Considering Consciousness Clinically

Gerry Leisman, MD, PhD (Editor)
F. R. Carrick Institute for Clinical Ergonomics, Rehabilitation, and Applied Neurosciences (CERAN), Garden City, New York, USA

Joav Merrick, MD, MMedSci, DMSc, (Editor)
Medical Director, Health Services, Division for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Jerusalem, Israel
Division of Adolescent Medicine, KY Children’s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel
Division of Pediatrics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Centers, Mt Scopus Campus, Jerusalem, Israel
School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Series: Functional Neurology
BISAC: MED056000

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Disorders of consciousness (DOC) represent one of the most complex and crucial challenges for neuroscientists. A precise and reliable assessment of the arousal and awareness of consciousness in patients with severe brain damage would allow for a comprehensible classification of DOC. Intensive care has led to an increase in the number of patients who survive after severe acute brain damage. Most comatose patients who survive begin to awaken and recover gradually within 2–4 weeks.

Although some of these individuals gradually experience complete brain function loss which leads to brain death (BD), oftentimes this state is treated as synonymous with the death of the individual. Nonetheless, other individuals progress to “wakeful unawareness”, which is defined as a vegetative state (VS). DOC terminology may be useful clinically, but does little to explain the nature of consciousness. While it is not known which portions of the brain are responsible for cognition and consciousness, what little is known points to substantial interconnections among the brainstem, subcortical structures and the neocortex. Thus, the “higher brain” may well exist only as a metaphorical concept and not in reality.
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1
Considering Consciousness Clinically
(Gerry Leisman, Calixto Machado, and Joav Merrick, The National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Nazareth, Israel, and others)

Section One: Consciousness

Chapter 2
Networks of Conscious Experience: Computational Neuroscience in Understanding Life, Death and Consciousness
(Gerry Leisman, and Paul Koch, The National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Nazareth, Israel, and others)

Chapter 3
Arousal and Consciousness: Effects of Total Cortical Extirpation in the Mammal
(Hugh Staunton, Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland)

Chapter 4
The Diagnosis of Brain Death: Apneic-Oxygenation as a Self-Fulfilling Diagnostic Test
(James Tibballs and Ari R Joffe, The University of Melbourne and Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, University of Alberta, Stollery Children’s Hospital, Alberta and John Dossetor Health Ethics Center Edmonton, Alberta, Canada)

Chapter 5
Disrupted Axonal Fiber Connectivity as a Marker of Impaired Consciousness States
(Rafael Rodriguez-Rojas, Karla Batista, Yasser Iturria, Calixto Machado, Gerry Leisman, Mauricio Chinchilla, Philip DeFina, Maylen Carballo and Juan M. Morales, Brain Imaging Group, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana, Cuba, and others)

Chapter 6
Children and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Prognostic Factors of the Glasgow Outcome Scale after 6 Months
(Dovile Grinkevičiūtė, Rimantas Kėvalas and Vaidotas Gurskis, Department of Pediatrics, University of Medicine Hospital, Lithuanian University of Medical Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania)

Chapter 7
Timing of Entry to a Minimally Conscious State Related to Prognosis for People with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
(Xuehai Wu and Jianghong Zhu, Fudan University Huashan Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, National Key Laboratory for Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science, Shanghai Medical Collgee-Fudan University, Shanghai, China)

Chapter 8
Brain Dead: Clinical and Neuropathological Aspects
(Jesús Perez-Nellar, Calixto Machado, Claudio Scherle, Reynaldo Alvarez and Alejandro Areu, Service of Neurology, Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital, Havana and Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Havana, Cuba)

Chapter 9
Diagnosis of Death in Modern Hospital Practice
(Dale Gardiner, Gemma Housley and Dominick Shaw, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom)

Chapter 10
Vegetative State and the Outer World
(Calixto Machado, Mario Estévez, Rafael Rodríguez, Maylén Carballo, Jesús Pérez-Nellar, Joel Gutiérrez, Marcia Fleitas and Gerry Leisman, Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Havana, Cuba, and others)

Chapter 11
Persistant Vegetative State: Ventricular CSF Pulsation Artifact
(Jesús Perez-Nellar, Calixto Machado, Claudio Scherle, Rafael Rodríguez, Maylen Carballo, Gerry Leisman, and Robert Melillo, Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Havana, Cuba, and others)

Chapter 12
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEP) in Anoxic Coma and the Influence of Hypothermia
(Ted L Rothstein, Department of Neurology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States of America)

Chapter 13
Autonomic Assessment during Recognition of the Mother’s Voice in a Persistent Vegetative State Patient
(Calixto Machado, Mario Estévez, Mauricio Chinchilla, Jesús Pérez-Nellar, Joel Gutiérrez, Ana Olivares, Carlos Beltrán, Yazmina Machado and Yanín Machado, Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Havana, Cuba, and others)

Chapter 14
A Model to Explain Disorders of Consciousness and Cognition in the Brain and Nervous System
(Gerry Leisman and Robert Melillo, The National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Israel, and Institute for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de la Habana, Facultad Manuel Fajardo, Havana, Cuba)

Chapter 15
Epilepsy and Consciousness
(Stefano Cavanna, and Andrea E Cavanna, Department of Radiology, University of Turin Medical School, Turin, Italy, and others)

Chapter 16
Shaken Baby Syndrome and Consciousness
(Dovilė Grinkevičiūtė, Lina Jankauskaitė, Rimantas Kėvalas and Vaidotas Gurskis, Department of Pediatrics, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania)

Chapter 17
Brain and Cerebral Cortex during Seizures
(Valeriy N Zaporozhan, Leonid S Godlevsky, Georgiy N Vostrov, Evgeniy V Kobolev, Valeriy V Desyatsky, Irina A Kolker, Gilles van Luijtelaar and Antonius RML Coenen, Odessa National Medical University, Department of Biophysics, Computer Sciences and Medical Devices, Odessa, Ukraine, and others)

Chapter 18
Discussion of a Model on Human Consciousness
(Steven L Strauss, Neurologist, Private Practice, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America)

Section Two: Acknowledgements

Chapter 19
About the Editors

Chapter 19
About the National Institute for Brain and Rehabilitation Sciences, Nazareth, Israel

Chapter 20
About the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

Chapter 21
About the Book Series "Functional Neurology"

Section Three: Index

Index

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