Chapter 7. Making Space and Time for Consciousness in Physics

$39.50

Bernard Carr – Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, UK

Part of the book: Perspectives on Consciousness

Abstract

It is argued that physics must eventually expand to accommodate mind and consciousness but that this will require a new paradigm. The paradigm required will impinge on two problems on the borders of physics and philosophy: the relationship between physical space and perceptual space and the nature of the passage of time. It is argued that the resolution of both these problems may involve a 5-dimensional model, with the 5th dimension being associated with mental time, and this proposal may relate to recent developments in brane cosmology. A description of consciousness must also entail a proper understanding of the specious present, the minimum timescale of conscious experience.


References

Arkani-Hamed, N., Dimopoulos, S. and Dvali, G. (2000). The universe’s
unseen dimensions. Scientific American, 283: 2-10.
Ayer, A.J. (1940). The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge. New York:
Macmillan.
Barbour, J. (2001). The End of Time. New York: Oxford University Press.
Barrow, J.D. and Tipler, F.J. (1986). The Anthropic Cosmological Principle,
1986. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bergson, H. (1946). The Creative Mind (trans M.L. Andison). New York:
Philosophical Library.
Bohm, D. (1986). In R. Weber, Dialogues with Scientists and Sages. New
York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Brain, W.R. (Lord) (1960). Space and sense-data. British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science, 11: 177-91, DOI: 10.1093/bjps/XI.43.177
Broad, C.D. (1923). Scientific Thought. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Broad, C.D. (1953). Religion, Philosophy and Psychical Research. New
York: Harcourt, Brace.
Brunton, P. (1941). The Hidden Teaching Beyond Yoga. New York: E.P.
Dutton.
Carr, B.J. (2007). Universe or Multiverse? Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Carr, B.J. (2008). Worlds apart? Can psychical research bridge the gulf
between matter and mind? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical
Research, 59: 1-96.
Carr, B.J. (2014). Metacosmology and the limits of science. In M. Eckstein,
M. Heller and S. Szybka (eds) Mathematical Structures of the Universe.
Krakov, Poland: Copernicus Center Press, pp. 407-32.
Carr, B.J. (2015). Hyperspatial models of matter and mind. In E.F. Kelly, A.
Crabtree and P. Marshall (eds) Beyond Physicalism: Toward
Reconciliation of Science and Spirituality, pp 227-73. Maryland:
Rowman & Littlefield.
Carr, B.J. and Rees, M.J. (1979). The anthropic principle and the structure
of the physical world, Nature, 278: 605-12, https://doi.org/10.1038/278605a0
Chalmers, D.J. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental
Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections of Language. New York: Pantheon Books.
Crick, F. (1995). The Astonishing Hypothesis. New York: Scribner.
Culbertson, J.C. (1976). Sensations, Memories and the Flow of Time. Santa
Margarita, CA: Cromwell Press.
de Broglie, L. (1963). Cited in The New World of Physics, A. March and
I.M. Freeman, New York: Vintage Books.
d’Espagnat, B. (1979). Quantum theory and reality. Scientific American
(November).
Dunne, J.W. (1927/1967). An Experiment with Time. London: Faber &
Faber.
Eagleman, D.M., Tse, P.U., Buonomano, D., Janssen, P. et al. (2005). Time
and the brain: how subjective time relates to neural time. Journal of
Neuroscience, 25: 10369-71, https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3487-05.2005
Earman, J. (2008). Reassessing the prospects of a growing block model of
the universe. International Studiesin the Philosophy of Science, 22: 135-
64, https://doi.org/10.1080/02698590802496680
Eddington, A. (1928). The Nature of the Physical World. Cambridge
University Press.
Einstein, A., Podolsky, B. and Rosen, N. (1935). Can a quantum mechanical
description of reality be considered complete? Physical Review, 47: 777-
80, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.47.777
Making Space and Time for Consciousness in Physics 347
Ellis, G.F.R. (2006). Physics in the real universe: time and spacetime.
General Relativity and Gravitation, 38(12): 1797-1824.
Emerson, R.W. (1983). Essays and Lectures. Library of America.
Everett, H. (1957). Relative state formulation of quantum mechanics.
Reviews of Modern Physics, 39: 454-62, https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.29.454
Gold. I. (1999). Does 40-Hz oscillation play a role in visual consciousness?
Consciousness and Cognition, 8: 186-95, https://doi.org/10.1006/ccog.1999.0399
Green, M., Schwarz, J. and Witten, E. (1987). Superstring Theory,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology (Vol. 12). New York:
Henry Holt.
Herzog, M.H., Kammer, T. and Schamowski, F. (2016). Time slices: what
is the duration of a percept? PLoS Biol., 14(4): e1002433,
