Chapter 7. Conquering the Impact of Climate Change through Organic Farming: A Global Perspective


Samrendra Singh Thakur¹, Azhar Rashid Lone², Siddhartha Shankar Bhattacharyya³,⁴, Sk Musfiq Us Salehin³,⁴, Subodh Kumar Jain² and Shweta Yadav²
¹Department of Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India
²Department of Zoology, School of Biological Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India
³Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
⁴Texas A&M AgriLife Research, College Station, TX, USA

Part of the book: Research Advancements in Organic Farming

Chapter DOI:


Anthropogenic activity-induced climate change and its impact on natural catastrophes, biodiversity loss, hygienic risk, and other factors are now well understood. It is expected that anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentration and surface temperature would rise over the 21st century, causing the climate to undergo significant changes. Carbon dioxide (CO2), the main driver of climate change, is produced in substantial quantities through the burning of fossil fuels. In addition, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), two additional gases that are mostly produced by agriculture, have a significant impact that is often underestimated. Methane is produced from several sources including ruminant animals’ digestive tracts, fermentation of effluents from livestock (manure, slurry, compost) and paddy cultivation while nitrogen-based synthetic fertilisers and fumigants are responsible for N2O emission. In terms of global warming potential, N2O and CH4 are 300 and 80 times more potent than CO2 respectively. The agriculture sector is responsible for approximately 30% of global climate change. Conventional farming techniques involve extensive application of synthetic agrochemicals, which adversely impact the physicochemical and biological characteristics of soil and eventually lead to soil disturbance. Excessive usage of agrochemicals might delay or prevent natural biodegradation, which increases their persistence. Additionally, due to the elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) levels, drought, flooding, rising temperatures, and indiscriminate pesticide usage significantly contribute to soil erosion and degradation, resulting in soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion. In degraded soils, the decomposition and respiration of soil organic carbon (SOC) releases a considerable amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. The chapter discusses how organic farming can facilitate mitigating the impact of climate change.

 Keywords: organic farming, climate change, GHGs emission, carbon sequestration, soil fertility, SOC dynamics


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