Contemporary Approaches of the Scientific Theory of Place Marketing – Place Branding in Globalized Conditions and Economic Crisis

Androniki Kavoura, PhD
Department of Marketing, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Agios Spiridonos, Aigaleo, Greece

Series: Economic Issues, Problems and Perspectives
BISAC: BUS022000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:



The contemporary economic crisis is one of the biggest to affect the global economy and has been forcefully applied to the real economy, revolting in a deep recession. The consequences of the economic crisis has brought out systemic problems and distortions in different sectors of productive activity; local communities and prefectures are examples of places which experience these consequences.

The power of brands of significant value and businesses at the global level have also collapsed. The economic crisis also creates huge problems for the tourism sector which mainly consists of small and medium enterprises in southern European countries. This has resulted in the tourist agents becoming unable to accommodate their customers’ needs. This monograph is a useful tool for future researchers and the local communities of various regions in order to be able to design a real exit from the crisis. (Imprint: Novinka )


Chapter 1. Places and Regions in the Horizon of Globalization and Economic Crisis

Chapter 2. Marketing and Place Marketing at the Forefront of New Conditions of Economic Recession and Crisis in Search for a New Role

Chapter 3. Methodological Approaches

Chapter 4. Place Identity/National Identity: The Image of the Place and Place Brand

Chapter 5. External Public/Tourism and Tourism Behavior: Defining ‘Experience’

Chapter 6. The Role of the Imagined Community in Place Marketing

Chapter 7. The Role of Synergies and Local Networks for Place Branding and Place Marketing

Chapter 8. The Use of New Technologies for the Creation of an E- Place Brand and E-Place Marketing

Chapter 9. The New Role of the Public Sector: Negotiating the Concept of the Public Interest to the New Conditions as a Basic Pole of a Strategic Plan for Place Branding-Place Marketing

Chapter 10. Proposition for the Future: A Model of Systemic Approach of the Strategic Design of Place Marketing and Place Branding


Author Contact Information


"This impressive book offers a systematic, multi-perspective overview of place marketing approaches that will benefit students, researchers and practitioners alike. It is a much welcome contribution to the discussion." - Professor Can-Seng Ooi, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

"A riveting and insightful book on the development of place marketing in times of economic turmoil. Androniki Kavoura presents theoretical know-how, the roles of business and social environments, trends, and future outlooks of place marketing and branding. An engaging and thorough contribution, useful to both scholars and practitioners." - Dr. Stathis Kefallonitis, School of Business, State University of New York at Oswego, USA

