Control and Prevention of American Foulbrood in Honey Bees

Sandra Rosa Fuselli, Ph.D., Noelia Melina Cugnata, Pablo Giménez Martínez and Rosa María Alonso-Salces, Ph.D.
National University of Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata, Argentina

Series: Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods: Biology, Chemistry and Behavior
BISAC: SCI025000




Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:



American foulbrood (AFB) is a severe bacterial disease that affects larvae of honey bees (Apis mellifera). The causative agent is the spore forming bacteria Paenibacillus larvae. The use of antibiotics has led to the appearance of resistant bacterial strains and residues in beehive products. Nowadays, antibiotics are legally banned in several countries, and the affected colonies have to be destroyed by burning the hives. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeuctic methods for the control and prevention of AFB is necessary. The present monograph reviews the traditional methods used for the control of AFB, and the natural strategies based on the application of essential oils, plant extracts, propolis, royal jelly, nonconventional natural molecules, bacteria and bacteriocines, assessed in vitro and in vivo for the prevention and control of P. larvae. This book also discusses the experimental data achieved from these studies, and intends to be a starting point for future research in the field. (Imprint: Nova)


Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Control of Paenibacillus Larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood

Chapter 3. Discussion

Chapter 4. Conclusion and Future Perspectives



Author Contact Information


“Professor Sandra Fuselli and co-workers have written an excellent paper on control and prevention of American Foulbrood (AFB). This paper is a “must read” for anyone working in the field of honeybees diseases, especially for those working with AFB. In this comprehensive manuscript, Professor Sandra Fuselli and co-workers have brought a whole lot of information about the prevention and control measurements to fight AFB, spanning from traditional control methods to the newest alternative control methods. This is an essential work for undergraduates, academics and professionals in the field of bee diseases.” - Professor Juan M. Marioli, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Argentina

“American foulbrood has been and continues to be one of the major problems in the health of honey bees. The merit of this monograph is that it brings together the most up-to‐date knowledge and scientific advances in the field; it contains important information and gives us a generalized view of the current problems with regard to disease control. This monograph thus makes an extremely interesting addition to the literature since it not only covers the most relevant information but it does it in a global context.” - Jessica Martínez, PhD, Principal Investigator, Honey Bees Research Laboratory, Center of Regenerative Medicine, Clínica Alemana--‐Universidad del Desarrollo

2001. Council Directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to honey. edited by European Commission. Brussels.
2005. Policy on administrative/maximum residue limits and working residue levels for veterinary drugs in food products. edited by Canadian Food Inspection Agency: Government of Canada.
Adorjan, B., and Buchbauer, G. 2010. “Biological properties of essential oils: an updated review.” Flavour and Fragrance Journal 25 (6):407-426.
Albo, G. N., Cerimele, E. , Re, M. S. , De Giusti, M. , and Alippi, A. M. 2001. “Ensayos de campo para evaluar la actividad de algunos aceites esenciales.” Vida apícola 108:41-46.
Albo, G. N., Henning, C., Ringuelet, J., Reynaldi, F. J., De Giusti, M. R., and Alippi, A. M. 2003. “Evaluation of some essential oils for the control and prevention of American Foulbrood disease in honey bees.” Apidologie 34 (5):417-427.
Albo, G. N., Reynaldi, F. J., Yordaz, M., and Henning, C. 2008. “Toxicidad de aceites esenciales con efecto fungistático sobre Ascosphaera apis en larvas y adultos de Apis mellifera.” Veterinaria Cuyana 1:16-22.
Alippi, A. M. 2000. “Is Terramycin® losing its effectiveness against AFB?” Bee Biz 11:27-29.
Alippi, A. M., Albo, G. N., Leniz, D., Rivera, I., Zanelli, M. L., and Roca, A. E. 1999. “Comparative study of tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracyline to control American foulbrood of honey bees.” Journal of Apicultural Research 38 (3-4):149-158.
Alippi, A. M., Albo, G. N., Reynaldi, F. J., and De Giusti, M. R. 2005. “In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of the honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae to the antibiotic tylosin.” Veterinary Microbiology 109 (1-2):47-55.
Alippi, A. M., López, A. C., Reynaldi, F. J., Grasso, D. H., and Aguilar, O. M. 2007. “Evidence for plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) disease in honeybees.” Veterinary Microbiology 125 (3-4):290-303.
Alippi, A. M., and Reynaldi, F. J. 2006. “Inhibition of the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood of honeybees, by selected strains of aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from apiarian sources.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 91 (3):141-146.
Alippi, A. M., Ringuelet, J. A., Cerimele, E. L., Re, M. S., and Henning, C. P. 1996. “Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood disease.” Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants 4 (2):9-16.
Alippi, A. M., Ringuelet, J., Henning, C., and Bandoni, A. 2001. “Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de algunos aceites esenciales y mezclas de esencias sobre Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae.” Vida Apícola 106:41-44.
Allsopp, M. H., de Lange, W. J., and Veldtman, R. 2008. “Valuing insect pollination services with cost of replacement.” PLoS ONE 3 (9):e3128. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003128.
Anjum, S. I. , Ayaz, S. , Shah, A. H., Khan, S. , and Khan, S. N. 2015. “Controlling honeybee pathogen by using neem and Barbaka plant extracts.” Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 29 (5):901-906. doi: 10.1080/13102818.2015.1051493.
