Chondroitin Sulfate: Structure, Uses and Health Implications

Vitor Hugo Pomin (Editor)
Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Series: Pharmacology – Research, Safety Testing and Regulation, Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: MED071000

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Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) of the human body. Besides its natural occurrence as side chains in physiologically active proteoglycans localized at the extracellular matrices and/or at cell surfaces, this GAG can also be found in marine organisms with differential structures and functions, such as the anticoagulant fucosylated chondroitin sulfate isolated from sea-cucumbers. In addition, CSs isolated from vertebrate sources, such as shark and whale cartilages, are used as a biomedical ingredient for alternative medicinal therapies of osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, and possibly osteoporosis.

CS formulations for oral administration are also employed as a nutraceutical to prevent lesions or degenerations of joint cartilages, especially in those people susceptible to physical impacts of their knees, like athletes, soccer players and dancers. In terms of structure, this GAG can show different sulfation patterns that vary accordingly with the types of cell, tissue, organism, and pathological conditions. However, the saccharide backbone of CS is always made up of alternating galactosamine and an uronic acid unit, regardless the source or condition. This book presents a compilation of some of the recent achievements obtained by scientific research on CS. Overall the most relevant areas and sub-areas regarding the science of this GAG type are somewhat discussed herein.

The major areas include biology, biotechnology, physiology, chemistry and pharmacology. Specific sub-areas are biosynthesis, chemical and enzymatic modifications, extraction methods, occurrence and abundance, in vitro enzymatic degradations, structural diversity versus functions, disease-related mechanisms, physiological roles, medical applications, and novel methods of structural characterization. The contributing authors of this publication are internationally recognized leaders in the field. All these features contribute significantly to the quality of this publication. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Chapter 1 - Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Manipulation of Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides
(Emiliano Bedini and Michelangelo Parrilli, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Complesso Universitario Monte S.Angelo, Naples, Italy)

Chapter 2 - Novel Glycosaminoglycan Glycotechnology: Efficient Synthesis and Elongation Procedure of Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides
(Masanori Yamaguchi and Masahiko Endo, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Wakayama University, Wakayama, Japan, and others)

Chapter 3 - Manufacturing Chondroitin Sulfate: From Animal Source Extraction to Biotechnological Production
(Odile Francesca Restaino, Mario De Rosa, Donatella Cimini and Chiara Schiraldi, Dept. of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy)

Chapter 4 - Understanding Specificities in Enzymatic Digestions of Chondroitin Sulfates A and C by Monitoring Sulfation Patterns of the Produced Oligosaccharides
(Vitor H. Pomin, Program of Glycobiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry, and University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Chapter 5 - Chondroitin-6-sulfate Degradation by N Acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase and Implications for Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (MPS IV A)
(Yadilette Rivera-Colón and Scott C. Garman, Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology,
University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA)

Chapter 6 - Pharmacoproteomics of Chondroitin Sulfate in Osteoarthritis Therapy
(Valentina Calamia, Cristina Ruiz-Romero, Eulalia Montell, Josep Vergés and Francisco J. Blanco, Rheumatology Division, Proteomics Group-ProteoRed/ISCIII, INIBIC-CHU A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain, and others)

Chapter 7 - Chondroitin Sulfate Regulates Growth Factor Signaling in Tissue Homeostasis and Disease
(Dragana Nikitovic, Kallirroi Voudouri, Nikos Karamanos and George Tzanakakis, Department of Histology--Embryology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece, and others)

Chapter 8 - Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate: A Serpin-independent Anticoagulant Polysaccharide
(Vitor H. Pomin, Program of Glycobiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry, and University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Chapter 9 – Chondroitin Sulfate in Treatment of Tissue Degeneration
(Michele Marcolongo and Katsiaryna Prudnikova, Materials Science & Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA)

Chapter 10 - Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Abnormalities in Schizophrenia
(Harry Pantazopoulos and Sabina Berretta, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, and others)
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Chapter 11 - Structural Analysis of Chondroitin Sulfates and their Derivatives by 15N-NMR Spectroscopy
(Vitor H. Pomin, Program of Glycobiology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry, and University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

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