Ampuero, O. & Vila, N. (2006). Consumer perceptions of product packaging. Journal of Consumer Research, 23(2), 100-112.
Alonso, I. & Bea, E. (2012). A tentative model to measure city brands on the Internet. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(4), 311–328.
Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities, (2nd ed). London: Verso.
Andersson, M. & Ekman, P. (2009). Ambassador networks and place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 2 (1), 41-51.
Anholt, S. (2005). Editorial: Some important distinctions in place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 1(2), 116-121.
Anholt, S. (2007). Competitive Identity. The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities and Regions. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Balakrishnan, M., Nekhili, R. & Lewis, C. (2011). Destination Brand Components. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(1), 4-25.
Belch, E & Belch, M. (2009). Advertising and Promotion (8th ed.). USA: The McGraw- Hill.
Bellou, F. (2013). American Leadership Image and the Yugoslav Crisis. Germany: Saarbrucken.
Bennett, R. & Rundle Thiele, S. (2004). Customer Satisfaction Should not be the only Goal. Journal of Services Marketing, 16(7), 514-523.
Bitsani, E. (2004). Culture Management and Regional Development. Culture Policy Planning and Cultural Product Planning. Athens: Dionicos, (in Greek).
Bitsani, E. (2006). Human Resources Management (in Greek). Athens: Dionikos.
Bitsani, Ε. & Kavoura, A. (2010). Application of the rural tour methodology for advertising and promoting rural areas in Eastern Europe. In Karasavvogolou (Ed), The Economies of the Balkan and Eastern Europe Countries in the Changed World (pp. 306-322), Cambridge: Cambridge Publishing.
Bitsani, E. & Kavoura, A. (2011). Organizational networks, migration, and intercultural relations in Trieste, Italy. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(1), 26-37.
Bitsani, E. & Kavoura, A. (2012). Connecting Enological and gastronomical tourisms at the Wine Roads, Veneto, Italy for the promotion and development of agrotourism. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(4), 301-312.
Bitsani, E. & Kavoura, A. (2014). Host Perceptions of RURAL TOUR Marketing to Sustainable Tourism in Central Eastern Europe. The Case Study of Istria, Croatia. 2nd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, 13-17 September Prague, ELSEVIER (in press).
Bitsani, E. & Kavoura, A. (2013). Accessibility versus advertising for mountain tourism: the case of Nafpaktia, Greece. Tourismos, 8(1) (in press).
Borges-Tiago. M. T., Couto, J., dos Santos Natário, M. & Braga, A. (2007). The Adoption of Communication and Information Technologies and the Local Development. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 8(2), 111-117.
Brakus, J., Schmitt, B. & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand Experience: What is it? How is it Measured? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(1), 52-68.
Braun, E., Kavaratzis, M. & Zenker, S. (2010). My City-My Brand: The Role of Residents in Place Branding, 50th European Regional Science Association Congress, 19-23 August, Sweden.
Breman, B., Vihinen, H., Tapio-Bistrom, M.-L. & Pinto Correia, M. T. (2010). Meeting the Challenge of Marginalization Processes at the Periphery of Europe. Public Administration, 88, 364–380.
Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the futrure. Tourism Management, 21(1), 97-116.
Calvert, P. (1991) Using Documentary Sources. in G. Allan, & C. Skinner (Eds.) Handbook for Research Students in the Social Sciences, (pp. 117-127), London: Falmer.
Campelo, A., Aitken, R., & Gnoth, J. (2011). Visual Rhetoric and Ethics in Marketing of Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 50(1), 3-14.
Cano, L. & Mysyk, A. (2004). Cultural tourism, the State and Day of the Dead. In Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 879-898.
Carlisle, S. (1998). Lalibela (Ethiopia), Visitor Management Case Studies for World Heritage Sites, in M. Shackley (Ed), Visitor Management Case Studies for World Heritage Sites, (pp. 139-159), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Carlsen, J., Liburd, J., Edwards, D. & Forde, P. (2008). Innovation for Sustainable Tourism, International Case Studies. Denmark: Best EN-University of Southern Denmark.
Cassel, S. (2008). Trying to be attractive: Image building and identity formation in small industrial municipalities in Sweden. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(2), 102–114.
Citta del Vino (2011). Osservatorio sul Turismo del Vino, IX Rapporto annuale, Sensis, Servizi: Associazone Nazionale. (http://www.
Christou, E. (2004). The impact of trust on brand loyalty: evidence from the hospitality industry. Tourist Scientific Review, 1(1), 63-74.
Daugstad, K. (2008). Negotiating Landscape in Rural Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2), 402-426.
Dinnie, K. (2008). Nation Branding. Concepts, Issues, Practice. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Dodd, T. (1999). Attracting Repeat Customers to Wineries. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 11(2), 18-28.
Dunn, D. & Hogg, D. (2010). Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Western Rural Development Center 1995. Available at: (accessed 4 May 2013).
Durie, A., Yeoman, I. & McMahon-Beattie, U. (2006). How the history of Scotland creates a sense of place. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 2(1), 43–52.
El Sayed, H. & Westrup, C. (2003). Egypt and ICTs. How ICTs bring national initiatives, global organizations and local companies together. Information Technology and People, 16(1), 76-92.