Ansari, M. J., Al-Ghamdi, A., Usmani, S., Al-Waili, N., Nuru, A., Sharma, D., Khan, K. A., Kaur, M., and Omer, M. 2015. “In vitro evaluation of the effects of some plant essential oils on Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood.” Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 30 (1):49-55. doi: 10.1080/13102818.2015.1086690.
Antúnez, K., Harriet, J., Gende, L. B., Maggi, M. D., Eguaras, M. J., and Zunino, P. 2008. “Efficacy of natural propolis extract in the control of American Foulbrood.” Veterinary Microbiology 131 (3-4):324-331.
Ashiralieva, A., and Genersch, E. 2006. “Reclassification, genotypes and virulence of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American foulbrood in honeybees - A review.” Apidologie 37 (4):411-420.
Audisio, C. M., Torres, M. J., Sabaté, D. C., Ibarguren, C., and Apella, M. C. 2011. “Properties of different lactic acid bacteria isolated from Apis mellifera L. bee-gut.” Microbiological Research 166 (1):1-13.
Bacandritsos, N., Granato, A., Budge, G., Papanastasiou, I., Roinioti, E., Caldon, M., Falcaro, C., Gallina, A., and Mutinelli, F. 2010. “Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 105 (3):335-340. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2010.08.004.
Bachanová, K., Klaudiny, J., Kopernický, J., and Šimúth, J. 2002. “Identification of honeybee peptide active against Paenibacillus larvae larvae through bacterial growth-inhibition assay on polyacrylamide gel.” Apidologie 33 (3):259-269.
Baggio, A., Gallina, A., Dainese, N., Manzinello, C., Mutinelli, F., Serra, G., Colombo, R., Carpana, E., Sabatini, A. G., and Wallner, K. 2005. “Gamma radiation: a sanitating treatment of AFB-contaminated beekeeping equipment gamma radiation sanitation in beekeeping management.” Apimondia Journal 40:22-27.
Bailey, L., and Ball, B. V. 1991. Honey Bee Pathology. London: Academic Press. Reprint, second.
Bamrick, J. F. 1967. “Resistance to American foulbrood in honey bees: VI. Spore germination in larvae of different ages.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 9 (1):30-34.
Bastos, E. M. A. F., Simone, M., Jorge, D. M., Soares, A. E. E., and Spivak, M. 2008. “In vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis against Paenibacillus larvae.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 97 (3):273-281.
Benitez, L. B., Velho, R. V., De Souza Da Motta, A., Segalin, J., and Brandelli, A. 2012. “Antimicrobial factor from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inhibits Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood.” Archives of Microbiology 194 (3):177-185.
Bernal, J., Martín, M. T., Toribio, L., Martín-Hernández, R., Higes, M., Bernal, J. L., and Nozal, M. J. 2011. “Determination of tylosins A, B, C and D in bee larvae by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry.” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 879 (19):1596-1604.
Bíliková, K., Mirgorodskaya, E., Bukovská, G., Gobom, J., Lehrach, H., and Šimúth, J. 2009. “Towards functional proteomics of minority component of honeybee royal jelly: The effect of post-translational modifications on the antimicrobial activity of apalbumin2.” Proteomics 9 (8):2131-2138.
Bíliková, K., Popova, M., Trusheva, B., and Bankova, V. 2013. “New anti-Paenibacillus larvae substances purified from propolis.” Apidologie 44 (3):278-285.
Bíliková, K., Wu, G., and Šimúth, J. 2001. “Isolation of a peptide fraction from honeybee royal jelly as a potential antifoulbrood factor.” Apidologie 32 (3):275-283.
Bogdanov, S. 2006. “Contaminants of bee products.” Apidologie 37 (1):1-18. doi: 10.1051/apido:2005043.
Bogdanov, S. 2011. “Royal jelly, bee brood: composition, health, medicine: a review.” Lipids 3 (8):8-19.
Boligon, A. A., Brum, T. F. D., Zadra, M., Piana, M., Alves, C. F. D. S., Fausto, V. P., Júnior, V. D. S. B., Vaucher, R. D. A., Santos, R. C. V., and Athayde, M. L. 2013. “Antimicrobial activity of Scutia buxifolia against the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 112 (2):105-107.
Boonsai, P., Phuwapraisirisan, P., and Chanchao, C. 2014. “Antibacterial activity of a cardanol from Thai Apis mellifera propolis.” International Journal of Medical Sciences 11 (4):327-336.
Burdock, G. A. 1998. “Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis).” Food and Chemical Toxicology 36 (4):347-363.
Cecotti, R., Carpana, E., Falchero, L., Paoletti, R., and Tava, A. 2012. “Determination of the volatile fraction of Polygonum bistorta L. at different growing stages and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity against two major honeybee (Apis mellifera) pathogens.” Chemistry and Biodiversity 9 (2):359-369.
CLSI. 2009. “Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. Approved standard M2-A10, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pennsylvania.”
Cornman, R. S., Lopez, D., and Evans, J. D. 2013. “Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.” PLoS ONE 8 (6):e65424. doi: 10.1371/
Cherif, A., Rezgui, W., Raddadi, N., Daffonchio, D., and Boudabous, A. 2008. “Characterization and partial purification of entomocin 110, a newly identified bacteriocin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus HD110.” Microbiological Research 163 (6):684-692.
da Silva, J. F. M., de Souza, M. C., Matta, S. R., de Andrade, M. R., and Vidal, F. V. N. 2006. “Correlation analysis between phenolic levels of Brazilian propolis extracts and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.” Food Chemistry 99 (3):431-435.
