Chronocardiology and Cardiac Research

Krasimira Hristova (Editor)
National Heart Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria

Jan Fedacko (Editor)
Department of Internal Medicine, PJ Safaric University, Kosice, Slovakia

Germaine Cornelissen (Editor)
Halberg Chronobiology Center, University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, USA

Ram B. Singh (Editor)
Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India
The Tsim Tsoum Institute, Krakow, Poland

Series: Cardiology Research and Clinical Developments
BISAC: MED010000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Chronocardiology and Cardiac Research bring evidence to the public domain about the role of time in cardiovascular function and dysfunction that results in a number of cardiovascular diseases. The book is divided into three parts and covers the subjects extensively.

Chronocardiology is not new to cardiologists, but it needs to be introduced to mainstream medicine, which is the main purpose of the editors of this volume. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Part 1: CHRONOCARDIOLOGY

Preface

Chapter 1. Travels with Franz Halberg
Othild Schwartzkopff and Germaine Cornelissen

Chapter 2. Franz Halberg, the Father of Chronobiology and Chronomics
Germaine Cornelissen and Ram B Singh

Chapter 3. Evolutionary Aspects of Circadian Rhythm and Neurocardiovascular Dysfunction
RB Singh, Kuniaki Otsuka, Daniel Pella, Jan Fedacko, Viola Michirova, Branislav Milovanovic, Krasimira Hristova, DW Wilson, and Hilton Chaves

Chapter 4. Extended Consensus on Guidelines for Assessment of Risk and Management of Hypertension: A Scientific Statement of The International College of Cardiology - Thank You, Dr. Franz Halberg
Ram B Singh, Krasimira Hristova, Daniel Pella, Jan Fedacko, Adarsh Kumar, Hilton Chaves, Ratindra Nath Mondal, Branislav Milovanovic, Germaine Cornelissen, Othild Schwartzkopff, Franz Halberg, and DW Wilson

Chapter 5. Effect of Examination on the Circadian Structure of ECG Parameters
Lyazzat Gumarova, Franz Halberg, and Germaine Cornelissen

Chapter 6. Studies on Circadian Pattern of Blood Pressure in Normotensive Pregnant Women and Preeclampsia. In Memory of Late Professor Franz Halberg, Father of Chronobiology
RK Singh, NS Verma, Neelam Barnwal, HP Gupta, Urmila Singh, Seema Mehrotra, Ranjana Singh, and RB Singh

Chapter 7. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathy and Coenzyme Q10
A. Gvozdjáková, M. Mikulecký, FL. Crane, J. Kucharská, G. Cornelissen, A. Kumar, P. Palacka, and RB. Singh

Chapter 8. Circadian Cardiomyocyte Function and Cardiomycyte Circadian Clock
NS Verma, RK Singh, RB Singh, Jan Fedacko, Krasimira Hristova, Anna Gvozdjáková, Branislav Milovanovic, Toru Takahashi, DW Wilson, and NS Dhalla

Chapter 9. Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Based on Vascular Variability Disorders
J. Siegelova, J. Dusek, K. Otsuka, and G. Cornelissen

Chapter 10. Echocardiographic Study of Circadian Myocardial Function among Clinically Healthy Subjects
Krasimira Hristova, Germaine Cornelissen, Jan Fedacko, and RB Singh

Chapter 11. Pre-Surgical and Post-surgical Alterations of Arterial Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythm
GS Katinas, Yu S Astakhov, SM Sedov, SM Yashin, SM Chibisov, SA Shastun, S Yu Astakhov, IB Boldyreva, AG Gromyko, TB Merkuryeva, DM Nefedova, DA Smirnov, and EV Mitina

Chapter 12. Timing of Statin Therapy May Eliminate its Toxicity and Increase its Bioactivity, Said Professor Halberg, The Lord of Time
Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, Ram B Singh, Krasimira Hristova, Brainislav Milovanovic, Jan Fedacko, Sergey Chibisov, Sergey Shastun, Vicky Beeharry, Svetosslav Handjievi, and Chee Jeong Kim

Part 2: CARDIAC RESEARCH

Chapter 13. Antiplatelet Therapy in Heart Failure
Jan Fedacko, Ram B. Singh, Teodora Handjiev Darlenska, Krasimira Hristova, Daniel Pella, and Hilton Chaves

Chapter 14. Sofia Declaration for Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Scientific Statement of the International College of Cardiology and International College of Nutrition
Krasimira Hristova, Daniel Pella, Ram B. Singh, Borislav D. Dimitrov, Hilton Chaves, Lekh Juneja, Tapan K. Basu, Lech Ozimek, Amrat K. Singh, Shanti S. Rastogi, Toru Takahashi, Douglas W. Wilson, Fabien De Meester, Sukhinder Cheema, Branislav Milovanovic, Harpal S. Buttar, Jan Fedacko, Ivo Petrov, Svetoslav Handjiev, Agnieszka Wilczynska, Manohar L. Garg, Ivy Shiue, and RK Singh

Chapter 15. Validity of Verbal Autopsy Questionnaire for Assessment of Causes of Death among Patients with Hypertension in Bangladesh
Ratindra Nath Mondal, Md. Ashraful Haque, Shah Md. Sarwer Jahan, Abul Kalam Azad, Md. Mahfuzer Rahman, Moni Rani, B. D. Bidhu, A.K.M. Shaeheduzzaman, Md. Zakir Hossain, Md. Kumruzzaman Sarker, Amaresh Chandra Shaha, Ram B. Singh, Md. Shafiul Alam, Md. Noor Islam, and Devendra Nath Sarker

Chapter 16. Gender-Specific Issues in Coronary Artery Disease
Adarsh Kumar, Harharpreet Kaur, R. B. Singh, Germaine Cornelissen-Guilaume, and Ankita Attri

Chapter 17. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
N.S. Neki, Ranjana Singh, Viola Vargova, and Viola Mechirova

Chapter 18. Some Pitalls in Testing Antiatherogenic Agents in Cell Cultures
Sergei V. Jargin and Douglas W. Wilson

Chapter 19. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Coronary Artery Disease: An Overview
Sanjay Mishra, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Ram B. Singh, Sergey Shastun, Maria Abramova, and Douglas W. Wilson