Europe Innova (2008). Cluster policy in Europe A brief summary of cluster policies in 31 European countries. Europe Innova Cluster Mapping Project: Oxford Research.
European Commission (1999). Towards quality rural tourism. Integrated Quality Management (IQM) of rural tourist destinations. Brussels, Enterprise Directorate–General Tourism Unit.
European Committee (2000). Committee’s Announcement to the member states on the 14th of April 2000 for the determination of the general directions for European Initiative in regard to rural development (Leader+), Official Newspaper of the European Commmunities.
Feilden, M. B. & Jokilehto, J. (1993). Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites. Roma: ICCROM.
Fine, H. S. (1981). The Marketing of Ideas and Social Issues New York: Praeger.
Fopp, M. A. (1997). Organisation Structure. In M.Fopp (Ed.) Managing Museums and Galleries (pp. 135-147), London: Roultedge.
Forster, N. (1994). The Analysis of Company Documentation.. In C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds.) Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research: A Practical Guide (pp. 147-166), London: Sage.
Freeman, B. & Nhung Nguyen, T. (2012). Seeing Singapore: Portrayal of the city-state in global print media. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(2), 158–169.
Garrigos-Simon, J., Alcamı´, L. & Ribera, B. (2012). Social networks and Web 3.0: their impact on the management and marketing of organizations. Management Decision, 50(10), 1880-1890.
Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and Nationalism Oxford: Basil, Blackwell.
Gilmore, F. (2002). A country-can it be repositioned? Spain-the success story of a country branding. The Journal of Brand Management, 9(4-5), 281-293.
Global Financial Stability Report (2011). Grappling with Crisis Legacies, IMF: Washington DC.
Gong, W., Li, Z. & Stump, R. (2007). Global internet use and access: cultural considerations. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 19(1), 57-74.
Govers, R. (2005). Virtual Tourism Destination Image. Glocal identities constructed, perceived and experiences, Erasmus Research Institute of Management: Netherlands.
Govers, R. & Go, F. (2005). Projected Destination Image Online: Website Content Analysis of Pictures and Text. Information Technology & Tourism, 7(1), 73-89.
Gow, J. & Bellou, F. (2003). Image and intervention, leadership and legitimacy: The dynamics of Euro-Atlantic engagement with challenges to international peace and security. Civil Wars, 6(1), 33-52.
Hall, M. C. & Jenkins, J. M. (1995). Tourism and Public Policy. London & New York: Routledge.
Hall, M. C. & McArthur, S. (1993). The Marketing of Heritage. In M. Hall. And S. McArthur (Eds.) Heritage Management in New Zealand and Australia: Visitor Management, Interpretation and Marketing (pp. 40-47), Auckland, NZ, Oxford University Press.
Hankinson, G. (2004). Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 109-121.
Hanna, S. & Rowley, J. (2008). An analysis of terminology use in place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(1), 61-75.
Haralambopoulos, N. & Pizam, A. (1996). Perceived impacts of tourism: the case of Samos. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(3), 503-526.
Hartley, F. J. (1994). Case Studies in Organizational Research. In C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds.) Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research: A Practical Guide (pp. 208-229), London: Sage.
Herrmann, J. (1989). World Archaeology- the world’s cultural heritage. In H. Cleere (Ed.) Archaeological heritage management in the modern world (pp. 30-37), London: Unwin, Hyman (translated by Katherine Judelson).
Hidalgo, C. & Hernández, B. (2001). Place Attachment: Conceptual and Empirical Questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(3), 273-281.
Hjalager, A. (2010). A review of innovation research in tourism. Tourism Management 31(1), 1-12. Available at: austria/accommodation/carinthia.html (accessed 8 January 2013).
Hjortegaard Hansen, R. (2010). The narrative nature of place branding, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(4), 268–279. (accessed 8.06.2013). (accessed 8.06.2013).
Hummon, D. (1986). City Mouse, Country Mouse: The Persistence of Community Identity. Qualitative Sociology, 9(1), 3-25.
Hwang J, McMillan, S. & Lee, G. (2003). Corporate Web Sites as Advertising: An Analysis of Function, Audience and Message Strategy. Journal of Interactive Advertising 3(2). Available at: (accessed 10 March 2013).
Izzo, P. (2012). Why Did Unemployment Rate Increase? Real Times Economics 12.7.2013
Jackson, J. (1984). Discovering the vernacular Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Kapferer, J. N. (2013). Brand Management, Contemporary Approaches (Translation Rigopoulou, I.) (1st ed.), Athens: Rosili.
Karvelyte, K. & Chiu, J.C. (2011). Planning process of city brands: A case study of Taipei. City. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 7(4), 257-270.
Katsoni, V. (2011). The Role of ICTs in Regional Tourist Development. Regional Science Inquiry Journal, 3(2), 95-113.
Kavaratzis, M. & Ashworth, G. (2008). Place Marketing: how did we get here and where are we going? Journal of Place Management and Development, 1(2), 150-165.
Kavoura, A. (2001). State policy for the presentation of Greek National Heritage: the case of the Cultural World Heritage Sites. Phd Thesis. University of Stirling, Stirling, UK [ /theses/digitisation.php].