Damiani, N., Fernández, N. J., Porrini, M. P., Gende, L. B., Álvarez, E., Buffa, F., Brasesco, C., Maggi, M. D., Marcangeli, J., and Eguaras, M. J. 2014. “Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: Antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.” Parasitology Research 113 (2):701-709.
de Almeida Vaucher, R., Giongo, J. L., Bolzan, L. P., Côrrea, M. S., Fausto, V. P., Alves, C. F. D. S., Lopes, L. Q. S., Boligon, A. A., Athayde, M. L., Moreira, A. P., Brandelli, A., Raffin, R. P., and Santos, R. C. V. 2015. “Antimicrobial activity of nanostructured Amazonian oils against Paenibacillus species and their toxicity on larvae and adult worker bees.” Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 18 (2):205-210. doi: 10.1016/j.aspen.2015.01.004.
De Graaf, D. C., Alippi, A. M., Brown, M., Evans, J. D., Feldlaufer, M., Gregorc, A., Hornitzky, M., Pernal, S. F., Schuch, D. M. T., Tiťra, D., Tomkies, V., and Ritter, W. 2006. “Diagnosis of American foulbrood in honey bees: A synthesis and proposed analytical protocols.” Letters in Applied Microbiology 43 (6):583-590.
De Guzman, Z. M., Cervancia, C. R., Dimasuay, K. G. B., Tolentino, M. M., Abrera, G. B., Cobar, M. L. C., Fajardo, A. C., Sabino, N. G., Manila-Fajardo, A. C., and Feliciano, C. P. 2011. “Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foulbrood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays.” Applied Radiation and Isotopes 69 (10):1374-1379.
De Vuyst, L., and Vandamme, E. J. 1994. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: microbiology, genetics and applications. Chapman and Hall ed: Blackie Academic & Professional.
Del Hoyo, M., Basualdo, M., Torres, J., and Bedascarrasbure, E. 1998. “Use of DHT-equipment for disinfection of AFB-contaminated beehive materials in Argentina.” American bee journal 138 (10):738-740.
Del Hoyo, M. L., Basualdo, M., Lorenzo, A., Palacio, M. A., Rodriguez, E. M., and Bedascarrasbure, E. 2001. “Effect of shaking honey bee colonies affected by American foulbrood on Paenibacillus larvae larvae spore loads.” Journal of Apicultural Research 40 (2):65-69.
Djukic, M., Brzuszkiewicz, E., Fünfhaus, A., Voss, J., Gollnow, K., Poppinga, L., Liesegang, H., Garcia-Gonzalez, E., Genersch, E., and Daniel, R. 2014. “How to kill the honey bee larva: Genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.” PLoS ONE 9 (3):e90914. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090914.
Dobbelaere, W., De Graaf, D. C., Reybroeck, W., Desmedt, E., Peeters, J. E., and Jacobs, F. J. 2001. “Disinfection of wooden structures contaminated with Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores.” Journal of Applied Microbiology 91 (2):212-216.
Eckert, J. E. 1947. “Use of sulfa drugs in treatment of American foulbrood disease of honeybees.” Journal of Economic Entomology 40 (1):41-44.
Eguaras, M. J., Fuselli, S. R., Gende, L. B., Fritz, R., Ruffinengo, S. R., Clemente, G., Gonzalez, A., Bailac, P. N., and Ponzi, M. I. 2005. “An in vitro evaluation of Tagetes minuta essential oil for the control of the honeybee pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis, and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.” Journal of Essential Oil Research 17 (3):336-340.
Elzen, P., Westervelt, D., Causey, D., Rivera, R., Baxter, J., and Feldlaufer, M. 2002. “Control of oxytetracycline-resistant American foulbrood with tylosin and its toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera).” Journal of Apicultural Research 41 (3-4):97-100.
Engel, P., Martinson, V. G., and Moran, N. A. 2012. “Functional diversity within the simple gut microbiota of the honey bee.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (27):11002-11007.
Evans, J. D. 2003. “Diverse origins of tetracycline resistance in the honey bee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 83 (1):46-50.
Evans, J. D., and Armstrong, T. N. 2005. “Inhibition of the American foulbrood bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae larvae, by bacteria isolated from honey bees.” Journal of Apicultural Research 44 (4):168-171.
Evans, J. D., and Armstrong, T. N. 2006. “Antagonistic interactions between honey bee bacterial symbionts and implications for disease.” BMC Ecology 6 (4).
FAO/WHO. 2006. Probiotics in food: Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. In FAO food and nutrition paper 85. Rome: World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FDA. “U.S. Food and Drug Administration.”
Feldlaufer, M. F., Knox, D. A., Lusby, W. R., and Shimanuki, H. 1993. “Antimicrobial activity of fatty acids against Bacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease.” Apidologie 24 (2):95-99.
Feldlaufer, M. F., Pettis, J. S., Kochansky, J. P., and Stiles, G. 2001. “Lincomycin hydrochloride for the control of American foulbrood disease of honey bees.” Apidologie 32 (6):547-554.
Feldlaufer, M., Lusby, W. R., Knox, D., and Shimanuki, H. 1993. “Isolation and identification of linoleic acid as an antimicrobial agent from the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis.” Apidologie 24:89-94.
Flesar, J., Havlik, J., Kloucek, P., Rada, V., Titera, D., Bednar, M., Stropnicky, M., and Kokoska, L. 2010. “In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of plant-derived extracts and compounds against Paenibacillus larvae and their acute oral toxicity to adult honey bees.” Veterinary Microbiology 145 (1-2):129-133.
Floris, I., Carta, C., and Moretti, M. D. L. 1996. “Activity of various essential oils against Bacillus larvae White in vitro and in apiary trials.” Apidologie 27 (2):111-119.