Chapter 20. Antioxidant Vitamins and the Heart
Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, Krasimira Hristova, and Ram B Singh

Chapter 21. Perspectives on Health Risks and Benefits of Tea-Drinking: Cardiovascular Diseases
LR Juneja, K. Griffiths, DW Wilson, HS Buttar, RB Singh, F. De Meester, A. Wilczynska, and T. Takahashi

Chapter 22. The ‘West’ Has Made the Worst Model of Health and Pushing the World to the Slow Moving Disaster on Total Health
Toru Takahashi, RB Singh, Kuniaki Otsuka, RR Watson, DW Wilson, and Fabien De Meester

Chapter 23. Echocardiographic Predictors of Early Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Patients
Iana Simova, Tzvetana Katova, Anelia Nesheva, Krasimira Hristova, Velislava Kostova, Lyudmil Boyadzhiev, and Nikolay Dimitrov

Chapter 24. Association of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients with Hypertension
Ratindra Nath Mondal, Md. Jahedul Islam, Md. Ashraful Haque, Shah Md. Sarwer Jahan, Mahfuzer Rahman, A.B.M. Mobasher Alam, Muhammad Mahbub Hussain, Md. Kumruzzaman Sarker, Md. Haripada Sarkar, Moni Rani, B. D. Bidhu, Md. Atiqul Islam, Amaresh Chandra Shaha, Md. Noor Islam, Md. Zakir Hossain, and Ram B. Singh

Chapter 25. Micro-RNA in Cardiovascular Diseases
Rakesh Sharma, Thakur Hemnani, Aditya K Gupta, Ram B. Singh, Teodora Handjiev Darlenska, and Krasimira Hristova

Chapter 26. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme: A Possible Risk Promoter during Transition from Undernutrition to Chronic Diseases of Affluence
Ram B Singh, Jan Fedacko, Daniel Pella, Krasimira Hristova, Hilton Chaves, Branislav Milovanovic, Teodora H. Darlenska, Toru Takahashi, Fabien De Meester, Douglas W Wilson, Galal Elkilany, and Sherif Baathallah

Chapter 27. Sugar and the Heart
Jan Fedacko, Viola Vargova, Daniel Pella, RB Singh, AK Gupta, LR Juneja, Fabien De Meester, and DW Wilson

Chapter 28. Diet and Hypertension
Sergey Shastun, Maria Abramova, RB Singh, Krasimira Hristova, and Galal EN Elkilani

Chapter 29. Short Term Predictors of Mortality among Patients with Hemorrhagic Stroke
Ratindra Nath Mondal, Susanto Barman, Md. Jahedul Islam, Shah Md. Sarwer Jahan, ABM Mobasher Alam, Muhammad Mahbub Hussain, Md. Kumruzzaman Sarker, Md. Mahfuzer Rahman, Haripada Sarkar, Moni Rani, Jimma Hossain, AKM Nurunnobi, B. D. Bidhu, Md. Zakir Hossain, Md Atiqul Islam, S.M. Rahman, and Ram B. Singh

Chapter 30. The French Paradox and the Russian Paradox
Sergey A Shastun, Sergey Chibisov, Maria Abramova, Ram B Singh, Toru Takahashi, Pavel Khochunsky, and Pratik Velangi

