Chinese Civilization in the 21st Century

Andrew Targowski
Western Michigan University, MI, USA
President Emeritus of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (2009-2013)

Bernard Han
Western Michigan University, MI, USA

Series: Contemporary Cultural Studies
BISAC: HIS008000

Clear

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Details

The authors of this book believe that the 5,000 year-long-history of Chinese Civilization is the main factor in the re-emergence of China in the 21st century. It is a well-known fact that the Chinese economy became the second largest economy in the world in 2014. With some predictions, in the near future perhaps China will surpass the United States. The main media interprets this progress as the result of a Western Civilization strategy, which forced manufacturing to be outsourced to China and made it become the World Factory. Certainly, outsourcing was the trigger and an important factor at the end of the 20th century. However, today, China and its diaspora (Chinese Civilization) are decisively moving from the “robot” of the West to a master in economy and politics.

This book, primarily focused on analyzing Chinese accomplishments nowadays, is not confined only to the economic dimension; it also takes into account the legacy and practice of the Chinese, i.e., its society, culture, religion, and infrastructure – the main components of any civilization. China had 24 dynasties and elaborated administrative systems (run by Mandarins) that contributed to the Chinese receptive subordination to political power. The Mandarins’ management of knowledge, wisdom, and skills were supported by Confucianism – an ethical and philosophical system based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Also, family is most important to the Chinese. There is a special relationship within the family-based complex system that is hinged on Chinese kinships and clans.

Technology – the Four Great Inventions, i.e., the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing, were among the most important technological creations by Chinese. They were known in Europe by the end of the Middle Ages, which was 1000 years later than their existence. The Chinese junks (ships) were better than Portuguese caravels in the 15th century, which discovered America and went around Africa to China. Therefore it is not surprising that today the fastest computer was built in China and now the country has the largest network of high-speed railroads.

This book maintains that China should not follow proposed recommendations by advisors from the Western Civilization since they might remake China a la America. Their recommendations usually mimic Americanism. Today Americanism is not doing very well even in America. China has the chance to develop its own political system that may be adequate for the current state of the worlds’ civilization’s affairs. Perhaps it can be a system that eventually will be accepted by other countries elsewhere. This new emerging political system may be called “sustainable market socialism and people power with Chinese character,” and it may lead to Sustainable China for Ever (SCE). Its Seven Principles are defined in this book. Of course, this system may not be ideal. But, have we found any political system ideal to date? The weakness of SCE is its inability in removing corruption and cronyism. On the other hand, the political system based on the turbo-capitalism, without human face and lobbyist-driven democracy, has the same shortcomings (e.g., corruption, cronyism) that are almost incurable nowadays. The choice, then, is the lesser of the two evils between these two political systems. Eventually, we will approach the famous question — is it better to live better but shorter, or longer but worse? (Imprint: Nova)

Foreword
Andrew Targowski and Bernard Han

Part I. Civilizing Society

Chapter 1. The Civilization Index and Chinese Civilization
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, USA)

Chapter 2. Spatio-Temporal Boundaries of Chinese Civilization
Harry Rhodes and Lynn Rhodes (The ISCSC-Californian Chapter)

Part II. Civilizing Culture

Chapter 3. Old Faith for the New Millennium: Religions and the Chinese Civilization in the 21st Century
Patrick Fuliang Shan (Grand Valley University, MI, USA)

Chapter 4. Chinese Civilization and Contemporary Pop Culture in the 21st Century
Shan Li (Sichuan University, Chengdu, China)

Part III. Civilizing Infrastructure

Chapter 5. Chinese Civilization and the State of Infrastructure in the 21st Century
Guo Yang (Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China)

Chapter 6. Is China on the Wrong Path of the U.S. Agricultural Development in the 21st Century?
Agnieszka Couderq (Orange Alternative, Poland)

Part IV. Globalizing Chinese Civilization

Chapter 7. The Myths and Realities of the Clash of Western and Chinese Civilizations in the 21st Century
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, USA)