Kavoura, A. (2005). Approaching ‘Cultural Assets’ from an Economic Perspective. Review of Economic Sciences, 7(1), 55-78.
Kavoura, A. (2006). Application of Marketing Communications in the Promotion of English language teaching books. How does it work for British and Greek publishing houses? Scientific Research Review Επιστημονική Επετηρίδα Εφαρμοσμένης Έρευνας (in Greek), XI(2), 181-203.
Kavoura, A. (2007). Advertising of National Identity and Tourism Bureaucracy. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(3), 399-414.
Kavoura, A. (2013). Politics of Heritage Promotion: Branding the Identity of the Greek State. Tourism, Culture and Communication, 12(2/3), 69-83.
Kavoura, A. (2014). A Conceptual Communication Model for Nation Branding in the Greek Framework. Implications for Strategic Advertising Policy. 2nd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, 13-17 September Prague, ELSEVIER (in press).
Kavoura, A. & Bitsani, E. (2013). E-branding of Rural Tourism in Carinthia, Austria. Tourism, 61(3).
Kavoura, A. & Bitsani, E. (2014). Methodological Considerations for Qualitative Communication Research. 2nd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, 13-17 September Prague, ELSEVIER (in press).
Kavoura, A. & Katsoni, V. (2013). Advertising a religious ‘imagined community’ and consumer tourism behavior: the case of branding a prefecture at a local level, Arcadia, Greece, Advertising: Types of Methods, Perceptions and Impact on Consumer Behavior. USA: Nova Publishers (in press).
Kavoura, A. & Stavrianea, K. (under review) Relating the ‘imagined community’ with brand experiences and destination branding: a proposed model for brand loyalty. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing.
Kemp, E., Childers, C. & Williams, K. (2012). A tale for a musical city: Fostering self-brand connection among residents of Austin, Texas. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(2), 147–157.
Kerrigan, F., Shivanandan, J. & Hede, A-M (2012). Nation Branding. A Critical Appraisal of Incredible India. Journal of Macromarketing, 32(3), 319-327.
Kilamby, A., Laroche, M. & Richard, M-O. (2013). Constitutive Marketing. Towards understanding brand community formation. International Journal of Advertising, 32(1), 45-64.
Kim, P. (1990). A perspective on brands. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 7(4), 63-67.
Kirby, G. V. (1993). Landscape, Heritage and Identity Stories from the West Coast. In Heritage Management in New Zealand and Australia: Visitor Management, Interpretation and Marketing (pp. 119-129), Auckland, NZ: Oxford University Press.
Kiriakidis, S. (2008). Application of the theory of planned behaviour to recidivism: the role of personal norm in predicting behavioural intentions of re-offending. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38( 9), 2210-2221.
Konečnik, M. (2004). Evaluating Slovenia’s image as a tourism destination: A self-analysis process towards building a destination brand. Brand Management, 11(4), 307-316.
Konečnik, M. & Go, F. (2008). Tourism Destination brand identity: The case of Slovenia, Brand Management, 15(3), 177-189.
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Saunders, J. & Wong V. (2001). Principles of Marketing (3rd European ed.). FT/Prentice Hall Europe.
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2012). Marketing Management (14th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Kotler, P., Haider, D. H. & Rein, I. (1993). Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations. New York: Free Press.
Koutouzis, M. (1999). General Principles of Management. Patra: Hellenic Open University.
Kristiansen, K. (1989). Perspectives on the archaeological heritage: history and future. In H. Cleere (Ed.) Archaeological heritage management in the modern world, (pp. 23-29), London: Unwin, Hyman.
Κuscer, K. (2013). Determining Factors of mountain destination innovativeness. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 19(1), 41-54.
Kyle, G., Bricker, K., Graefe, A. & Wickham, T. (2004). An examination of recreationists’ relationships with activities and settings. Leisure Sciences, 26(2), 123-142.
Lee, H.J., Lee, D. H., Taylor, C.R. & Lee, J.H. (2011). Do online brand communities help build and maintain relationships with consumers? A network theory approach. Journal of Brand Management, 19(3), 213-227.
Lichrou, M., O'Malley, L. & Patterson, M. (2010). Narratives of a tourism destination: Local particularities and their implications for place marketing and branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(2), 134–144.
Lin Y, Pearson, T. & Cai, L. (2011). Food as a Form of Destination Identity: A Tourism Destination Brand Perspective. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(1), 30-48.
Lowenthal, D. (1994). Identity, Heritage, and History. In R. J. Gillis (Ed.) Commemorations, The Politics of National Identity (pp. 41-57), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lundqvist, A., Liljander, V., Gummerus, J. & van Riel, A. (2013). The impact of storytelling on the consumer brand experience: The case of a firm-originated story. Journal of Brand Management, 20(4), 283–297.
Lytras, P. (2005). Investigation of Development of alternative Forms of Tourism in the islands of Greece through related education. Management and Economy, 3(2), 255-258 (in Greek).
MacDonald, R. & Jolliffe, L. (2003). Cultural rural tourism: Evidence from Canada. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(2), 307-322.
Marzano, G. & Scott, N. (2009). Power in destination Branding. Annals of Tourism Research, 36(2), 247-267.