Chapter 31. In Memoriam
Shanti S. Rastogi, MBBS, MD, FRCP, FICN, FICC

Chapter 32. In Memoriam
Frank Columbus

Index

Chapter 1

[1] Ulmer W, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Physical chemistry and the biologic week in the perspective of chrono-oncology. In vivo 1995; 9: 363-374.
[2] Ulmer W, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Interaction among (quantum mechanical) resonance-coupled electromagnetic circuits relevant to a natural week. World Heart J 2012; 4(1): 35-70.
[3] Katinas G, Halberg F, Corneelissen G, Otsuka K, Tarquini R, Perfetto F, Maggioni C, Schwartzkopff O, Bakken E. Transient Circadian Hyper-Amplitude-Tension (CHAT) may be intermittent: case reports illustrating gliding spectral windows. Biomed and Pharmacother 2003; 57 (Suppl 1): 104s-109s.
[4] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Sothern RB, Hillman D, Watanabe Y, Haus E, Schwartzkopff O, Best WR. Decadal cycles in the human cardiovascular system. World Heart J 2012; 4 (4): 263-287. NIHMSID: 487655.
[5] Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Prikryl P, Dankova E, Siegelova J, Dusek J, International Womb-to-Tomb Chronome Study Group: Prophylactic aspirin treatment: the merits of timing. JAMA 1991; 266: 3128-3129.
[6] Nikityuk B, Balakireva M, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Similarities and differences in the 112-year time course of birth weight between boys and girls. Reports of Vinnitsa State Medical University 2: 332-333, 1998; Similarities and differences in the 112-year time course of neonatal body length between boys and girls. Reports of Vinnitsa State Medical University 2: 331, 1998; Similarities and differences in the 112-year time course of neonatal head circumference between boys and girls. Reports of Vinnitsa State Medical University 2: 334, 1998.
[7] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Holley D, Schwartzkopff O. Chronoastrobiology and chronobioastronautics: position paper. In: Vladimirsky B, Berzhansky V. (Eds.), Cosmic Energy and Noosphere, Partenit: Krym, 1999: 9-22.
[8] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Grambsch P, McCraty R, Beaty L, Siegelova J, Homolka P, Hillman DC, Finley J, Thomas F, Kino T, Revilla M, Schwartzkopff O. Personalized chronobiologic cybercare; other chronomics' progress by transdisciplinary cycles' congruences: Season's Appreciations 2009. J Appl Biomed 2011; 9: 1-34. DOI 10.2478/v10136-009-0022-8.
[9] Cornelissen G, Grambsch P, Sothern RB, Katinas G, Otsuka K, Halberg F. Congruent biospheric and solar-terrestrial cycles. J Appl Biomed 2011; 9: 63-102. DOI 10.2478/v10136-009-0023-7.
[10] Halberg F, Powell D, Otsuka K, Watanabe Y, Beaty LA, Rosch P, Czaplicki J, Hillman D, Schwartzkopff O, Cornelissen G. Diagnosing vascular variability anomalies, not only MESOR-hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2013; 305: H279-H294.
[11] Günther R, Herold M, Halberg E, Halberg F. Circadian placebo and ACTH effects on urinary cortisol in arthritics. Peptides 1980; 1: 387-390.
[12] Loeckinger A, Herold M, Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Fiser B. Circaoctohoran (about 8-hourly) chronome component of circulating human endothelin-1 in health. Scripta medica (Brno) 1998; 71: 199-208.
[13] Löckinger A, Köberle D, St. König P, Saria A, Herold M, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Neuropeptide chronomics in clinically healthy young adults: circaoctohoran and circadian patterns. Peptides 2004; 25: 533-542.
[14] Tarquini B, Perfetto F, Tarquini R, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Endothelin-1's chronome indicates diabetic and vascular disease chronorisk. Peptides 1997; 18: 119-132.
[15] Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Breus T, Syutkina EV, Baevsky R, Weydahl A, Watanabe Y, Otsuka K, Siegelova J, Fiser B, Bakken EE. Non-photic solar associations of heart rate variability and myocardial infarction. J Atmos Solar-Terr Phys 2002; 64: 707-720.
[16] Müller-Bohn T, Cornelissen G, Halhuber M, Schwartzkopff O, Halberg F. CHAT und Schlaganfall. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung 2002; 142: 366-370 (January 24).
[17] Otsuka K (Ed.) 1st International Symposium Workshop on Circadian Rhythms and Clinical Chronotherapy. Biomed and Pharmacother 2001; 55 (Suppl 1), 192 pp.
[18] Otsuka K (Ed.) 2nd International Symposium Workshop on Circadian Rhythms and Clinical Chronotherapy. Biomed and Pharmacother 2002; 56 (Suppl 2), 382 pp.
[19] Otsuka K (Ed.) 3rd International Symposium Workshop on Circadian Rhythms and Clinical Chronotherapy. Biomed and Pharmacother 2003; 57 (Suppl 1), 198 pp.
[20] Otsuka K (Ed.) 4th International Symposium Workshop on Circadian Rhythms and Clinical Chronotherapy. Biomed and Pharmacother 2004; 58 (Suppl 1), 188 pp.
[21] Otsuka K (Ed.) 5th International Symposium Workshop on Circadian Rhythms and Clinical Chronotherapy. Biomed and Pharmacother 2005; 59 (Suppl 1), 262 pp.
[22] http://www.phoenix.tc-ieee.org/.
[23] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Singh RB, Gvozdjakova A, Otsuka K, Beaty L, Katinas G, Hermida R, Ayala D, Czaplicki J. Chronobiology, chronomics and N-of-1 tests of timing coenzyme Q10. In: Gvozdjakova A. (Ed.) Mitochondrial Medicine: Mitochondrial Metabolism, Diseases, Diagnosis and Therapy. Dordrecht: Kluwer; 2008. p. 55-92.
[24] Cornelissen G, Schwartzkopff O, Niemeyer-Hellbrügge, Halberg F. (Eds.) Time structures – chronomes – in child development. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2003; 24 (Suppl. 1), 256 pp.
[25] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Salti R, Perfetto R, Tarquini R, Stagi S, Hillman DC, Katinas GS, Hoogerwerf WA, Carandente F, Otsuka K, Czaplicki J, Chibisov SM, Scheving LA, Syutkina EV, Masalov A, Mitsutake G, Wang ZR, Wan CM, Schwartzkopff O, Bakken EE. Chronoauxology. Chronomics: trends and cycles in growth and cosmos rather than secularity. In: Proceedings, 10th Auxology Congress: Human Growth in Sickness and in Health, Florence, 4-7 July 2004. Florence: Edizioni Centro Studi Auxologici; 2010. 92 pp.
[26] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Katinas GS, Hillman D, Otsuka K, Watanabe Y, Wu J, Halberg Francine, Halberg J, Sampson M, Schwartzkopff O, Halberg E. Many rhythms are control information for whatever we do: an autobiography. Folia anthropologica 2012; 12: 5-134. http://ttk.nyme.hu/blgi/Knyvek%20kiadvnyok/FOLIA%20
ANTHROPOLOGICA/folia12.pdf
[27] Halberg F. Regular courses in chronobiology at the University of L'Aquila, Italy, and the Université René Descartes, Paris. Physiologist 22: 41-43, 1979.
[28] Sanchez de la Pena S, Gonzalez C, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) chronobiology. Int J Cardiol 2004; 97 (Suppl 2): S14.
[29] Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Otsuka K, Singh RB, Chen CH. Chronobiology predicts actual and proxy outcomes when dipping fails. Hypertension 2007; 49: 237-239. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000250392.51418.64. PMCID: PMC2613012.
[30] Schwartzkopff O, Cornelissen G, Otsuka K, Halberg F. India revisited: a new hospital and center culminating multidecadal cooperation: From cancer chronotherapy to routine cardiovascular chronotheranostics and further joint Indian-US and international BIOCOS research. Biomed and Pharmacother 2005; 59 (Suppl 1): S123-S131.
[31] Gupta AK, Greenway FL, Cornelissen G, Pan W, Halberg F. Prediabetes is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability. J Human Hypertension 2008; 22: 627-633. doi:10:1038/jnh.2008.32. PMCID PMC18480832.
[32] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Sothern RB, Katinas GS, Schwartzkopff O, Otsuka K. Cycles tipping the scale between death and survival (= “life”). Progress of Theoretical Physics 2008; Suppl. 173: 153-181.
[33] Otsuka K, Cornelissen G, Norboo T, Takasugi E, Halberg F. Chronomics and “glocal” (combined global and local) assessment of human life. Progress of Theoretical Physics 2008; Suppl. 173: 134-152.
[34] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Abahreh TM, Kino T, Schwartzkopff O. Cardiology in al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia: a great oasis literally and figuratively. World Heart J 2010; 2(4): 247-259.
[35] Watanabe Y, Halberg F, Otsuka K, Cornelissen G. Physiology and earthquakes, focusing on that in 2011 in East Japan. In: Proceedings, Natural Cataclysms and Global Problems of the Modern Civilization, Istanbul, 19-21 September 2011. London: SWB International Publishing House; 2012. p. 260-264.