Chapter 8. The Chinese Civilization: Driving Forces, Implications and Challenges in the 21st Century
Bernard Han (Western Michigan University, MI, USA)

Chapter 9. Chinese Civilization versus Global Civilization in the 21st Century
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, USA)

Chapter 10. Where Is China Heading?
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, USA)

Index

Foreword

Cavendish, M. (2005). History of World War II. vol. 3. Tarrytown, NY: Marshal Cavendish Corporation.
Fogel, J.(1997). The Sinic world. New York: ME. Sharpe. p. 686.
Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the last man. New York: Penguin Group.
Reischauer, E. (1974). The Sinic world in perspective. Foreign Affairs 52(2):342.
Storry, R. (1973). The double patriots: a study of Japanese nationalism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 317–319.
Targowski, A. (2014). Global civilization in the 21st century. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Westad, O.A. (2012). Restless empire, China and the world since 1750. London: The Bodley Head.

Chapter 1

Bosworth, A. (2003). “The genetics of civilization: an empirical classification of civilizations based on writing systems,” Comparative Civilizations Review, 49(9).
Coulborn, R. (1966).

“Structure and process in the rise and fall of civilized societies,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, VIII-4(404).
Dexter, R. (2014). China wants its people in the cities. BloombergBusinessWeak, March 20.
Fernandez-Armesto, F. (2001). Civilizations, culture, ambition, and the transformation of nature. New York: A Touchstone Book.
Foster, J. B. & Holleman, H. (2010). The financial power elite. MONTLY REVIEW. 62(1).
Hord, J. (1992). Civilization: a definition part ii. the nature of formal knowledge systems. The Comparative Civilization Review, (26), 111-135.
Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Targowski, A. (2004a). From global to universal civilization. Dialogue and Universalism, XIV(3-4), 121-142.
Targowski, A. (2004b). The civilization index. Dialogue and Universalism, XIV(10-12),
71-86.
Targowski, A. (2004c). “A grand model of civilization.” Comparative Civilizations Review. (51), 81-106.
Targowski, A. (2009a). Information technology and social development. Hershey, PA: IGI Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2009b). Towards a composite definition and classification of civilization. Comparative Civilization Review. (60), 79-98.
Toynbee, A. (1935 ). A Study of History, 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapter 2