Marzo-Navarro, M. & Pedraja-Iglesias, M. (2009). Wine tourism development from the perspective of the potential tourist in Spain. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(7), 816-835.
Masser, Ι., Sviden, O. & Wegener, M. (1992). The Geography of Europe’s Future. London and New York, Belhaven Press.
Maxwell, J. (1996). Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approach. London: Sage.
Maykut, P. & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning Qualitative Research. A Philosophic and Practical Guide. London: The Falmer Press.
McGehee, N., Lee, S., Bannon, T. & Perdue, R. (2010). Tourism-related Social Capital and its Relationship with Other Forms of Capital: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Travel Research, 49(4), 486-500.
Meenagham, T. (1995). The role of Advertising in Brand Image Development. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 4(4), 23-34.
Ministero Dello Sviluppo Economico (2011).
Mitsche, N., Vogt, F., Knox, D, Cooper, I. Lombardi, P. & Ciaffi, D. (2013). Intangibles: enhancing access to cities’ cultural heritage through interpretation. International Journal of Culture. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 7(1), 68-77.
Mlozi, S., Pesamaa, O., Haahti, A. & Salunke, S. (2013). Determinants of place identity and dependence: the Case of International Tourists in Tanzania. Tourism, Culture and Communication, 12(2/3), 97-114.
Molina, A., & Esteban, Á. (2006). Tourism Brochures, Usefulness and Image. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 1036-1056.
Morgan, N. & Pritchard, A. (2002). Contextualising destination branding. In N. Morgan, A. Pritchard and R. Pride (Eds.) Destination Branding: Creating the unique destination proposition (pp. 11-41), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Northover, J. (2010). A brand for Belfast: How can branding a city influence change? Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(2), 104-111.
Nuryanti, W. (1996). Heritage and Postmodern Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2), 249-260.
Nylander, M. & Hall, D. (2005). Rural Tourism Policy. European Perspectives. In D. Hall, I. Kirkpatrick and M. Mitchell (Eds.) Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business (pp. 17-40), USA: Channel View Publications.
O’ Boyle, N. (2011). New Vocabularies, Old Ideas (Reimagining Ireland). Bern: Peter Lang.
O’ Donohoe, S. (2011). New Vocabularies, Old Ideas: Culture, Irishness and the Advertising Industry-Neil O’Boyle. International Journal of Advertising, 30(3), 538-540.
Olins, W. (2002). Branding the nation – the historical context. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4/5), 241-248.
Ooi, C.S. (2004). Poetics and Politics of Destination Branding: Denmark. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 4(2), 107-128.
Ooi, C.S. (2011). Branding and the accreditation approach: Singapore. In N. Morgan, A. Pritchard and R. Pride (3rd Eds.) Destination Brands. Managing Place Reputation (pp. 185-196), Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.
Ooi, C.S. & Pedersen, S. (2010). City branding and film festivals: Re-evaluating stakeholder's relations. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(4), 316–332.
Palmer, C. (1999). Tourism and the symbols of identity. Tourism Management. 20(3), 313-321.
Palonen, E. (2013). Millennial politics of architecture: myths and nationhood in Budapest. Nationalities Papers. The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 41(4), 536-551.
Papp, Z. & Raffay, Á. (2011). Factors influencing the tourism competitiveness of former socialist countries. Human Geographies, 5(2), 21-30.
Park, S. Y. & Petrick, J. (2006). Destinations’ Perspectives of Branding. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(1), 262-265.
Petrakos, G. (2012). Integration, spatial dynamics and regional policy dilemmas in the European Union. Discussion Paper Series, 18(2), 27-40.
Petrella, R. (1996). Globalization and internalization: the dynamics of the emerging world order. In R. Boyer, & D. Drache (Eds.) States against Markets: the limits of globalization, (pp. 62-83), London: Routledge.
Pine, J. & Gilmore, J. (1999) The Experience Economy. Work is Theatre and Every Business a Stage. USA: Harvard Business Press.
Povilanskas, R. & Armaitienė, A. (2010). Marketing Power of Actor-Networks – The Key to Tourism Competitiveness. In A. Clarke (Ed.) Constructing Central Europe: Tourism Competitiveness, (pp. 107-122), Veszprem: Pannonia University Press.
Prayag, G. & Ryan, C. (2012). Antecedents of Tourists’ Loyalty to Mauritius: The role and influence of destination Image, place attachment, personal involvement, and Satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 51(3), 342-356.
Pride, R. (2002). Brand Wales: “Natural Revival”. In N. Morgan, A. Pritchard and R. Pride (Eds.) Destination Branding: Creating the unique destination proposition (pp. 109-123), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Pritchard, A. & Morgan, N.J. (2001). Culture, identity and tourism representation: marketing Cymru or Wales?. Tourism Management, 22(1), 167-179.
Rakić, T. & Chambers, D. (2012). Rethinking the consumption of places. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3), 1612-1633.
Rainisto, S. (2003). Success factors of place Marketing: A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and the United States, Unpublished PhD thesis. Helsinki University of Technology.
Ren, C. & Ooi, C.S. (2013). Auto-communicating micro-Orientalism: articulating ‘Denmark’ in China at the Shanghai Expo. Asia Europe Journal, 11(2), 129-145.
Robson, C. (1993). Real World Research, A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner-Researchers. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rockower, P. (2012). Recipes for gastrodiplomacy. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 8(4), 235-246.
Sakellariou, E. & Karantinou, K. (2013). Global Front End of Product Innovation: A Guiding Framework for Multinational Organizations, 3rd International Conference on Quantitative and Qualitative Research on Administration Sciences, Athens, 23-24 May 2013.
Sartori, A., Mottironi, C. & Antonioli-Corigliano, M. (2012). Tourist Destination brand equity and internal stakeholders: An empirical research. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(4), 327-340.
Sauer, C. (1984). The Morphology of Landscape. California: University of California Publications in Geography.
Scott, N., Suwaree, A., Peivi Ding, A. & Xu, H. (2011). Tourism branding and nation building in China. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(3), 227-234.
Siomkos, G. & Tsiamis, J. (2004). Strategic Electronic Marketing. Athens: Stamouli.