Chapter 2

[1] Halberg, F; Haus, E; Nelson, W; Sothern, R. Chronopharmacology, chronodietetics and eventually clinical chronotherapy. Nova Acta leopold., 1977, 46, 307-366.
[2] Halberg, F; Kabat, HF; Klein, P. Chronopharmacology: a therapeutic frontier. Am. J. Hosp. Pharmacy, 1980, 37, 101-106.
[3] Halberg, F; Cornelissen, G; Schwartzkopff, O. Introduction: Time, diagnostics, and therapeutics -- beyond circadian marker rhythm-guided treatment. In: Youan BC. (Ed.) Chronopharmaceutics: Science and Technology for Biological Rhythm-Guided Therapy and Prevention of Diseases. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2009. p. xvii-xxxii.
[4] Halberg, F; Cornelissen, G; Schwartzkopff, O. Chapter 10: Implications and applications of circadian susceptibility rhythms: chronomics and anesthesia. In: Youan BC. (Ed.) Chronopharmaceutics: Science and Technology for Biological Rhythm-Guided Therapy and Prevention of Diseases. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009. p. 217-255.
[5] Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F. Chapter 11: Treatment with open eyes: markers-guided chronotheranostics. In: Youan BC. (Ed.) Chronopharmaceutics: Science and Technology for Biological Rhythm-Guided Therapy and Prevention of Diseases. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009, p. 257-323.
[6] Halberg, F. Chronobiology and nutrition. Contemporary Nutrition, 1983, 8, #9, 2 pp. (Nutrition Department, General Mills Inc., P.O. Box 1112, Dept. 65, Minneapolis, MN 55440.).
[7] Halberg, J; Halberg, E; Halberg, F. Nonobese mammals pair-fed or on free-choice diets may be “what they eat” but body weight and internal circadian timing are rhythmometrically specifiable functions of “when they eat”. Proc. X Int. Cong. Nutrition, Kyoto, Japan, abstract #211, 16, 1975.
[8] Cornelissen, G.
[9] Nelson, W; Cadotte, L; Halberg, F. Circadian timing of single daily “meal” affects survival of mice. Proc Soc exp Biol (NY), 1973, 144, 766-769.
[10] Halberg, F; Haus, E; Cornelissen, G. From biologic rhythms to chronomes relevant for nutrition. In: Marriott BM. (Ed.) Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1995, p. 361-372.
[11] Halberg, F; Sullivan, B. Meal schedules and their interaction with the body’s schedules. Chronobiologia, 1976, 3, 75-76.
[12] Singh, RB; Singh, AK; Sharma, JP; Singh, RK; Kumar, A; Rastogi, SS; Singh, G; Kartikey, K; Singh, S; Fedacko, J; Pella, D; De Meester, F; Wilkzynska, A; Wilson, DW. Nutrition in chronocardiology: we are indebted Professor Franz Halberg. The Open Nutra J, 2012, 5 (Suppl 1-M3), 45-65.
[13] Smolensky, M; Halberg, F; Sargent, F. II. Chronobiology of the life sequence. In: Itoh S, Ogata K, Yoshimura H (Eds.) Advances in Climatic Physiology. Tokyo, Igaku Shoin Ltd, 1972. PP. 281-318.

Chapter 3

[1] Singh RB, Singh AK, Sharma JP, Singh RK, Kumar A, Rastogi SS, Singh G, Kartikey K, Singh S, Fedacko J, Pella D, De Meester F, Wilczynska, A; Wilson DW. Nutrition in Chronocardiology: We are Indebted Professor Franz Halberg. The Open Nutr Jour, 2012, 5, (Suppl. 1-M3) 45-65.
[2] Singh RB, Gupta A, Pella D, Circadian cardiology. World Heart J 2008; 1: 101-26.
[3] Otsuka K, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Circadian rhythms and clinical chronobiology. Biomed Pharmacother 2001; 55: 7-18.
[4] Otsuka K, Shohgo M, Kozo M, Zi-yan Z, Weydahl A, Hansen TL. et al. Chronomes, aging and disease. In: Furukawa H, Nishibuchi M, Kono Y, Kaida Y ediors; Ecological Destruction, Health and Development: Advancing Asian Paradigms, 2004, p 367-94.
[5] Bartter F C. Periodicity and medicine. In: Scheving L E, Halberg F, Pauly J E (Eds.) Chronobiology. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin Ltd, 1974; p 6-13.
[6] Otsuka K, Cornelissen G, Norboo T et al. Chronomics and glocal assessment of human life. Prog Thera Phys 2008; Supple. 173;134-152.
[7] Otsuka K, Norboo T, Otsuka Y et al. Chronoecological health watch of arterial stiffness and neurocardiopulmonar function in elderly community at high altitude (3524 m) compared with Japanese town. Biomed Pharmacother 2005;59: Supple. 58-67.
[8] Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Sircar AR, Mani UV, Singh NK, Niaz MA. Effects of lifestyle changes on atherosclerotic risk factors in the Indian Diet Heart Study. Amer J Cardiol 1993; 71: 1283-88.
[9] Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Singh R, Ghosh S, Niaz MA. Effects of guava intake on serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and systemic blood pressures. Amer J Cardiol 1992; 70: 1287-91.
[10] Halberg F, Stephens AN. Susceptibility to quabain and physiologic circadian periodicity. Proc Minnacad Sci 1959; 27: 139-43.
[11] Halberg F, Visscher MB. Regular diurnal physiological variation in eosinophil levels in five stocks of mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol (NY) 1950; 75: 846-7.
[12] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Otsuka K, Siegelova J, Fiser B, Dusek J, Homolka P, Sanchez de la Pena S, Singh RB, BIOCOS project. Extended consensus on need and means to detect vascular variability disorders (VVDs) and vascular variability syndromes (VVSs). World Heart J 2010; 2 (4): 279-305.
[13] Vanin S, Bhutani S, Montelli S, Menegazzi P, Green EW, Pegararo M, Sandrelli F, Costa R, Kyriacou CP. “Unexpected features of Drosophila circadian behavioural rhythms under natural conditions,” Nature, 2012; doi:10.1038/nature10991, 2012.
[14] Cornelissen G. When you eat matters: 60 years of Franz Halberg, s nutrition chronomics. The Open Nutr J 2012;4:16-44.
[15] Singh RB, Cornelissen G, Weydahl A, Schwartzkopft O, Katinas G, Otsuka K et al. Circadian heart rate and blood pressure variability considered for research and patient care. Int J Cardiol 2003,87:9-28.
[16] Singh RB, Cornelissen G, Siegelova J, Halberg F. About half weekly pattern of blood pressure and heart rate in men and women of India. Scripta Medica (BRONO) 2002; 75: 125-128.
[17] Singh RB, Cornelissen G, Otsuka K, Juneja L, Halberg F. Coronary risk factors, ambulatory blood pressures and heart rate in Asian Indians. The Open Nutra J 2012;5:
79-80.
[18] Singh RB, Cornelissen G, Kumar A, Bathina S, Halberg F. Larger Circadian Amplitude of Heart Rate Associated with Active Prayer in Hindu Indians in Asia. World Heart J 2009;1: pp. 219-222.
[19] Singh RB, Niaz MA, Cornelissen G, Otsuka K, Siegelova J, Fiser B, Halberg F. Circadian rhythmicity of circulating vitamin concentrations. Scripta Medica (BRONO), 2001, 74:93-96.
[20] Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Otsuka K, Singh RB, Chen CH. Chronobiology predicts actual and proxy outcomes when dipping fails. Hypertension 2007; 49:237-39.
[21] Singh RB, Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Siegelova J, Hristova J, Toda E, Takahashi T, Jan Fedacko J, Otsuka K. Personalized circadian timing of exercise. World Heart J 2013,5:
79-90.
[22] Gal D, Pella D, Singh RB. The effect of an alpha-linolenic acid rich diet on the circadian rhythm of cardiac events. World Heart J 2008;1:49-56.
[23] Singh RB, Pella D, Rastogi S, Sharma JP, K Kartikey, Goyal VK et al. Increased concentrations of lipoprotein(a), circadian rhythms, and metabolic reactants evoked by acute myocardial infarction in relation to large breakfast. Biomed Pharmacother 2004, 58(Supple):116-122.
[24] Singh RB, Pella D, Neki NS, Chandel JP, Gupta P, Rastogi S et al. Mechanism of acute myocardial infarction (MAMI) study. Biomed Pharmacother, 2004, 58 (Supple):111-115.
[25] Wilson DW, De Meester F, Singh RB, Gerasimova E. The origin of life and the evolution of circadian system. World Heart J 2013;5:121-130.

