers and students of biological sciences with interest on producing specialty crops having bioactive compounds providing human health benefits." - Toshiki Asao, Professor, Faculty of Life and Environmental Science Shimane University, Shimane, Japan

The publication will benefit many people and groups such as researchers, teachers and students of biological science, commercial hydroponic growers, and in the local/ urban/ metropolitan area or in the places having environmental extremes. The proposed publication can be used in some interesting and unusual places besides typical growing condition. It can be a great scope to the following functions:
· In the places where successful crop production is limited by environmental extremes such as arid land, coastal area, submerged area etc. this specialized culture techniques can be used successfully to supply fresh and nutritious vegetables.
· In developing countries low-tech CEA systems can be used to provide intensive food production using limited acreage and resources.
· Fortification of mineral nutrients and production of specialty dietary components in the agricultural produce.
Useful to the super market/ expensive restaurant owners as they can supply readily a variety of fresh vegetables to the customers.

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