Shackley, M. (1998). Visitor Management Case Studies for World Heritage Sites. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Skinner, H. (2008). The emergence and development of place marketing’s confused identity. Journal of Marketing Management, 24(9/10), 915-928.
Skinner, H. & Kubacki, K. (2007). Unravelling the complex relationship between nationhood, national and cultural identity, and place branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3 (4), 305–316.
Smith, A. D. (1984). National Identity and Myths of Ethnic Descent. Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change, 7(1), 95-130.

Smith, A. D. (1991). National Identity. London: Penguin Books.
Smith, A. D. (1996). Culture, community and territory: the politics of ethnicity and nationalism. International Affairs, 72(3), 445-458.
Smith, M. (2004). Seeing a new side to seasides: culturally regenerating the English seaside town. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6(1), 17-28.
Smith, S. & Darlington, K. (2010). Emotional ecologies as brands: Towards a theory of occasioned local feeling. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(2), 112–123.
Souder, L. (2010). A Free-market Model for Media Ethics: Adam Smith’s Looking Glass. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 25(1), 53-64.
Stern, B., Zinkhan, G., & Holbrook, M. (2002). The Netvertising Image Communication Model (NICM) and Construct Definition. Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 15-27.
Statistics Office of Regione Veneto (2009). Veneto: sharing facts-comparing facts. Statisitcal Report 2009. Padova: University of Padova.
Stavrianea, K. (2010). The Antecedents of Service Consumer Loyalty. Athens: PhD Dissertation, University of Economics and Business.
Szondi, G. (2010). From image management to relationship building: A public relations approach to nation branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(4), 333-343.
Thompson, J. (1995). The Media and Modernity. A Social Theory of the Media. USA: Stanford University Press.
Thornton, P., Ribeiro-Soviano, D. & Urbano, D. (2011). Socio-cultural factors and entrepreneurial activity: An overview. International Small Business Journal, 29(2): 105-118.
Thlikidou-Stogianni, E. (2003). Post-modern Marketing: review. Thlikidou: University Studio Press (in Greek).
Tomaras, P. & Frigkas, G. (2008). Consumer ethnocentricism in Greece. Adaptation of the CETSscale questionnaire. Business and Management, 10.
Van den Abeele, A. (1990). Tourism and Heritage: Enemies or Allies? in Heritage and Tourism- ICOMOS European Conference, University of Kent- 27th-30th March 1990, 1-22, UK: ICOMOS.
Velissariou, E., Galagala, A. & Karathanos, A. (2009). Wine tourism. Planning and Development of a wine route network in the region of Thessaly in Greece. Tourismos, 4(4), 311-330.