Chapter 4

[1] Singh, RB; Otsuka, K; Shastun, SA; Chibisov, S; Agarval, R. Blood pressure variability and risk of cardiovascular complications. World Heart J, 2012, 4, 105-108.
[2] Head, GA; McGrath, BP; Mihailidou, AS; Nelson, MR; Schlaich, MP; Stowaser, M; Mangoni, AA; Cow, l; Brown, MA; Ruta, LA; Wilson, A. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in Australia: 2011 consensus position statement. J of Hyper, 2012, 30, 253-266. DOI:10.1097/HJH. 0b013e 32834de621.
[3] Singh, RB; Indian Consensus Group. Prevalence and prevention of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease in India. A scientific statement of the Indian Society of Hypertension, International College of Nutrition and International College of Cardiology. World Heart J, 2010, 2, 31-44.
[4] Halberg, F; Cornelissen, G; McCraty, R; Czaplicki, J; Al-Abdulgader, AA. Time structures (chronomes) of the blood circulation, population health, human affairs and space weather. World Heart J, 2012, 3, 73-114.
[5] Halberg, F; Sothern, RB; Watanabe, Y; Hillman, D; Best, WR; Schwartzkopff, O; Cornelissen, G. Signatures of space weather in the ageing human blood circulation. World Heart J, 2010, 3, 43-62.
[6] Halberg, F; Cornelissen, G; Otsuka, K; Siegelova, J; Fiser, B; Homolka, P; Sanchez la Pena, S; Singh, RB; BIOCOS Project. Extended consensus on need and means to detect vascular variability disorders (VVDs), and vascular variability syndromes (VVSs). World Heart J, 2010, 2, 279-306.
[7] Singh, RB; De Meester, F; Wilczynska, A; Wilson, DW; Hungin, AP. The liver-pancreas and brain connection in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome. World Heart J, 2010, 2, 319-326.
[8] Jensen, MD; Ryan, DH. New obesity guidelines, promise and potential. JAMA, 2014, 311, 23-24.
[9] Frieden, TR; Coleman King, SM; Wright, JS. Protocol-based treatment of hypertension: a critical step on the pathway to progress. JAMA, 2014, 311 (1), 21. Doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282615.
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[24] Itoh, K; Kawasaki, T; Cugini, P. Effect of timing of salt intake to 24-hour blood pressure and its circadian rhythm. Ann NY AcadSci, 1996, 783, 324-325.
[25] Halberg, F; Powell, D; Otsuka, K; Watanabe, Y; Beaty, LA; Rosch, P; Czaplicki, J; Hillman, D; Schwartzkopff, O; Cornelissen, G. Diagnosing vascular variability anomalies; not only MESOR-hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2013, 305, H279-H294. doi: 10.1152/ ajpheart.00212.2013.
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[29] Halberg, F. Chronobiology: methodological problems. Acta med rom 1980, 18, 399-440.
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[31] Refinetti, R; Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F. Procedures for numerical analysis of circadian rhythms. Biological Rhythm Research, 2007, 38 (4), 275-325. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/09291010600903692.
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[33] Halberg, F; Cornelissen, G; Halberg, E; Halberg, J; Delmore, P; Shinoda, M; Bakken, E. Chronobiology of human blood pressure. Medtronic Continuing Medical Education Seminars, 4th ed. Minneapolis: Medtronic Inc. 1988, 242 pp.
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[35] Halberg, F; Cornelissen, G. International Womb-to-Tomb Chronome Initiative Group: Resolution from a meeting of the International Society for Research on Civilization Diseases and the Environment (New SIRMCE Confederation), Brussels, Belgium, March 17-18, 1995: Fairy tale or reality? Medtronic Chronobiology Seminar #8, April 1995, 12 pp. text, 18 figures. http://www.msi.umn.edu/~halberg/.
[36] Shinagawa, M; Kubo, Y; Otsuka, K; Ohkawa, S; Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F. Impact of circadian amplitude and chronotherapy: relevance to prevention and treatment of stroke. Biomed and Pharmacother, 2001, 55 (Suppl 1), 125s-132s.
[37] Tamura, K; Kohno, I; Saito, Yuzo; Wakasugi, K; Achiwa, S; Imanishi, Y; Cugini, P; Halberg, F. Antihypertensive individualized therapeutic strategy. Difesa Sociale, 1991, 6, 109-124.
[38] Watanabe, Y; Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Otsuka, K; Kikuchi, T. Long-acting carteolol lowers circadian and circaseptan blood pressure (BP) amplitude (A) as well as MESOR. Abstract, X National Symposium, Indian Society for Chronobiology, B.J. Medical College, Pune, India, August 21-22, 1995. p. 14-15.
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Chapter 5