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002433
Hoffman, D. (2008). Conscious realism and the mind-body problem, Mind
and Matter, 6: 87-121.
Huxley, A. (1954). The Doors of Perception. London: Chatto & Windus.
Kaluza, T. (1921). Zum Unitatsproblem der Physik. Sitz. Preuss. Acad.
Wiss., 1: 966-72. [To the university problem of physics]
Kastrup, B. (2019). Analytic idealism: a consciousness-only ontology
(Radboud University, PhD thesis).
Kelly, E.R. (1882). The Alternative: A Study in Psychology. London:
Macmillan.
Klein, O. (1926). “Quantentheorie und fünfdimensionale Relativitätstheorie.” [Quantum theory and 5-dimensional relativity theory]
Zeitschrift für Physik A 37(12):895-906.
Lockwood, M. (1989). Mind, Brain and Quantum: The Compound I.
Oxford: Blackwell Press.
Maartens, R. (2004). Brane-World Gravity, http://relativity.livingreviews.org/lrr-2004-7
Maudlin, T. (2012). Philosophy of Physics: Space and Time. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
348 Bernard Carr
Penrose, R. (1989). The Emperor’s New Mind, p 144. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Penrose, R. (1994). Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science
of Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Price, H.H. (1953). Survival and the idea of “another world.” Proceedings
of the Society for Psychical Research, 50: 1-25.
Price, H. (1996). Time’s Arrow and Archimedes’ Point. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Randall, L. and Sundrum, R. (1999). An alternative to compactification.
Physical Review Letters, 83: 4690-93, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4690
Rosar, W. (1985). Visual space as physical geometry. Perception, 4: 403-
25, https://doi.org/10.1068/p140403
Rovelli, C. (2018). The Order of Time. London: Allen Lane/Penguin
Random House.
Royce, J. (1901). The World and the Individual (2nd series). New York:
Macmillan.
Russell, B. (1948). Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. London:
George Allen & Unwin.
Savitt, S.E. (2004). Presentism and eternalism in perspective, PhilSci
Archives, http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/id/eprint/1788
Savitt, S.F. (2006). Being and becoming in modern physics, in Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Sheldrake, R. (2003). The Sense of Being Stared at and Other Aspects of the
Extended Mind. London: Hutchinson.
Smythies, J.R. (1956). Analysis of Perception. London: Routledge & Kegan
Paul.
Smythies, J.R. (1994). The Walls of Plato’s Cave: The Science and
Philosophy of (Brain, Consciousness and Perception). Aldershot,
England: Avebury.
Smythies, J.R. (2003). Space, time and consciousness. Journal of
Consciousness Studies, 10: 47-56.
Smythies, J.R. (2012). Consciousness and higher dimensions of space.
Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19(11-12): 224-32.
Making Space and Time for Consciousness in Physics 349
Stapp, H.P. (1993). Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics. New York:
Springer.
Stapp, H.P. (1994). Theoretical model of a purported empirical violation of
the predictions of quantum theory. Physical Review, 50: 18-22,
https://doi.org/10.1103/physreva.50.18
Strawson, G. et al. (2006). Consciousness and Its Place in Nature: Does
Physicalism Entail Panpsychism? (ed. A. Freeman). Exeter, UK:
Imprint Academic.
Taimni, I.K. (1961). The Science of Yoga. Wheaton, IL: Theosophical
Publishing House.
Tegmark, M. (2015). Consciousness as a state of matter, Chaos, Solitons &
Fractals, 76: 238-70, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2015.03.014
Tononi, G. (2012). PHI: A Voyage from the Brain to the Soul. New York:
Pantheon Books.
Velmans, M. (2005). Are we out of our minds? Journal of Consciousness
Studies, 12: 109-16.
Weyl, H. (1949). Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science. New
Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Wheeler, J. (1977). Genesis and observership. In Foundational Problems in
the Special Sciences, ed. R. Butts and J. Hintikka, p. 1. Dordecht: Reidel.
Whitehead, A.N. (1922). Uniformity and contingency. Proceedings of the
Aristotelian Society, N.S., 23: 1–18.
Whiteman, J.H.M. (1967). Philosophy of Space and Time and the Inner
Constitution of Nature: A Phenomenological Study. London: George
Allen & Unwin.
Whiteman, J.H.M. (1986). Old and New Evidence on the Meaning of Life:
Vol. 1. An Introduction to Scientific Mysticism. Gerrards Cross, UK:
Colin Smythe.
Wigner, E. (1967). Symmetries and Reflections: Scientific Essays of Eugene
P. Wigner. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
350 Bernard Carr
Witten, E. (1995). String theory dynamics in various dimensions. Nuclear
Physics B, 443: 85-126, https://doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(95)00158-O
Woit, P. 2006. Not Even Wrong: the Failure of String Theory and the Search
for Unity in Physical Law. New York: Basic Books

Category:

Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!

See some of our Authors and Editors