Allan, S. (2007). Erlitou and the Formation of Chinese Civilization: Toward a New Paradigm. The Journal of Asian Studies, 66, 461-496 Cambridge University Press.
Boltz, William. (1999). Language and Writing. In Loew, Michael: Shaughnessey, Edward L. The Cambridge History of Ancient China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
74-123
Carr, Brian, et al. (2012). Companion Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Library. p.466
Chan, Kwang-chih. The Archaeology of Ancient China, Yale University Press, 1986
Chinn, Annping. (2007). The Authentic Confucius. New York, NY: Scribner. p. 43
Deady, K. W. & Dubois, M. L. (2004). Ancient China. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Walthall, Anne & Palais, James B. (2006). Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin Co. p. 29
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Walthill, Anne & Palais, James B. (2006). East Asia. Boston, MA: Heughton Mifflin. 378-382
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated history of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (2010). 9. Manchus and Imperialism: The Qing Dynasty 1644-1900. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press. p. 236
Fairbank, John K. (1953). Trade and Diplomacy on the Chinese Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1845. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press. 27-29
Fiskesjo, Magnus & Chen, Xingcan. 2004. China before China. J. G. Andersson (editor). Ding Wenjiang and the Discovery of China’s Prehistory. Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities
Greenberg, Michael. (1969). British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-42. Cambridge Studies in Economic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 113
Higham, Ch. (2004). Encyclopedia of ancient Asian civilizations. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc.
Homer, H. (1938-55). The history of the former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku., (3 vol). Baltimore: Waverly Press.
Jiang, Cheng An. (1998). Empress of China: Wu Ze Tian. Monterey, CA. USA: Victory Press
Kaufman, Alison Adock. (2010). The Century of Humiliation, “Then and Now: Chinese Perceptions of the International Order. Pacific Focus 25.1. 1-33
Lung, Rachel. (2011). Interpreters in Early Imperial China. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co. p.5
Mair, Victoria H. w/ Brooks. E. Bruce. (2013). Was There a Xia Dynasty? Sino Platonic Papers, No. 238. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania
Morton, W. S. (1995). China: its history and culture (3rd ed. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Dubs,
Morton, W. Scott. (1995). China: Its History and Culture (3rd ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill. p. 49
Mote, F. W. & Twitchett, D. eds. (1998). The Cambridge History of China., In Vol.8, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1 and 2. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pines, Yuri. (2002). Foundations of Confucian thought: intellectual life in the Chunqui period (722-453 B.C.E.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press
Prawdin, Michael. (2005). The Mongol Empire. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers
Pringle, Heather. (1998). The Slow Birth of Agriculture. Science., 20. Vol 282. No 5393. p. 1446
Reischauer, Edwin Oldfather. (1960). A History of East Asian Civilization. Vol 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition. New York, NY: Harvard
Teiwes, Frederick C. & Sun, Warren (1999). China’s Road to Disaster: Mao, Central Politicians, and Provincial Leaders in the Unfording of the Great Leap Forward, 1955-1959. Contemporary China Papers. Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe. 52-55
Wagner, D. B. (1999). The EarliestUse of Iron in China, in Young, S.M.M., Pollard, A.M.., Bud, P. et al., Metals in Antiquity, Oxford: Archaeopress, 1-9
Zhou, Jinghao. (2003). Remaking China’s Public Philosophy for the Twenty First Century. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. p. 34
Zhou, Jixu. (2006). The Rise of Agricultural Civilization in China. Sino Platonic Papers, No. 175. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania

