Clinical Training in Undergraduate Medical Education


Series: Education in a Competitive and Globalizing World
BISAC: MED024000

This book is intended to serve the needs of clinical educators in medical schools, especially in clinical clerkships. The bulk of the literature written about undergraduate medical education is on the pre-clerkship phase. Clinical clerkship phase is as important as the previous phase and it is intended to be mostly a hands-on experience and training for the students. Most of this training is by exposure to the clinical activities where the students are required to take part in, contribute to and learn during the continuing clinical activities. It is an exciting but a difficult time for the students. They have to learn the basics and sometimes the details of clinical skills, procedures and in many cases they are expected to perform as a young doctor. They are expected to make good differential diagnosis in the busy clinical environment. Considering all these, clinical education should be organized in a systematic way to allow the students grasp the necessary clinical knowledge, skills and attitudes as they experience the complexities and uncertainties of clinical environment.
The book provides information about basic concepts of clerkship organization and assessment with various models. Equally important is the clinical skills training which starts in the early phases of medical schools. Three chapters have been devoted to this topic.
The organization of clerkships employing various approaches and methods are discussed extensively. Community-based education, use of university and affiliated hospitals, learner-centred clinical education, use of flipped classrooms and integrating basic sciences in clinical clerkships are discussed in separate chapters.
As assessment drives learning, the basic principles and the organization of assessment and evaluation including continuous assessment have been covered in three chapters.
Believing that more emphasis should be given to interprofessional education, evidence-based medicine, mentoring and providing feedback in the context of organizing clerkships they have been discussed extensively in separate chapters.
We hope it will be of help to clinician teachers as well as medical educators involved in clinical training.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Principles of Professional Clinical Training
(A. Sabri Kemahlı, MD, Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey, and Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 2. It’s All a Matter of Trust-A New Trend in Assessment: Entrustable Professional Activities
(N. Lynn Eckhert, MD, Partners Healthcare International, Boston, MA, US)

Chapter 3. Clinical Skills Training in the Preclinical Phase of Undergraduate Medical Education
(H. Cahit Taşkıran, MD, and S. Ayhan Çalışkan, MD, Deptartment of Clinical Skills, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; and Department of Medical Education, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey)

Chapter 4. Use of Simulation in Undergraduate Medical Education
(Melih Elçin, MD, Department of Simulation in Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 5. Early Clinical Contact
(Mustafa Turan, MD, and Güldal İzbırak, MD, Faculty of Medicine, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey, and Yeditepe University Faculty of Medicine), Istanbul Turkey)

Chapter 6. Structuring Clinical Clerkships
(A. Sabri Kemahlı, MD, Khaled AlKattan, MD, and Wael AlKattan, MD, Alfaisal University College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 7. Task-Based Learning in Clerkships
(Berna Musal, MD, Medical Education Department, Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey)

Chapter 8. An Integration Model for the Development of Clinical Modules for Clerkship Training
(Fulya Dökmeci, MD, Saadet Arsan, MD, Selim Karayalçın, MD, Mehmet Gürel, MD, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 9. Community-Based Medical Education
(Ferda Özyurda, MD, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 10. Vertical Integration in Clinical Sciences: Bench to Bedside
(Abderrahman Ouban, MD, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 11. Modes and Methods of Teaching and Learning in Clinical Clerkships
(Melike Şahiner, MD, and Meral Demirören, MD, and Sabri Kemahlı, MD, Faculty of Medicine, Acıbadem MAA University, İstanbul, Turkey; and Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey and Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 12. Learner Centred Clinical Education
(İskender Sayek, MD, Emeritus Professor of Surgery)

Chapter 13. Flipped Classrooms in Clinical Education
(Cüneyt Orhan Kara, MD, Dept of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey)

Chapter 14. University Hospitals and Affiliated Hospitals
(Güldal İzbırak, Departments of Family Medicine and Medical Education, Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 15. Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation in Clinical Education: Concepts and Principles
(Ayşen Melek Aytuğ Koşan, MD, Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey)

Chapter 16. Continuous Assessment
(Yeşim Şenol, MD, Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey)

Chapter 17. Designing and Organizing Assessment in Clinical Clerkships
(S. Ayhan Çalışkan, MD, Yeşim Şenol, MD, and A. Sabri Kemahlı, MD, Department of Medical Education, Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey; Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey; and Yeditepe University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 18. Evidence-Based Medicine (Part 1) Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine
(Ayşe Hilal Batı, MD, Ege University, Department of Medical Education, Izmir, Turkey)

Chapter 19. Evidence-Based Medicine (Part 2) Assessing Evidence-Based Medicine in Clinical Settings
(Özlem S. Çakmakkaya, MD, Department of Medical Education, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 20. Interprofessional Collaboration and Communication
(Pınar Yıldız, MD, Department of General Internal Medicine, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, Turkey)

Chapter 21. Leadership in Medical Education and Clinical Training
(Fulya Dökmeci, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 22. Mentoring and Providing Feedback
(Ayşe Arzu Akalın, Department of Medical Education, Yeditepe University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey)



“Well worth reading; an excellent resource recommended to medical and health educators and those novices to teaching. It is an absolute must-read.” -Samy Azer, Professor of Medical Education, King Saud University, Riyadh, S.Arabia

“When I read the different chapters, I immediately realized how well structured the book is and how much it can bring to clinical training. Whether you decide to read the text systematically as proposed in the book or read the chapters more relevant to your specific needs, you will find the book extremely useful to improve your practice.” -Madalena Patrício, PhD, University of Lisbon, School of Medicine, Portugal; Former President of AMEE

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