[1] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, International Womb-to-Tomb Chronome Initiative Group: Resolution from a meeting of the International Society for Research on Civilization Diseases and the Environment (New SIRMCE Confederation), Brussels, Belgium, March 17-18, 1995: Fairy tale or reality? Medtronic Chronobiology Seminar #8, April 1995, 12 pp. text, 18 figures.
[2] Haus E, Smolensky M. Biological clock and shift work: circadian dysregulation and potential long-term effects. Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17: 489-500.
[3] Smolensky M, Halberg F, Sargent F II. Chronobiology of the life sequence. In: Itoh S, Ogata K, Yoshimura H. (Eds.) Advances in Climatic Physiology. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin Ltd.; 1972. pp. 281-318.
[4] Cornelissen G, Breus TK, Bingham C, Zaslavskaya R, Varshitsky M, Mirsky B, Teibloom M, Tarquini B, Bakken E, Halberg F, International Womb-to-Tomb Chronome Initiative Group: Beyond circadian chronorisk: worldwide circaseptan-circasemiseptan patterns of myocardial infarctions, other vascular events, and emergencies. Chronobiologia 1993; 20: 87-115.
[5] Halberg F. Chronobiology: methodological problems. Acta med rom 1980; 18: 399-440.
[6] Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Chronomedicine. In: Armitage P, Colton T. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, 2nd ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2005. p. 796-812.
[7] Refinetti R, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Procedures for numerical analysis of circadian rhythms. Biological Rhythm Research 2007; 38 (4): 275-325.
[8] Bingham C, Arbogast B, Cornelissen Guillaume G, Lee JK, Halberg F. Inferential statistical methods for estimating and comparing cosinor parameters. Chronobiologia 1982; 9: 397-439.
[9] Gumarova L. About the influence of biological rhythms on changes of level of hormones of adrenal glands during stress. Bulletin KazNU. Ecology science series 2010; 2(28): 48-53.
[10] Baigent SM. Peripheral corticotropin-releasing hormone and urocortin in the control of the immune response. Peptides 2001; 22(5): 809-820.
[11] Baltatu O, Janssen BJ, Bricca G, Plehm R, Monti J, Ganten D, Bader M. Alterations in blood pressure and heart rate variability in transgenic rats with low brain angiotensinogen. Hypertension 2001; 37(2 Part 2): 408-413.
[12] Buckley TM, Schatzberg AF. On the interactions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sleep: normal HPA axis activity and circadian rhythm, exemplary sleep disorders. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2005; 90(5): 3106-3114.
[13] De Scalzi M, De Leonardis V, Calzolari F, Barchielli M, Cinelli P, Chiodi L, Fabiano FS, Vergassola R. Heart rate and premature beats: a chronobiologic study. Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia 1984; 14(7): 465-470.
[14] Halberg F, Kausz E, Winter Y, Wu J, März W, Cornelissen G. Circadian rhythmic response in cold pressor test. J Minn Acad Sci 1986; 51: 14.
[15] Raab F, Schaffer E, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Chronobiologic blood pressure assessment: a challenge for dentists. In: Proc. Workshop on Computer Methods on Chronobiology and Chronomedicine, Tokyo, Sept. 13, 1990, Halberg F, Watanabe H (Eds.), Medical Review, Tokyo, 1992, pp. 107-112.
[16] Raab FJ, Schaffer EM, Guillaume-Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Interpreting vital sign profiles for maximizing patient safety during dental visits. JADA 1998; 129: 461-469.
[17] Pyter LM, Adelson JD, Nelson RJ. Short increase hypothalamic-pituitare-adrenal axis responsiveness. Endocrinology 2007; 148(7): 3402-3409.
[18] Brown H, Halberg F, Haus E, Lakatua D, Berg H, Sackett L, Melby J, Wilson T. Circadian-stage-specified effects of a synthetic short-chain ACTH 1-17 (HOE 433) on blood leukocytes and corticosterone secretion in mice. Chronobiologia 1980; 7: 21-31.
[19] Halberg F, Guillaume F, Sanchez de la Peña S, Cavallini M, Cornelissen G. Cephalo-adrenal interactions in the broader context of pragmatic and theoretical rhythm models. Chronobiologia 1986; 13: 137-154.
[20] Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Introduction to Chronobiology. Medtronic Chronobiology Seminar #7, April 1994, 52 pp. (Library of Congress Catalog Card #94-060580) http://www.msi.umn.edu/~halberg/
[21] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Schack B, Wendt HW, Minne H, Sothern RB, Watanabe Y, Katinas G, Otsuka K, Bakken EE. Blood pressure self-surveillance for health also reflects 1.3-year Richardson solar wind variation: spin-off from chronomics. Biomed and Pharmacother 2003; 57 (Suppl 1): 58s-76s.
[22] Cornelissen G, Masalov A, Halberg F, Richardson JD, Katinas GS, Sothern RB, Watanabe Y, Syutkina EV, Wendt HW, Bakken EE, Romanov Y. Multiple resonances among time structures, chronomes, around and in us. Is an about 1.3-year periodicity in solar wind built into the human cardiovascular chronome? Human Physiology 2004; 30 (2): 86-92.
[23] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Katinas G, Tvildiani L, Gigolashvili M, Janashia K, Toba T, Revilla M, Regal P, Sothern RB, Wendt HW, Wang ZR, Zeman M, Jozsa R, Singh RB, Mitsutake G, Chibisov SM, Lee J, Holley D, Holte JE, Sonkowsky RP, Schwartzkopff O, Delmore P, Otsuka K, Bakken EE, Czaplicki J, International BIOCOS Group. Chronobiology's progress: season's appreciations 2004-2005. Time-, frequency-, phase-, variable-, individual-, age- and site-specific chronomics. J Appl Biomed 2006; 4: 1-38.
[24] Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Rostagno C, Otsuka K. A chronomic approach to cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. The Autonomic Nervous System 2007; 44: 251-254.
[25] Singh RB, Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Siegelova J, Hristova J, Toda E, Takahashi T, Jan Fedacko J, Otsuka K. Personalized circadian timing of exercise. World Heart J 2013, 5: 79-90.