Chapter 3

Bays, Daniel H. (2012). A new history of Christianity in China. Wiley-Blackwell.
Cao, Nanlai. (2011). Constructing China’s Jerusalem: Christians, power, and place in contemporary Wenzhou. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Charbonnier, Jean-Pierre (2007). Christians in China, A.D. 600 to 2000. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.
Chen, Kenneth K. S. (1968). Buddhism: the light of Asia. Hauppauge. NY: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.
DeAngelis, Richard C. (1997). “Muslims and Chinese political culture,” The Muslim World, (April 1997), 151-168.
Elvin, Mark. (1996). Another history. Canberra: University of Sydney Press.
Fairbank, John King. (1999). China: a new history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Richard, C. Foltz. (1999). Religions on the silk road: overland trade and cultural exchange from antiquity to the fifteen century. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
Harvey, Thomas Alan. (2002). Acquainted with grief: Wang Mingdao’s stand for the persecuted church in China. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press.
Fingarette, Herbert (1998). Confucius: the secular as sacred. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
Fitzgerald, C. P. (1996). China: a short cultural history. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Gao, Wangzhi. (1996). “Y. T. Wu: a Chinese leader under communism,” in Daniel H. Bays, Christianity in China: from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 338-352.
Goossaert, Vincent & Palmer, David A. (2011). The religious question in modern China. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Harrison, Henrietta. (2013). The missionary’s curse and other tales from a Chinese catholic village. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Lai, Chi-Tim. (2003). “Daoism in China today, 1980-2002,” The China Quarterly, (no. 174, Jun. 2003), 413-427.
Lao Tzu [Lao Zi]. (1997). Tao Te Ching [Dao De Jing]. Catham, Kent, UK: Wordsworth, 1997.
Arthur Waldron. (1998). “Religious revival in communist China,” Orbis, vol. 42, no. 2, Spring, 325-334.
Lei, Chunfang. (2013). “Shijie zongjiao fazhan de jige xin dongxiang” [Several new trends of development for the world religions], Zhongguo zongjiao [Chinese Religions], (no. 12, 2013), 55-57.
Lian, Xi. (2013). “Cultural Christians and the Search for Civil Society in Contemporary China,” The Chinese Historical Review. vol. 20, no. 1, May, 70-87.
Lian, Xi. (2010). Redeemed by fire: popular Chinese christianity in the twentieth century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lin, Guoping. (2009). “Minjian zongjiao de fuxing yu dangdai zhongguo shehui” [The Revival of Popular Religion and the Current Chinese Society], Shijie zongjiao yanjiu [The Study of World Religions], (no. 4), 81-91.
Littlejohn, Ronnie L. (2009). Daoism: an introduction. London & New York: I. B. Tauris.
Luo, Jing. (Ed.). (2005). China today: an encyclopedia of life in the People’s Republic, vol. 1, vol. 2, Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Madsen, Richard. (2003), “Chinese christianity: indigenization and conflict,” in Perry, Elizabeth and Selden, Mark (2003). Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance, New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon, 271-288.
Madsen, Richard. (2007). “Understanding Falun Gong,” in David B. H. Denoon, China: contemporary political, economic, and international affairs, New York: New York University Press, 182-191.
Ni, Peimin. (2010). Confucius: making the way great, Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House.
Osnos, Evan. (2014). Age of ambition: chasing fortune, truth and faith in the new China, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Overmyer, Daniel L. (1998). Religions of China: the world as a living system, Prospect Height, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
Schoppa, R. Keith (2011). Revolution and its past: identities and changes in modern Chinese history, 3rd edition, New York: Prentice Hall.
Shan, Patrick Fuliang. (2009). “Triumph after catastrophe: church, state and society in post-Boxer China, 1900-1937,” Peace and Conflict Studies, Winter, vol. 16, no. 2, 33-47.
Sommer, Deborah. (1995). Chinese religion: an anthology of sources, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Spence, Jonathan. (1999). The search for modern China, 2nd Edition, New York: W.W. Norton.
Stark, Rodney & Liu, Eric Y. (2011). “The religious awakening in China,” Review of Religious Research, vol. 52, no. 3, 282-289.
Tang, Edmond. (2007). “The cosmic christ: the search for a Chinese theology,” in Roman Malek (Ed.), The Chinese faces of Jesus Christ, vol. 3b, Sankt Augustin, Germany: Monumenta Serica Monograph Series, 1515-1526.
Targowski, A. (2014). Global civilization in the 21st Century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Thompson, Laurence G. (1996). Chinese religion, 5th edition, New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. (2010). China in the 21st century: what everyone needs to know, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Wielander, Gerda. (2013). Christian values in communist China. Oxford, UK: Routledge.
Yang, C. K. (1991). Religion in Chinese society: a study of contemporary social functions of religion and some of their historical factors, Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
Yang, Fenggang. (2006). “Zhongguo zongjiao de sanse shichang” [The Three Color Markets of Chinese Religions], Zhongguo Renmin Daxue Xuebao [Journal of Renmin University of China], no. 6, 41-46.
Zaehner, R. C. (1997). Encyclopedia of the world’s religions, New York: Barnes & Noble.

Chapter 4

Hweng-MingKu. (2012). The Spirit of the Chinese people. Nanjing: Yilin Press.
KingYeo-Chi. (1999). From tradition to contemporary. Peking: China Renmin University Press.
MuQian. (2012). Nation and culture. Peking: Jiuzhou Press.
Ruzhen Jiang. (1999). The historical explanation and the modern value of Chinese traditional culture. Shanxi: Shanxi Education Publishing House.
ShiquZheng. (2009). A study of Chinese national spirit. Peking: Beijing Normal University Publishing Group.
Storey John. (2007). Culture studies and the study of popular Culture. Peking: Peking University Press.

