Chapter 8. Aquatic Plants as Ecological Indicators – Status and Indices of Unhealthy Sandy Soil Water Bodies


Qurratu Aini Mat Ali¹, Farah Ayuni Mohd Hatta², Razanah Ramya³, Wan Syibrah Hanisah Wan Sulaiman⁴, Nur Hanie Mohd Latiff⁵ and Rashidi Othman⁶
¹,²Intitute of Islam Hadhari, The National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
³Institute of Malay and Civilization, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
⁴,⁵International Institute for Halal Research and Training, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
⁶Herbarium Unit, Department of Landscape Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Part of the book: Advantages and Disadvantages of Sandy Soils


Inorganic contaminants and eutrophication are typically associated with the profusion of invasive aquatic vegetation in freshwater. Such extensive problems concerning water bodies are triggered due to excess levels of phosphate (P), nitrogen (N), and heavy metals. Superfluous nutrient levels and toxic elements can create adverse environmental conditions, eutrophication, algal blooms, invasive growth of several aquatic plants, oxygen level depletion, and loss of important species, reducing the quality of several freshwater systems. Numerous physicochemical and biological indicators are used to gauge water quality. Such parameters must be understood and managed carefully to determine the origin and degree of pollution load. Hence, this research was conducted to understand the correlation between contamination levels and physicochemical indicators for water bodies with sandy soils and extensive aquatic plants. This research presents an important outcome concerning the loss or profusion of critical species that indicate heavy metal contamination or eutrophication, including concentrations leading to deteriorating sandy soil water body regulation and management. The following are desirable aspects concerning the conditions that must be used as indicators: preventative, measurable, integrative, and sensitive to human-caused stress or interference; however, they must have a predictable stress response and low flexibility reaction.

Keywords: sandy soil, ecological indicator, phytoindicator, macrophyte


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