Chapter 9. Protamines


Agnieszka Gancarz, Dorota Bartusik-Aebisher, and David Aebisher
Medical College of The University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland

Part of the book: The Biochemical Guide to Proteins


Protamines are basic proteins because they contain large amounts of arginine, so they are cationic and can bind, for example, with sulphates. Their secondary structure may take the form of α-helices, β-turns and other structures not stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. It has been shown that abnormalities in genes containing protamine information can lead to male infertility due to the fact that chromatin in male reproductive cells does not reach the proper consistency. Protamine used as antagonism to heparin, so its administration prevents the anticoagulant effect of this substance, which makes it useful in preventing bleeding during cardiac, vascular and other operations – low molecular weight protamines are used.

Keywords: protamines, sulphates, anaphylactoid reactions, salmin, DNA, X-ray


Bahl K, Senn JJ, Yuzhakov O, Bulychev A, Brito LA, Hassett KJ, Laska ME, Smith M,
Almarsson Ö, Thompson J, Ribeiro AM, Watson M, Zaks T, Ciaramella G. Preclinical
and Clinical Demonstration of Immunogenicity by mRNA Vaccines against H10N8
and H7N9 Influenza Viruses. Mol Ther, 2017; 25(6):1316-1327.
Hao SL, Ni FD, Yang WX. The dynamics and regulation of chromatin remodeling during
spermiogenesis. Gene, 2019; 706:201-210.
Kleene KC. Gordon Dixon, protamines, and the atypical patterns of gene expression in
spermatogenic cells. Syst Biol Reprod Med, 2018; 64(6):417-423.
Sarkar M, Prabhu V. Basics of cardiopulmonary bypass. Indian J Anaesth, 2017; 61(9):760-767.
Steger K, Balhorn R. Sperm nuclear protamines: A checkpoint to control sperm chromatin
quality. Anat Histol Embryol, 201847(4):273-279.


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!