Chapter 5

Coyle, John J., Novack, Robert A. & Gibson, Brian. (2010). Transportation: a supply chain. Perspective: Kentucky: Cengage Learning.
Dong, Kunyu. (2013). Newly explore the division Chinese ancient education history. Journal of Hebei Normal University (Educational Science Edition), (5), 25-29.
Fan, Jinmin. (2005). The position of treasure voyages in world’s navigation history. Jiangsu Social Sciences, (1), 201-204.
Fu, Xiaoyun. (2008). attach importance to the protection of history culture in city development. Science & Technology Information, (4), 147.
He, Yimin. (2009). Agriculture, industry, and information: three of China city historical periodization. Academic Monthly, (10), 139-141.
Huang, Yuehao. & Rao, Xiaojun. (2010). The method of vernacular village protection--a case study of Wangkou village. New Architecture, (5), 27-31.
Landes, Davis S. (1999). The wealth and poverty of nations: why some are so rich and some so poor.New York: W.W. Norton & Company
Li, Dan. (2012). An analysis of the status of “world factory” in China. Commercial Culture, (4), 140.
Li, Shaohui. (2013). Conservation of traditional villages expect “organic recovery.” China Reform Newspaper, (11), 1-3.
Lu, Li. (2010). The technology changes and ethical reasoning of China’s ancient transportation. Jiangxi Social Sciences, (4), 225-230.
Luo, Yang. (2010). Four patterns of ancient village protection. Art of Design, (4), 8.
Qu, Lingyan. (2004). Key points on urban historic area’s conservation planning. World Regional Studies, (12), 40.
Shi, Yaobo. (2011). Role change of China role in international division of labor. International Economic Cooperation, (8), 28-30
Tan, Haoqiang. (2011). Process and inspiration of the computer in China. Computer Education, (9), 1-4
Tao, Jinjue. (2013). Problem research of world factory contemporary China. Northern Economy, (11), 51-53.
Wang, Xiaolei & Yan, Xuedong. (2010). Proceedings of international conference on engineering and business management. Scientific Research Publishing.
Wei, Yuejun. (2011). The status quo and countermeasure to infrastructure construction in China. Journal of Beijing Forestry University (Social Sciences), (6), 46-49.
Wu, Jianqi & Lin, Shusheng. (2001). A brief view of the way of ancient Chinese information transmission. Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology(Social Science Edition), (3),126-128.
Xia, Rongmin. Wang, Qin. & Su, Lina. (2011). A study on the trend of construction and development of the Chinese national knowledge infrastructure. Agriculture Network Information, (11), 19-21.
Xu, Xiaowang. (1998). Study on the development of imperial examination and southeast culture. Southeast Academic Research, (6), 84-90.
Xu, Xuelin. (2004). Review of “origin, development, spread and world influence of China’s four great inventions.” Academic World.
Zhang, Jun & Gao, Yuan. (2007). Why China own good infrastructure? Economic Research Journal, (3), 4-19.
Zhang, Xueyi. (2010). Thought on construction of computer network in campus. Communications Technology, 43(3), 81-55.
Zhu, Xiaoli. (2002). The modes and approaches of ancient Chinese information transmission. Modern Information.