Forsgren, E., Olofsson, T. C., Vásquez, A., and Fries, I. 2010. “Novel lactic acid bacteria inhibiting Paenibacillus larvae in honey bee larvae.” Apidologie 41 (1):99-108.
Forsgren, E., Stevanovic, J., and Fries, I. 2008. “Variability in germination and in temperature and storage resistance among Paenibacillus larvae genotypes.” Veterinary Microbiology 129 (3-4):342-349.
Fujiwara, S., Imai, J., Fujiwara, M., Yaeshima, T., Kawashima, T., and Kobayashi, K. 1990. “A potent antibacterial protein in royal jelly. Purification and determination of the primary structure of royalisin.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 265 (19):11333-11337.
Fuselli, S. R., García De La Rosa, S. B. , Gende, L. B., Eguaras, M. J., and Fritz, R. 2006a. “Antimicrobial activity of some Argentinian wild plant essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae larvae, causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB).” Journal of Apicultural Research 45 (1):2-7.
Fuselli, S. R., García De La Rosa, S. B., Eguaras, M. J., and Fritz, R. 2008a. “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Citrus essences on honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood.” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 24 (10):2067-2072.
Fuselli, S. R., García De La Rosa, S. B., Eguaras, M. J., and Fritz, R. 2008b. “Susceptibility of the honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae to essential oils distilled from exotic and indigenous Argentinean plants.” Journal of Essential Oil Research 20 (5):464-470.
Fuselli, S. R., García de la Rosa, S. B., Eguaras, M. J., and Fritz, R. 2010. “In vitro antibacterial effect of exotic plants essential oils on the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American foulbrood.” Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 8 (3):651-657.
Fuselli, S. R., García De La Rosa, S. B., Eguaras, M. J., Fritz, R., Ndagijimana, M., Vannini, L., and Guerzoni, M. E. 2007. “Efficacy of indigenous plant essential oil andean thyme (Acantholippia seriphioides A. Gray) to control American foulbrood (AFB) in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives.” Journal of Essential Oil Research 19 (6):514-519.
Fuselli, S. R., García De La Rosa, S. B., Gende, L. B., Eguaras, M. J., and Fritz, R. 2006b. “Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae employing a mixture of essential oils and thymol.” Revista Argentina de Microbiología 38 (2):89-92.
Fuselli, S. R., Gende, L. B., Garcia De La Rosa, S. B., Eguaras, M. J., and Fritz, R. 2005. “Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae by the essential oils of two wild plants and their emulsifying agents.” Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 3 (2):220-224.
Fuselli, S. R., Maggi, M. D., García De La Rosa, S. B., Principal, J., Eguaras, M. J., and Fritz, R. 2009. “In vitro antibacterial and antiparasitic effect of citrus fruit essential oils on the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.” Journal of Apicultural Research 48 (1):77-78.
Gallardo, G. L., Peña, N. I., Chacana, P., Terzolo, H. R., and Cabrera, G. M. 2004. “L-Tenuazonic acid, a new inhibitor of Paenibacillus larvae.” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20 (6):609-612. doi: 10.1023/B:WIBI.0000043175.23621.8c.
Gende, L. B., Fernandez, N., Buffa, F., Ruiu, L., Satta, A., Fritz, R., Eguaras, M. J., and Floris, I. 2010. “Susceptibility of Paenibacillus larvae isolates to a tetracycline hydrochloride and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil mixture.” Bulletin of Insectology 63 (2):247-250.
Gende, L. B., Floris, I., Fritz, R., and Eguaras, M. J. 2008. “Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil and its main components against Paenibacillus larvae from argentine.” Bulletin of Insectology 61 (1):1-4.
Gende, L. B., Maggi, M. D., Damiani, N., Fritz, R., Eguaras, M. J., and Floris, I. 2009. “Advances in the apiary control of the honeybee american foulbrood with cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil.” Bulletin of Insectology 62 (1):93-97.
Gende, L. B., Maggi, M. D., Fritz, R., Eguaras, M. J., Bailac, P. N., and Ponzi, M. I. 2009. “Antimicrobial activity of Pimpinella anisum and Foeniculum vulgare essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae.” Journal of Essential Oil Research 21 (1):91-93.
Gende, L. B., Maggi, M. D., van Baren, C., di Leo, L., Bandoni, A., Fritz, R., and Eguaras, M. J. 2010. “Antimicrobial and miticide activities of Eucalyptus globulus essential oils obtained from different Argentine regions.” Spanish journal of Agricultural research 8 (3):642-650.
Gende, L. B., Mendiara, S., Fernández, N. J., Van Baren, C., Di Lio Lira, A., Bandoni, A., Fritz, R., Floris, I., and Eguaras, M. J. 2014. “Essentials oils of some Mentha spp. and their relation with antimicrobial activity against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood in honey bees, by using the bioautography technique.” Bulletin of Insectology 67 (1):13-20.
Gende, L. B., Principal, J., Maggi, M. D., Palacios, S. M., Fritz, R., and Eguaras, M. J. 2008. “Melia azedarach extract and essential oils of Cinnamomun zeylanycum, Mentha piperita and Lavandula officinalis as a control of Paenibacillus larvae.” Zootecnia Tropical 26 (2):151-156.
Genersch, E. 2010. “American Foulbrood in honeybees and its causative agent, Paenibacillus larvae.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103:10-19.
Genersch, E., Ashiralieva, A., and Fries, I. 2005. “Strain- and genotype-specific differences in virulence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a bacterial pathogen causing American foulbrood disease in honeybees.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71 (11):7551-7555.
