Chapter 8. Paracoccidioidomycosis: An Update from the Environment to Clinics

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Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira1, Ana Carolina Alves de Paula e Silva2, Caroline Maria Marcos3, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva4, Liliana Scorzoni5,6, Patricia Akemi Assato7 and Suélen Andreia Rossi8
1Instituto Carlos Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz-PR), Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
2Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil
3Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP),
Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil
4Department of Infectious Diseases, Dermatology, Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil
5Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil
6Nursing Post Graduation, Guarulhos University (UNG), Guarulhos, Sao Paulo, Brazil
7Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, School of Agricultural Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil
8Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil

Part of the book: The Book of Fungal Pathogens

Abstract

Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic mycosis of great importance in Latin America caused by dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Recent advances in the study of this mycosis reveal the Paracoccidioides genus as fungi that are difficult to treat and diagnose, with a great capacity to adapt and evade the environment of host cells, causing an invasive disease that is neglected in areas where it is endemic. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the fungi of this genus and the disease, bringing historical aspects and also the most recent advances in the study of this important mycosis, which has a great impact on public health in many countries in Latin America. This chapter will address issues such as the diversity of species of the Paracoccidioides genus, the thermal dimorphism, that allows the fungus to survive in the environment and the host, and its impact on the infectious process, virulence factors, and their relationship with the evasion capacity of the host immune system, as well as aspects associated with the disease such as clinical forms, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: Paracoccidioides spp., Paracoccidioidomycosis, Dimorphic fungi, PCM clinical manifestations,
PCM diagnosis, PCM treatment


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