Chapter 6

[1] Jared M. Diamond, (2005), Collapse: how civilizations choose to fail or succeed, New York: Viking Press.
[2] http://www.nationmaster.com/compare/China/United-States/Environment, retrieved February 6th 2014.
[3] http://www.examiner.com/article/factory-farms-are-major-contributors-to-greenhouse- gasses-climate-change, retrieved February 6th 2014.
[4] K. Averyt, J. Meldrum, P. Caldwell, G. Sun, S. McNulty, A. Huber-Lee and N. Madden, (2013), Sectoral contributions to surface water stress in the coterminous United States, Philadelphia: IOP Publishing.
[5] http://www.ncifap.org/_images/PCIFAPSmry.pdf, retrieved February 6th 2014.
[6] http://www.propublica.org/special/a-history-of-fda-inaction-on-animal-antibiotics, retrieved February 6th 2014.
[7] http://articles.latimes.com/2013/feb/26/science/la-sci-breast-cancer-younger-women-20130227, retrieved February 5th, 2014.
[8] http://www.bigpictureagriculture.com/2012/10/an-evaluation-of-benbrooks-pesticide- use-study-super-weeds.html, retrieved February 5th 2014.
[9] http://www.ajpmonline.org/webfiles/images/journals/amepre/3834-stamped-070913.pdf, retrieved February 7th 2014.
[10] Eric A. Finkelstein, Justin G. Trogdon, Joel W. Cohen and William Dietz, Annual Medical Spending Attributable To Obesity: Payer-And Service-Specific Estimates, http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/28/5/w822.short, retrieved February 7th 2014.
[11] Yen, Hope, 80 Percent Of U.S. Adults Face Near-Poverty, Unemployment: Survey. The Huffington Post, 28 July 2013, retrieved February 8th , 2014.[12] U.S. Poverty: Census Finds Nearly Half Of Americans Are Poor Or Low-Income, The Huffington Post, December 15th 2011, retrieved February 8th 2014.
[13] Zong, Y., Chen, Z., Innes, JB., Chen, C., Wang, Z., Wang, H., (2007), Fire and flood management of coastal swamp enabled first rice paddy cultivation in east China, Nature 449 (7161): 459–62.
[14] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/07/03/1300018110.abstract, retrieved February 10th 2014.
[15] http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/global-change-china-air-economy-0213.html, retrieved February 10th, 2014.
[16] Ian Johnson, Chinese culture fades with empty villages, New York Times, February 1st 2014.
[17] idem.
[18] Encyclopedia of Modern China, Vol. 1A–E, (2009), Farmington Hills, Michigan: Charles Scribner’s Sons, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning.
[19] http://www.thepigsite.com/articles/4262/hog-farming-in-transition-the-case-of-china, retrieved February 17th 2014.
[20] http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/07/08/china-grapples-with-genetically- modified-foods/, retrieved February 17th 2014.
[21] http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1734701, retrieved February 18th 2014.
[22] http://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/09/chinas-looming-diabetes- epidemic/279670/, retrieved February 18th 2014.
[23] http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-14/china-s-annual-26-billion-diabetes-bill- to-skyrocket-researchers-report.html, retrieved February 18th 2014.
[24] http://www.weforum.org/pdf/Wellness/WHOWEF_report.pdf, retrieved February 18th 2014.
[25] http://www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/29890/global-organic-food-market- growing, retrieved February 18th 2014.
[26] https://www.fibl.org/fileadmin/documents/shop/1500-climate-change.pdf,retrieved February 18th 2014.

Chapter 7

Asimov, I. (1942). Runround. New York, NY: Street and Smith Publications.
Brown, L. (2001). Eco-economy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.
Brzezinski, Z. (2012). Balancing the east, upgrading the west. Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012, 97-104.
Conkin, P.K. (2007). The state of the earth. Lexington, KY: The Kentucky University Press.
Friedberg, A.L. (2011). A contest for supremacy, China, America, and the struggle for mastery in Asia. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
Henderson, C. (1999). China on the brink. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Jacques, M. (2009). When China rules the world. New York, NY: The Penguin Press.
Kynge, J. (2006). China shakes the world. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Maddison, A. (2001). The world economy, a millennial perspective. Paris, France: OECD.
Meadows, D., et al. (1972). The limits of growth. New York, NY: A Signet Book.
Mearsheimer, J.J. (2001). The tragedy of great power politics. New York, NY: Norton.
Steffen, A. (2008). World changing, a user’s guide for the 21st century. New York, NY: Abrams.
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey, PA & New York, NY: IGI Global.
Targowski, A. (2011). Cognitive informatics and wisdom development. Hershey, PA & New York, NY: IGI Global.
Targowski, A. & Modrak, V. (2011). Is advanced automation consistent with sustainable economic growth in developed world? The Proceedings of the International Conference, CENTERIS 2011, Vilamoura, Portugal, October 2011, Part I, pp. 63-72. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Walter, C.E. & Howie, F.J.T. (2011). Red capitalism. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Yergin, D. (2011). The quest. New York, NY: The Penguin Press.
Yusuf, S. & Nabeshima, K. (2010). Changing the industrial geography in Asia. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Chapter 8