Chapter 6

[1] Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Kopher R, Eggen D, Einzig S, Vernier R, Work B, Tarquini B, Mainardi G, Maggioni C, Ferrazzani S, Mello G, Rigatuso J. Familial risk of cardiovascular disease and chronobiologic blood pressure amplitudes in pregnancy and after birth. Chronobiologia 16: 124, 1989.
[2] Cornelissen G, Kopher R, Brat P, Rigatuso J, Work B, Eggen D, Einzig S, Vernier R, Halberg F. Chronobiologic ambulatory cardiovascular monitoring during pregnancy in Group Health of Minnesota. Proc. 2nd Ann. IEEE Symp. on Computer-Based Medical Systems, Minneapolis, June 26-27, 1989, Computer Society Press, Washington DC, pp. 226-237.
[3] Ferrazzani S, Caruso A, De Carolis S, Di Giglio R, Vercillo Martino I, Pometti A, Cornelissen G, Hillman D, Halberg F. Individualized chronobiologic assessment of low-dose aspirin for pre-eclampsia prevention. Chronobiologia 1989; 16: 134.
[4] Kopher R, Eggen D, Cornelissen G, Einzig S, Vernier R, Work B, Halberg F. Circadian characteristics of cardiovascular rhythms in healthy pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) women. Chronobiologia 16: 152, 1989.
[5] Schuh J, Sinaiko A, Cornelissen G, Tarquini B, Sensi S, Mainardi G, Mello G, Panero C, Cugini P, Maggioni C, Romoli F, Montefiori M, Mecacci F, Cagnoni M, Halberg F. Cardiovascular rhythmometry during pregnancy and early extrauterine life. Proc. 2nd Ann. IEEE Symp. on Computer-Based Medical Systems, Minneapolis, June 26-27, 1989, Computer Society Press, Washington DC, pp. 279-287.
[6] Cornelissen G, Kopher R, Gordon A, Hillman D, Vernier R, Work B, Einzig S, Halberg F. Multiple frequency rhythms in blood pressure during pregnancy and changes as a function of gestational age. Chronobiologia 17: 166, 1990.
[7] Cornelissen G, Sitka U, Tarquini B, Mainardi G, Panero C, Cugini P, Weinert D, Romoli F, Cassanas G, Maggioni C, Vernier R, Work, Einzig S., Rigatuso J, Schuh J, Kato J, Tamura K, Halberg F. Chronobiologic approach to blood pressure during pregnancy and early extrauterine life. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 341A: 585-594, 1990.
[8] Ferrazzani S, Cornelissen G, Caruso A, De Carolis S, Hillman D, Di Giglio R, Vercillo Martino I, Pometti A, Tocci A, Kato J, Tamura K, Halberg F. Chronobiologic approach to pregnancy-induced hypertension and individualized assessment of low-dose aspirin for pre-eclampsia prevention. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 341A: 395-402, 1990.
[9] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Kopher R, Choromanski L, Eggen D, Otsuka K, Bakken E, Tarquini B, Hillman DC, Delmore P, Kawabata Y, Shinoda M, Vernier R, Work B, Cagnoni M, Cugini P, Ferrazzani S, Sitka U, Weinert D, Schuh J, Kato J, Kato K, Tamura K. Chronobiologic blood pressure and ECG assessment by computer in obstetrics, neonatology, cardiology and family practice. In: Maeda K, Hogaki M, Nakano H. (Eds.) Computers and Perinatal Medicine: Proc. 2nd World Symp. Computers in the Care of the Mother, Fetus and Newborn, Kyoto, Japan, Oct. 23-26, 1989. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica; 1990. p. 3-18.
[10] Kopher R, Cornelissen G, Choromanski L, Eggen D, Einzig S, Vernier R, Work B, Halberg F. Circadian characteristics of cardiovascular rhythms in pregnancy. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 341A: 383-393, 1990.
[11] Kopher R, Cornelissen G, Gordon A, Halberg F. Chronobiologic blood pressure (BP) monitoring of a case of gestational hypertension (GH). Chronobiologia 17: 174-175, 1990.
[12] Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Kopher R, Kato J, Maggioni C, Tamura K, Otsuka K, Miyake Y, Ohnishi M, Satoh K, Rigo J Jr, Paulin F, Adam Z, Zaslavskaya RM, Work B, Carandente F. Halting steps in Minnesota toward international blood pressure (BP) rhythm-specified norms (chronodesms) during pregnancy. Chronobiologia 18: 72-73, 1991.
[13] Ferrazzani S, Caruso A, De Carolis S, Pometti A, Tocci A, Mancinelli S, Halberg F, Cornelissen G. Blood pressure monitoring over 24 hours in pregnancy. In: Experimental Models in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 1, Advances in Gynecological and Obstetric Research Series, Romanini C, Garzetti GG, Tranquilli AL, Valensise H. (Eds.). Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, Lancs., UK, 1991, pp. 113-119.
[14] Halberg F, Cornelissen G, Kopher R, Kato J, Maggioni C, Tamura K, Otsuka K, Miyake Y, Ohnishi M, Satoh K, Rigo J Jr, Paulin F, Adam Z, Work B, Carandente F, Zaslavskaya RM. Chronobiology of blood pressure (BP) in uncomplicated pregnancy vs. gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE). Chronobiologia 18: 73-74, 1991.
[15] Work B, Cornelissen G, Halberg E, Carandente F, Kopher R, Kato J, Maggioni C, Tamura K, Otsuka K, Miyake Y, Ohnishi M, Satoh K, Rigó J Jr, Paulin F, Adam Z, Zaslavskaya RM, Halberg F. The tensopsy—a time-specified blood pressure (BP) measurement in non-pregnant and pregnant women. Chronobiologia 18: 74, 1991.
[16] Miyake Y, Ohnishi M, Cornelissen G, Otsuka K, Satoh K, Halberg F. Chronomes of blood pressure and heart rate during pregnancy in Japan and the USA. 1st Int. Cong. African Association for Physiological Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya, Sept. 21-27, 1992. In: Cornelissen G, Halberg E, Bakken E, Delmore P, Halberg F. (Eds.). Toward phase zero preclinical and clinical trials: chronobiologic designs and illustrative applications. University of Minnesota Medtronic Chronobiology Seminar Series, #6, September 1992, pp. 267-269.
[17] Achiwa S, Imanishi Y, Kato J, Ishii H, Tamura K, Cornelissen G, Halberg F. Non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancy. Policlinico (Chrono) 1: 11-22, 1995.
[18] Rivera Medina R, Sanchez de la Peña S, Islas Andradé S, Cornelissen G, Ayala DE, Hermida R, Arechiga H, Halberg F. Circasemiseptan (about half-weekly) chrones in the diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) chronome and preeclampsia. Proc. XXXIII Int. Cong. International Union of Physiological Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 30-July 5, 1997, abstract P055.22.
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[20] Ikonomov OC, Stoynev AG, Penev PD, Peneva AV, Cornelissen G, Samayoa W, Siegelova J, Dusek J, Halberg F. Circadian rhythm of blood pressure and heart rate in uncomplicated human pregnancy. Scripta medica 2000; 73 (1): 44-55.
[21] Aslanyan NL, Halberg F, Okoev G, Cornelissen G, Manukyan L, Iskandaryan A. Blood pressure and heart rate monitoring in chronobiological investigations of normal and pathologic pregnancy. Reports, 6th Congress of the Armenian Physiological Society, Associate member of IUPS (since 1997), 4-7 October 2001, pp. 71-73.
[22] Cornelissen G, Siegelova J, Halberg F. Blood pressure and heart rate dynamics during pregnancy and early extra-uterine life: Methodology for a chrononeonatology. In: Halberg F, Kenner T, Fiser B. (Eds.). Proceedings, Symposium: The Importance of Chronobiology in Diagnosing and Therapy of Internal Diseases. Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic, January 10-13, 2002. Brno: Masaryk University, 2002: 58-96.
[23] Cornelissen G, Rigatuso J, Wang ZR, Wan CM, Maggioni C, Syutkina EV, Schwartzkopff O, Johnson DE, Halberg F, International Womb-to-Tomb Chronome Group: Case report of an acceptable average but overswinging blood pressure in Circadian Hyper-Amplitude-Tension, CHAT. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2003; 24 (Suppl 1): 84-91.
[24] Maggioni C, Cornelissen G, Syutkina EV, Johnson D, Halberg F. Pharmacovigilance: betamimetic drug exposure in pregnancy enhances cardiovascular disease risk of offspring. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2003; 24 (Suppl 1): 102-104.
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Chapter 9

