Circadian Clock: Regulations, Genetic and External Factors

Nathaniel Hayes (Editor)

Series: Human Anatomy and Physiology
BISAC: MED075000

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In this collection, the authors review temporal control of tissue homeostasis and repair by the circadian system. The molecular regulation of circadian timing has been well-characterized in several species as a highly conserved transcriptional feedback loop that maintains roughly 24-hour cellular periodicity. A current challenge is determining how the outputs of the master clock affect peripheral oscillators and numerous biological processes. A subsequent study seeks a more detailed understanding of the physiology and molecular mechanism underlying circadian changes in the plasma of glucose, which might allow for the identification of novel targets for the developing therapeutic approached to the diabetes and obesity diseases. Procambarus acanthophorus, a burrower crayfish, follows a nocturnal circadian rhythm due to the way it spends long periods of time building tunnels to reach the water table during the dry season. Therefore, it follows that this species must have a close relationship with soil. The authors suggest that soil might be an ecological factor with high perceived value, influencing ecological aspects, and physiological functions such as growth, reproduction, and organization of the circadian system. The genes involved in the maintenance of circadian rhythm and its impact on the immunological system are described as disruption of the circadian rhythm leads to significant alterations of the organism and is associated with several biological responses. In the concluding review, some of the most useful characteristics of zebrafish for studying the molecular, cellular, and behavioral aspects of the circadian clock system are described. Zebrafish have been established as an attractive vertebrate model for the examination of light signaling pathways and their impact on the cellular clock because zebrafish cellular clocks have an unusual attribute of being directly light responsive. Additionally, the molecular components of the mammalian and zebrafish cellular clocks are highly similar.

Preface

Chapter 1. The Role of Circadian Timing in the Regulation of Cell Division and Regeneration
(Christina L. Ruby, PhD, Robert J. Major, PhD, and Robert D. Hinrichsen, PhD, Department of Biology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania, US)

Chapter 2. The Regulation of Plasma Glucose by Circadian Clock
(Whitney Sussman and Xiaoyue Pan, Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Basic Science, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY, US)

Chapter 3. Molecular Mechanisms to Control Circadian Rhythms: Implications for Burrowing Behavior in Crayfish
(Héctor Solís-Chagoyán, Fabiola Galicia-Mendoza, Facundo Rivera-Becerril, María Teresa Nuñez-Cardona, Santa Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Gabriela Vázquez-Silva, Elizabeth Guarneros-Bañuelos and Leonor Mendoza-Vargas, Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente, Mexico City, Mexico, and others)

Chapter 4. Circadian Clock: From the Central Nervous System to Immunological Responses
(Luciana Conde, Celio G. Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot, Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 5. The Zebrafish as an Attractive Animal Model for the Study of Circadian Clocks
(Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, PhD, Jun Hirayama, PhD, Division of Medicinal Safety Science, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan)

Index

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