Bardoza, D. (2010). China passes Japan as second-largest economy. New York Times, August 15.
Behrer, William H. (2010). China: a sleeping giant awakens. The Real Truth, March-April, 12-14.
Callahan, W. A. (2005). How to understand China: the dangers and opportunities of being a rising power. Review of International Studies., 31(04), 701-714.
Coffin, J., Stacey, R., Cole, J. & Symes, C. (2011). Western civilizations: their history and their culture, Volume 2 (17th Ed). U.S.A.: Houghton Mifflin.
Dullien, S, Kotte, D. J., Márquez, A. & Priewe, J. (2010). The financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009 and developing countries. New York and Geneva: United Nations Publications.
Erdmann, J. E. & Hough, W. S. (1899). A history of philosophy. Volume 3, New York: The MacMillan CO.
Gernet, J. (1999). A history of Chinese civilization. (Second Edition). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huntington, S. P. (1997). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jacques, Marin. (2010). Understanding the rise of China. Retrieved on August 11, 2012 at http://www.ted.com/talks/martin_jacques_understanding_the_rise_of_china.html.
Jacques, M. (2009). When China rules the world: The end of the western world and the birth of a new global order. New York: The Penguin Press.
Jones, A. (2007). Responding to the rise of China. Security Challenges, 3(1) 7-17.
Keay, J. (2009). China: A History, New York, New York: Basic Books.
Lardy, N. (2012). China must reform to maintain high levels of economic growth. Feb 3, 2012. Retrieved on August 30, 2012 at http://www.publicserviceeurope.com/article/1459/ china-must-reform-to-maintain-high-levels-of-economic-growth.
Lee, S. (2010). China's unequal wealth-distribution map causing social problems. China Post, June 28. Retrieved on Aug 30, 2012 at http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/the-china-post/special-to-the-china-post/2010/06/28/262505/p1/China's-unequal.htm.
Lin, J. Y. (2009). Economic development and structural change, Lecture at Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, November 5.
Ma, G. & Yi, W. (2010). China’s high saving rate: myth and reality. BIS Working Paper (No. 312). Basel, Switzerland: Bank of International Settlements.
Michelbach, P. A. (2011). Democracy as vocation: political maturity in Luther and Hegel. Journal of Democratic Theory, 1(4), 1-33.
Moses, R. L. (2012). The communist party’s big problem? It’s not Bo Xilai. The Wall Street Journal, Sept 6. Available at http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2012/09/06/the-chinese-communist-partys-big-problem-its-not-bo-xilai/.
Poston, D. L. & Shu, J. (1987). The demographic and socioeconomic composition of China’s ethnic minorities. Population and Development Review, 13(4), 703-722.
Pruthi, R. K. (2004). Indian caste system. New Delhi, India: Discovery Publishing House.
Qu, L. (2006). The characteristics of the theory of history in ancient china. Frontiers of History in China, 1(1), 1-18.
Rapoza, K. (2011). Romney says China is cheating. Forbes, November 21. Retrieved on August 30, 2012 at http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2011/11/21/romney-says-china-is-cheating/.
Rawski, T. G. (2011). The rise of China’s economy. Footnotes, 16 (06). The Newsletter of FPRI’s Wachman Center, Foreign Policy Research Institute.
Shenkar, O. (2005). The Chinese century – The rising Chinese economy and its impact on the global economy, the balance of power, and your job. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Stanczyk, M. T. (2008). Enter the dragon's lair: The new socialism and private property ownership in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development, 22(3), Article 7.
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. (Chapter 1). Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global.
Thorp, R. L. & Vinograd, R. E. (2001). Chinese art & culture. New York, New York: Harry A. Abrams.
Xinhua, News. (2012). China to solve wealth distribution issues in 10 years, Retrieved on Aug 30, 2012. at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2012-5/28/content_15403600. htm People’s Daily Online.

