Consumptive Water Use in Liquid Fuel Production: Select Analyses
Pasquale D. Battista (Editor)
Series: Energy Science, Engineering and Technology, Water Resource Planning, Development and Management
The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones.
This book examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this book, “œconsumptive water use” is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation, but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use. (Imprint: Nova)