Genersch, E., Forsgren, E., Pentikäinen, J., Ashiralieva, A., Rauch, S., Kilwinski, J., and Fries, I. 2006. “Reclassification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae as Paenibacillus larvae without subspecies differentiation.” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56 (3):501-511.
Glinski, Z., and Rzedzicki, J. 1977. “The evaluation of the sensitivity of Bacillus larvae to antibiotics and sulfonamides isolated in Poland in 1962-1971 “ Polskie Archiwum Weterynaryjne 20 (1):9-16.
Gochnauer, T. A. 1951. “Drugs fight foulbrood disease in bees.” Minnesota Farm and Home Science 9:15.
Gochnauer, T. A., and Hamilton, H. A. 1970. “Disinfection of honeybee combs by gamma radiation.” Journal of Apicultural Research 9:87-94.
González, M. J., Beoletto, V. G., Agnese, A. M., Audisio, M. C. , and Marioli, J. M. 2015. “Purification of substances from Achyrocline satureioides with inhibitory activity against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood in honeybees’ larvae.” Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 175 (7):3349-3359.
González, M. J., and Marioli, J. M. 2010. “Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 104 (3):209-213.
Goodwin, M., and van Eaton, C. 1999. Elimination of American foulbrood without the use of drugs: a practical manual for beekeepers. Napier: National Beekeepers' Association of New Zealand, Inc.
Gosselin, P., and Charbonneau, R. 1990. “Disinfection of the bee hive's American foulbrood by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60.” International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation 35 (1-3):292-295.
Goulson, D., Nicholls, E., Botías, C., and Rotheray, E. L. 2015. “Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and lack of flowers.” Science 347 (6229):1435-1444. doi: 10.1126/science.1255957.
Granja, R. H. M. M., Niño, A. M. M., Rabone, F., and Salerno, A. G. 2008. “A reliable high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection for the determination of sulfonamides in honey.” Analytica Chimica Acta 613 (1):116-119.
Hansen, H., and Brodsgaard, C. J. 1999. “American foulbrood: a review of its biology, diagnosis and control.” Bee World 80 (1):5-23.
Haseman, Leonard. 1946. “Sulfa drugs to control American foulbrood.” J Econ Entomol 39:5-7.
Hashemipour, M. A., Tavakolineghad, Z., Arabzadeh, S. A. M., Iranmanesh, Z., and Nassab, S. A. H. G. 2014. “Antiviral activities of honey, royal jelly, and acyclovir against HSV-1.” Wounds 26 (2):47-54.
Hayama, T. 1997. “Pharmacological approach to control American foulbrood of honeybees.” Folia Pharmacologica Japonica 110 (4):183-193.”
Hernández-López, J., Crockett, S., Kunert, O., Hammer, E., Schuehly, W., Bauer, R., Crailsheim, K., and Riessberger-Gallé, U. 2014. “In vitro growth inhibition by Hypericum extracts and isolated pure compounds of Paenibacillus larvae, a lethal disease affecting honeybees worldwide.” Chemistry and Biodiversity 11 (5):695-708.
Hitchcoc, J. D. 1964. “Effect of 2 Erythromycin formulations on longevity of honey bee.” Journal of Insect Pathology 6 (4):408-410.
Hitchcock, J. D., Moffett, J. O., Lackett, J. J., and Elliott, J. R. 1970. “Tylosin for Control of American Foulbrood Disease in Honey Bees.” Journal of Economic Entomology 63 (1):204-207.
Hornitzky, M. A. Z. 1998. “The pathogenicity of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores and vegetative cells to honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and their susceptibility to royal jelly.” Journal of Apicultural Research 37 (4):267-271.
Hornitzky, M. A. Z. 2003. Fatty acids-an alternative control strategy for honeybee diseases: a report for the rural industries research and development corporation. Barton, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.
Hornitzky, M. A. Z., and Wills, P. A. 1983. “Gamma radiation inactivation of Bacillus larvae to control American foulbrood.” Journal of Apicultural Research 22 (3):196-199.
Jalali, A. S., Najafi, G., Hosseinchi, M., and Sedighnia, A. 2015. “Royal jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in stanozolol-treated mice.” Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 13 (1):15-22.
James, R. R. 2011. “Potential of ozone as a fumigant to control pests in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives.” Journal of Economic Entomology 104 (2):353-359.
Jaouani, I., Abbassi, M. S., Alessandria, V., Bouraoui, J., Ben Salem, R., Kilani, H., Mansouri, R., Messadi, L., and Cocolin, L. 2014. “High inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae and Listeria monocytogenes by enterococcus isolated from different sources in tunisia and identification of their bacteriocin genes.” Letters in Applied Microbiology 59 (1):17-25.
Johnson, R. 2010. Honey bee colony collapse disorder. In CRS Report for Congress. Washington: U.S. Congressional Research Service.
Kamel, A., Moustafa, A., and Nafea, E. 2013. “Propolis as a natural antibiotic to control American foulbrood disease in honey bee colonies.” African Journal of Agricultural Research 8 (23):3047-3062.
Katznelson, H. 1950. “The influence of antibiotics and sulfa drugs on Bacillus larvae, cause of American foulbrood of the honeybee, in vitro and in vivo.” Journal of Bacteriology 59 (4):471.
Katznelson, H., Jamieson, C. A., and Austin, G. H. 1955. “Further studies on the chemotherapy of diseases of the honeybee.” Canadian Journal of Agricultural Science 35:189-192.