Chapter 9

Beardson, T. (2013). Stumbling giant: the threats to Chinese future. New haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Cardenal, J. P. & Araujo, H. (2013). Transl. C. Mansfield. China’s silent army: the pioneers, traders, fixers and workers who are remaking the world in Beijing’s image. New York: Crown.
Fukuda, Kazuo John. (1998). Japan and China: The meeting of Asia's economic giants. New York: Routledge.
Huei-Ying Kuo. (2012). Network beyond empires: Chinese business and nationalism in the Hong-Kong-Singapore corridor, 1914-1941. The ISCSC Newsletter, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 25
Needham, J. (1954). Science and civilization in China. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Needham, J. (2004). Science and civilization in China. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Part 7.
Schell, O. & Delury, J. (2013). Wealth and power: China’s long march to the twenty-first century. New York: Random House.
Targowski, A. (2014). Global civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Toynbee, A. J. (1934). A Study of history. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Wang, H. H. with Foreword by Lord Wei. (2010, 2012). The Chinese dream: the rise of the world's largest middle class and what it means to you. Bestseller Press (Amazon Digital Service).
Weidenbaum, M. L. (1996). The bamboo network: how expatriate Chinese entrepreneurs are creating a new economic superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. 4–5.

Chapter 10

Banister, J. (2005). Manufacturing Employment in China, Monthly Labor Review, pp.11-27.
Blau, J. (2011). Germany faces a shortage of engineers. The EEEI Spectrum. Retrieved
03-23-2014http://spectrum.ieee.org/at-work/tech-careers/germany-faces-a-shortage-of-engineers.
Blue, Ch. et al. (2005). The engineering workforce: current state, issues, and recommendations. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
Coyle, E. (2013). 8 countries that buy the most cars. Wall Street Cheat Sheet. Retrieved 03-23-2014 http://wallstcheatsheet.com.
Elizabeth Economy (2005). The Lessons of Harbin. Time. com, 27 November 2005.
Elvin, M. (1972). The high-level equilibrium trap: the causes of the decline of invention in the traditional Chinese textile industries in W. E. Willmott, Economic organization in Chinese society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Faibank, J. K. (1992). China: a new history. (with Merle Goldman) Enl. ed. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Fingarette, H. (1976). Confucius: the secular as sacred. Prospect Heights, Ill: Waveland Press, Inc.
Kahn, J. and J. Yardley. (August 26, 2007). As China roars, pollution reaches deadly extremes. The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
Lampton, D.M. (2014). How China is ruled, why is getting harder for Beijing to govern. Foreign Affairs, January/February, 93(1):74-84.
Loyalka, P. et al. (2012). Getting the quality right: engineering education in the BRIC countries. Pal Alto, CA: Stanford University Paper. Retrieved 03-23-2014 https://cepa. stanford.edu/sites/default/files/Getting%20Quality%20Right%20-%20Engineering%20 Education%20in%20the%20BRIC%20countries%20pkl.pdf.
Needham, J. (1986). Science and civilization in China: Volume 3, mathematics and the sciences of the heavens and the earth. Taipei (Taiwan): Caves Books, Ltd.
Sekiguchi, R. (2006). Water issues in China. SPICE STANFORD. September 2006.
Shammas, M. (2011). Number of US engineers in decline relative to China and India. The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 20.
Thompson, M.A. (2012-09-28). Employment trends: Russia.GOINGGLOBAL.com/articles/ 1114.
Vennemo, H., H. Lindhjem, and H.M. Seip. (2009). Environmental pollution in China: status and trends". Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 3(2):209.
Zijun Li. (2006). China Issues New Regulation on Water Management, Sets Fees for Usage. Worldwatch Institute, [7 September].

You have not viewed any product yet.