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 11

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Chapter 13

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 20

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[28] National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Panel. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: multivitamin/mineral supplements and chronic disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85:257S-64S.
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Chapter 21

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Chapter 22

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[1] Singh RB, Fedacko J, Pella D, Macejova Z, Ghosh S, Beegom R, Tumbi ZA, Haque M, Vajpeyee SK, De Meester F, Sergey C, Agarval R, Muthusamy VV, Gupta AA, and the Five City Study Group. Prevalence and risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in five Indian cities. Acta Cardiol 2011;. 66: 29-37.
[2] The “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2014 Update” Circulation. 2014; 129: e28-e292 Published online before print December 18, 2013, doi: 10.1161/01.cir. 0000441139.02102.80.
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Chapter 26

[1] The “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2014 Update” Circulation. 2014; 129: e28-e292 Published online before print December 18, 2013, doi: 10.1161/01.cir.0000 441139.02102.80.
[2] Singh RB, Fedacko J, Pella D, Macejova Z, Ghosh S, Beegom R, Tumbi ZA, Haque M, Vajpeyee SK, De Meester F, Sergey C, Agarval R, Muthusamy VV, Gupta AA, and the Five City Study Group. Prevalence and risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in five Indian cities. Acta Cardiol. 2011; 66: 29-37.
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[5] Singh RB, Sharma JP, Rastogi V, Raghuvanshi RS, Moshiri M, Verma SP, Janus ED. Prevalence of coronary artery disease and coronary risk factors in rural and urban populations of north India. Eur Heart J 1997; 18: 728-735.
[6] Singh RB, Verma SP, Niaz MA. Social class and coronary artery disease in India. Lancet 1999; 353: 154.
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Chapter 27

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[1] Rastogi SS, Singh RB, Singh NK, Alam SM, Singh RG, Tripathi KK, Vajpeyee S, Srivastav RK, Gupta H, Muthusamy VV, Goyal RK, Yeolekar ME, Kumar A, Neki NS, Sainani GS, Santarem V, Pella D, Fedacko J, De Meester F, Basu TK, Acharya SN and Ozimek L. Prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in Low and Middle Income Countries. The Open Nutra J 2011;4:97-106.
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[10] World Health Organization; Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Geneva, WHO,1990.
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[12] Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Rastogi V, et al., Blood pressure trends, plasma insulin levels, and risk factors in rural and urban elderly populations of north India. Coron Artery Dis 1997;8: 463-8.
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[18] Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Rastogi S. Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1996;77: 232-236.
[19] Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Shukla PK, Thakur AS. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Human Hyper 1999;13: 203-208.
[20] 19.Singh RB, Dubnov G, Niaz MA,Ghosh S,Singh R,Rastogi SS,Manor O,Pella D,Berry EM. Effect of an Indo-Mediterranean diet on progression of coronary disease in high risk patients: a randomized single blind trial. Lancet 2002,360:1455-1461.
[21] Hristova K, Ivy Shiue I, Pella D, Singh RB, Chaves H, Basu TK, Ozimek L, Rastogi SS and ICC-ICN Consensus Group. Sofia declaration on transition of prevention strategies for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in developing countries: a statement from the international college of cardiology and international college of nutrition. Nutrition 2014; doi:10.1016/j.nut.2013.12.013.

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