Kimura, Y. 2008. “Antitumor and antimetastatic actions of various natural products.” Studies in Natural Products Chemistry 34:35-76. doi: 10.1016/s1572-5995(08)80024-5.
Klaudiny, J., Bachanová, K., Kohútová, L., Dzúrová, M., Kopernický, J., and Majtán, J. 2012. “Expression of larval jelly antimicrobial peptide defensin1 in Apis mellifera colonies.” Biologia 67 (1):200-211.
Kochansky, J., Feldlaufer, M. F., and Smith, I. B. 2006. “Microbiological screening assay for tylosin in pollen.” Journal of Apicultural Research 45 (2):37-41.
Kochansky, J., Knox, D. A., Feldlaufer, M., and Pettis, J. S. 2001. “Screening alternative antibiotics against oxytetracycline-susceptible and -resistant Paenibacillus larvae.” Apidologie 32 (3):215-222.
Kochansky, J., Knox, D., and Shimanuki, H. 1999. “Comparative stability of oxytetracycline and tylosin in sugar syrup.” Apidologie 30 (4):321-326.
Kohno, K., Okamoto, I., Sano, O., Arai, N., Iwaki, K., Ikeda, M., and Kurimoto, M. 2004. “Royal jelly inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages.” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 68 (1):138-145. doi: 10.1271/
Kujumgiev, A., Tsvetkova, I., Serkedjieva, Yu., Bankova, V.S., Christov, R., and Popov, S. 1999. “Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 64:235–240.
Kuzyšinová, K., Mudroňová, D., Toporčák, J., Nemcová, R., Molnár, L., Mad’ari, A., Vaníková, S., and Kožár, M. 2014. “Testing of inhibition activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae - The causative agent of American foulbrood.” Acta Veterinaria Brno 83 (1):9-12.
Leighton, T. 1986. Field studies on the effectiveness of alternative antibiotics compared to OTC. California Deparment of Food & Agriculture.
Lewis, K., and Ausubel, F. M. 2006. “Prospects for plant-derived antibacterials.” Nature Biotechnology 24 (12):1504-1507.
Lindenfelser, L. A. 1967. “Antimicrobial activity of propolis.” American Bee Journal 107 (3):90-92.
Lindenfelser, L. A. 1968. “In vivo activity of propolis against Bacillus larvae.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 12 (1):129-131.
Lindström, A. 2006. “Distribution and transmission of American foulbrood in honey bees.” Doctor Doctoral thesis, Department of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Lokvam, J., and Braddock, J. F. 1999. “Anti-bacterial function in the sexually dimorphic pollinator rewards of Clusia grandiflora (Clusiaceae).” Oecologia 119 (4):534-540.
Lokvam, J., Braddock, J. F., Reichardt, P. B., and Clausen, T. P. 2000. “Two polyisoprenylated benzophenones from the trunk latex of Clusia grandiflora (Clusiaceae).” Phytochemistry 55 (1):29-34.
Lopes, L. Q., Santos, C. G., de Almeida Vaucher, R., Gende, L., Raffin, R. P., and Santos, R. C. 2016. “Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of glycerol monolaurate nanocapsules against American foulbrood disease agent and toxicity on bees.” Microbial Pathogenesis 97:183-188.
Lüllmann, C. 2004. “Residues in honey and beeswax. Permitted levels.” Annual Simposium Internacional Apiculture Mediterraneo:73-79.
Máchová, M. 1970. “Variations de la sensibilité aux antibiotiques souches de Bacillus larvae.” Bulletin Apicola 13:5-11.
Maggi, M. D., Gende, L. B., Russo, K., Fritz, R., and Eguaras, M. J. 2011. “Bioactivity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae related to the drying treatment of the plant material.” Natural Product Research 25 (4):397-406.
Manolova, N. M., Maximova, V. A., Gegova, G. A., Serkedjieva, Y. P., Uzunov, S. T., Marekov, N. Y., and Bankova, V. S. 1985. “On the anti-influenza action on fractions from propolis.” Dokladi na Bolgarskata Akademiya na Naukite 38 (6):735-738.
Matheson, A. 1986. “Preserving hive parts with hot wax.” Beekeepers Annual 1986:115-117.
Matheson, A., and Reid, M. 1992. “Strategies for the prevention and control of American foulbrood.” American Bee Journal 132 (6; 7; 8):399-402, 471-475, 534-537,547.
Melathopoulos, A. P., Nelson, D., and Clark, K. 2004. “High velocity electron-beam radiation of pollen and comb for the control of Paenibacillus larvae subspecies larvae and Ascosphaera apis.” American Bee Journal 144 (9):714-720.
Mihai, C. M., Mârghitaş, L. A., Dezmirean, D. S., Chirilâ, F., Moritz, R. F. A., and Schlüns, H. 2012. “Interactions among flavonoids of propolis affect antibacterial activity against the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 110 (1):68-72.
Miyagi, T., Peng, C. Y. S., Chuang, R. Y., Mussen, E. C., Spivak, M. S., and Doi, R. H. 2000. “Verification of oxytetracycline-resistant American foulbrood pathogen Paenibacillus larvae in the United States.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 75 (1):95-96.
Mlagan, V., and Sulimanovic, D. 1982. “Action of propolis solutions on Bacillus larvae.” Apiacta 1982 (17):16-20.
Moffett, J. O., Hitchcock, J. D., Lackett, J. J., and Elliot, J. R. 1970. “Evaluation of some new compounds in controlling American foulbrood.” Journal of Apicultural Research 9 (1):39-44.
