Contemporary Use of Plant Extracts in Dentistry: Scientific Evidence for Phytotherapy and Ethnopharmacology

Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, PhD (Editor)
Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Dentistry, SP, Brazil

Series: Dentistry and Oral Sciences
BISAC: MED016000

Since ancient times, mankind has used plants as a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health and to treat or prevent diseases. The common knowledge around plants’ healing properties, known as folk medicine, has been transmitted over the centuries for generations throughout human communities. The use of natural products and herbal medicines have been documented in the past. The antibacterial activity of plant extracts has been reported since the late 1800s and some of these traditional medicines are still used, especially in the last decade, with more intensive studies for natural therapies. Active compounds produced during vegetal metabolism are responsible for the antimicrobial and biological properties interacting with specific chemical receptors in the human body and, due to these components, plants extracts are popular as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial or anti-fungal drugs.

However, in the absence of scientific studies, the use of aleatory plant extracts may lead to harmful adverse effects. Previously considered empirical, current data on the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of numerous plants have been scientifically confirmed. Phytosciences, as ethnopharmacology or phytotherapy, are emerging multidisciplinary areas with almost unlimited sources and several aspects to be discussed. Recently, there has been a growing trend to seek natural drugs as part of dental treatment. In dentistry, the association of plant extracts with restorative dentistry, endodontics or periodontics materials have been used to reduce inflammation, as antimicrobial enhancer agent, antiseptics, antifungals, antioxidants, analgesics or even as mouth rinse to prevent or reduce dental plaque.

Thus, this book will address the use of plant extracts in different fields of dentistry, highlighting its use in cariology, restorative dentistry, endodontics and periodontics, besides other uses of herbal plants in dentistry, as in dental trauma, osteointegration or hemostatic, among others. As will be shown and stated, the vast variety of different plants described in literature with medicinal properties makes it impracticable to discuss all extracts found in scientific literature. Therefore, this book will contribute with some of these extracts and different methodologies to assess, as an introduction to new research and new researchers. Also, different in vivo and in vitro tests used to evaluate biological response, such as biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity in dental treatment will be discussed.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

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Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface

Chapter 1. Empirical Use of Plant Extracts: Herbal Care in Medicine and Dentistry
(Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, PhD, Department of Endodontics, São Paulo State University, Araçatuba School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil)

Chapter 2. Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Extracts
(Leopoldo Cosme-Silva, Renan Dal-Fabbro, Rayana Duarte Khoury, Francine Benetti, Juliana Quintino Trizzi, Eloi Dezan Junior and Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 3. Biocompatibility of Plant Extracts
(Marina Tolomei Sandoval Cury, Gabriel Pereira Nunes, Ana Maria Veiga Vasques, Juliano Milanezi de Almeida, Henrique Rinaldi Matheus, Alexandre Henrique dos Reis Prado, Eloi Dezan Junior and Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Department of Endodontics, São Paulo State University, Araçatuba School of Dentistry, Aracatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 4. Phytotherapy in Cariology and Restorative Dentistry
( Victor Eduardo de Souza Batista, Anderson Catelan, Aljomar José Vechiato-Filho, Christine Men Martins, Ana Maria Veiga Vasques, Marina Tolomei Sandoval Cury and Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Department of Dentistry, Presidente Prudente Dental School, University of Western São Paulo, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil)

Chapter 5. Phytotherapy in Endodontics
(Francine Benetti, Alexandre Henrique dos Reis Prado, Gabriel Pereira Nunes, Leopoldo Cosme-Silva, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra, Eloi Dezan Junior and Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, School of Dentistry, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 6. Phytotherapy in Periodontics
(Ana Maria Veiga Vasques, Henrique Rinaldi Matheus, David Jonathan Rodrigues Gusman, Marina Tolomei Sandoval Cury, Alexandre Henrique dos Reis Prado, Juliana Quintino Trizzi and Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Department of Endodontics, São Paulo State University, Araçatuba School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 7. Other Applications of Plant Extracts in Dentistry
(Christine Men Martins, Juliana Quintino Trizzi, Victor Eduardo de Souza Batista, Bruno Piazza, Henrique Rinaldi Matheus, Eloi Dezan Junior and Carlos Roberto Emerenciano Bueno, Department of Endodontics, University of Western Sao Paulo, Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and others)

Index

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