Veloutsou, C. (2008). Branding: a constantly developing concept. Journal of Brand Management, 15(5), 299-300.
Vinieratou, M., Georgiou, A., Glytsi, E., Kioukas, A., Koskina, A., Bousoulega, X., Oikonomou, M. Skoura, B., Taxopoulou, I. & Champouri-Ioanninou, A. (2003). Cultural Policy and Management. Patra: Hellenic Open University.
Vlachvei, A., Notta, O. & Ananiadis, I. (2009). Does advertising matter? An application to the Greek wine industry. British Food Journal, 111(4), 686-698.

Weidenfeld, A., William, A., & Butler, R. (2010). Knowledge transfer and innovation among attractions, Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 604-626.
Whalley, A. (2010). Strategic Marketing. Whalley & Ventus Publishing ApS.
Yin, R. K. (1993). Applications of Case Study Research. California: Sage.
Ying, F. (2005). Branding the nation: What is being branded? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 12(1), 4-13.
Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F. & Bilim, Y. (2010). Destination attachment: Effects on customer satisfaction and cognitive, affective and conative loyalty. Tourism Management, 31(2), 274-284.
Zarantonello, L. & Schmitt, B.H. (2010) Using the Brand Experience Scale to Profile Consumers and Predict consumer Behaviour. Journal of Brand Management, 17(7), 532-540.
Zeppel, H. & Hall, M. C. (1991). Selling Art and History: Cultural Heritage and Tourism. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 2(1), 29-45.
Zotos, Y. (2008). Advertising, Development, Effectiveness (in Greek), Thessaloniki: University Studio Press.

You have not viewed any product yet.