Moffett, J. O., Wilson, W. T., and Parker, R. L. 1958. “The effect of Penicel, tetracycline and erythromycin on adult bees, brood-rearing, and honey production.” American Bee Journal 98:22-24.
Moran, N. A., Hansen, A. K., Powell, J. E., and Sabree, Z. L. 2012. “Distinctive gut microbiota of honey bees assessed using deep sampling from individual worker bees.” PLoS One 7 (4):e36393.
Morse, R. A., and Nowogrodzki, R. 1990. Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases. second ed. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates/
Cornell University Press.
Murray, K. D., and Aronstein, K. A. 2006. “Oxytetracycline-resistance in the honey bee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae is encoded on novel plasmid pMA67.” Journal of Apicultural Research 45 (4):207-214.
Murray, K. D., Aronstein, K. A., and de León, J. H. 2007. “Analysis of pMA67, a predicted rolling-circle replicating, mobilizable, tetracycline-resistance plasmid from the honey bee pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae.” Plasmid 58 (2):89-100.
Mussen, E. C. 2000. “Antibiotic-resistant American foulbrood.” American Bee Journal 140 (4):300-301.
Mutinelli, F. 2003. “European legislation governing the authorization of veterinarymedicinal products with particular reference to the use of drugs for the controlof honey bee diseases.” Apiacta 38:156-168.
Nakajima, C., Okayama, A., Sakogawa, T., Nakamura, A., and Hayama, T. 1997. “Disposition of ampicillin in honeybees and hives.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59 (9):765-767.
Nakajima, C., Sakogawa, T., Okayama, A., Nakamura, A., and Hayama, T. 1998. “Disposition of mirosamicin in honeybee hives.” Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 21 (4):269-273.
Nascimento, A. P., Moraes, L. A. R., Ferreira, N. U., De Padua Moreno, G., Uahib, F. G. M., Barizon, E. A., and Berretta, A. A. 2015. “The lyophilization process maintains the chemical and biological characteristics of royal jelly.” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine:DOI:10.1155/ 2015/825068.
Nguyen, T. M., and Kim, J. 2015a. “Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Streptomyces polymachus sp. nov. isolated from soil.” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 65 (8):2385-2390. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.000268.
Nguyen, T. M., and Kim, J. 2015b. “Bacillus polymachus sp. Nov., with a broad range of antibacterial activity, isolated from forest topsoil samples by using a modified culture method.” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 65 (2):704-709. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.070326-0.
Novello, L., Ceci, E., Pinto, A. D. I., Fantasia, R., Terio, V., and Tantillo, G. M. 2005. “Presence of Paenibacillus larvae spores and antibiotics residues in honey from Apulian and Calabrian regions.” Industrie Alimentari 44 (448):616-620.
Okayama, A., Sakogawa, T., Nakajima, C., and Hayama, T. 1996. “Biological properties and antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus larvae originated from American foulbrood of honeybee in Japan.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 58 (5):439-441.
Okayama, A., Sakogawa, T., Nakajima, C., and Hayama, T. 1997. “Sporicidal Activities of Disinfectants on Paenibacillus larvae.” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59 (10):953-954.
Pavel, C. I., Mǎrghitaş, L. A., Dezmirean, D. S., Tomoş, L. I., Bonta, V., Şapcaliu, A., and Buttstedt, A. 2014. “Comparison between local and commercial royal jelly - Use of antioxidant activity and 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid as quality parameter.” Journal of Apicultural Research 53 (1):116-123. doi: 10.3896/ibra.
Peng, C. Y. S., Mussen, E., Fong, A., Cheng, P., Wong, G., and Montague, M. A. 1996. “Laboratory and field studies on the effects of the antibiotic tylosin on honey bee Apis mellifera l. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) development and prevention of American foulbrood disease.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 67 (1):65-71.
Piana, M. , De Brum, T. F. , Boligon, A. A. , Alves, C. F.S., De Freitas, R. B. , Nunes, L. T. , Mossmann, N. J. , Janovik, V. , Jesus, R. S. , Vaucher, R. A. , Santos, R. C.V. , and Athayde, M. L. 2015. “In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Brazilian plants extractsagainst Paenibacillus larvae and toxicity in bees.” Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 87 (2):1041-1047. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765201520140282.
Plagemann, O. 1991. “Sensitivity of Bacillus larvae to antibiotics and sulphonamides.” Tieraerztliche Umschau 46 (1):24-27.
Powell, J. E., Martinson, V. G., Urban-Mead, K., and Moran, N. A. 2014. “Routes of acquisition of the gut microbiota of the honey bee Apis mellifera.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80 (23):7378-7387.
Ratnieks, F. L. W. 1992. “American foulbrood: the spread and control of an important disease of the honey bee.” Bee World 73 (4):177-191.
Ratnieks, F. L. W., Visscher, P. K., and Vetter, R. 1995. “Treating American foulbrood using gamma radiation: a case history.” American Bee Journal 135:557-561.
Reinhardt, J.F. 1947. “The sulfathiazole cure of American foulbrood; an explanatory theory.” Journal of economic entomology 40 (1):45-48.
Reybroeck, W., Daeseleire, E., De Brabander, H. F., and Herman, L. 2012. “Antimicrobials in beekeeping.” Veterinary Microbiology 158 (1-2):1-11.
Reyes, M. G., Torres, M. J., Maggi, M. D., Marioli, J. M., Gil, R. R., Sosa, V. E., Uriburu, M. L., and Audisio, M. C. 2013. “In vitro inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae by different extracts and pure compounds from Flourensia spp.” Industrial Crops and Products 50:758-763.
Reynaldi, F. J., Albo, G. N., and Alippi, A. M. 2008. “Effectiveness of tilmicosin against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood disease of honeybees.” Veterinary Microbiology 132 (1-2):119-128.
Riley, M. A., and Wertz, J. E. 2002. “Bacteriocins: evolution, ecology, and application.” Annual Reviews in Microbiology 56 (1):117-137.
Roussenova, N. 2011. “Antibacterial activity of essential oils against the etiological agent of american foulbrood disease (Paenibacillus larvae).” Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 14 (1):17-24.
Ruffinengo, S. R., Maggi, M. D., Fuselli, S. R., Floris, I., Clemente, G., Firpo, N. H., Bailac, P. N., and Ponzi, M. I. 2006. “Laboratory evaluation of Heterothalamus alienus essential oil against different pests of Apis mellifera.” Journal of Essential Oil Research 18 (6):704-707.
Sabaté, D. C., Carrillo, L., and Carina Audisio, M. 2009. “Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis by Bacillus subtilis isolated from honeybee gut and honey samples.” Research in Microbiology 160 (3):193-199.
Sabaté, D. C., Gonzaléz, M. J., Porrini, M. P., Eguaras, M. J., Audisio, M. C., and Marioli, J. M. 2012. “Synergistic effect of surfactin from Bacillus subtilis C4 and Achyrocline satureioides extracts on the viability of Paenibacillus larvae.” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 28 (4):1415-1422.
Sabio, M., Vazquez, F., and Fernandez, M. 2007. “APIMONDIA 2007. Grandes logros para la Apicultura Nacional.” Boletín Apícola Octubre:1-6.
Santos, R. C. V., Alves, C. F. D. S., Schneider, T., Lopes, L. Q. S., Aurich, C., Giongo, J. L., Brandelli, A., and de Almeida Vaucher, R. 2012. “Antimicrobial activity of Amazonian oils against Paenibacillus species.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 109 (3):265-268.
Santos, R. C. V., Lopes, L. Q. S., Alves, C. F. D. S., Fausto, V. P., Pizzutti, K., Barboza, V., de Souza, M. E., Raffin, R. P., Gomes, P., Takamatsu, D., Morinaga, Y., Boligon, A. A., Athayde, M. L., Felippi, C. C., and de Almeida Vaucher, R. 2014. “Antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil nanoparticles against American and European foulbrood diseases agents.” Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 17 (3):343-347.
Shimanuki, H. 1980. “Diseases and Pests of Honey Bees.” Beekeeping in the United States Agriculture-Handbook N° 335:118 - 128.
Shimanuki, H., Knox, D. A., and Feldlaufer, M. F. 1992. “Honey bee disease interactions: The impact of chalkbrood on other honey bee brood diseases.” American Bee Journal 132 (11):735-736.
Soroker, V., Hetzroni, A., Yakobson, B., David, D., David, A., Voet, H., Slabezki, Y., Efrat, H., Levski, S., Kamer, Y., Klinberg, E., Zioni, N., Inbar, S., and Chejanovsky, N. 2011. “Evaluation of colony losses in Israel in relation to the incidence of pathogens and pests.” Apidologie 42 (2):192-199. doi: 10.1051/apido/2010047.
Sugiyama, T., Takahashi, K., and Mori, H. 2012. “Royal jelly acid, 10-Hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, as a modulator of the innate immune responses.” Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets 12 (4):368-376. doi: 10.2174/187153012803832530.
Thompson, T. S., Pernal, S. F., Noot, D. K., Melathopoulos, A. P., and van den Heever, J. P. 2007. “Degradation of incurred tylosin to desmycosin-Implications for residue analysis of honey.” Analytica Chimica Acta 586 (1-2 ):304-311.
Vanengelsdorp, D., Underwood, R., Caron, D., and Hayes Jr, J. 2007. “An estimate of managed colony losses in the winter of 2006 - 2007: A report commissioned by the apiary inspectors of America.” American Bee Journal 147 (7):599-603.
Vásquez, A., Forsgren, E., Fries, I., Paxton, R. J., Flaberg, E., Szekely, L., and Olofsson, T. C. 2012. “Symbionts as major modulators of insect health: lactic acid bacteria and honeybees.” PLoS One 7 (3):e33188. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033188.
Watanabe, M. E. 2008. “Colony collapse disorder: many suspects, no smoking gun.” Bioscience 58 (5):384-388.
Wilson, M. B., Brinkman, D., Spivak, M., Gardner, G., and Cohen, J. D. 2015. “Regional variation in composition and antimicrobial activity of US propolis against Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 124:44-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.10.005.
Wu, X. Y., Chin, J., Ghalayini, A., and Hornitzky, M. 2005. “Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing and oxytetracycline sensitivity of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae isolates of Australian origin and those recovered from honey imported from Argentina.” Journal of Apicultural Research 44 (2):87-92.
Yoshiyama, M., and Kimura, K. 2009. “Bacteria in the gut of Japanese honeybee, Apis cerana japonica, and their antagonistic effect against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 102 (2):91-96.
Yoshiyama, M., Wu, M., Sugimura, Y., Takaya, N., Kimoto-Nira, H., and Suzuki, C. 2013. “Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented materials.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 112 (1):62-67.

Audience: Subject areas: Apiculture, Bee health, Animal health, Natural Products, Beehive products, Agriculture
Job functions: Researchers in the fields of Apiculture, Bee health and Natural Products; beekeepers; vets; agricultural engineers; farmers using bees for crop pollination, beehive product dealers; policy makers.

You have not viewed any product yet.