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Dinesh Sah, Puneet Kumar Verma, K. M. Kumari and Anita Lakhani
Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra (UP), India
Part of the book: Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 63
Sequential extraction procedure was used to study for partitioning of heavy metals (Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in fine particulate matter collected at Agra, India. The metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The mean total metal concentration followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr > Mn > Pb > Ni > As > Cd. Almost all the metals had the highest proportion in the residual fraction (F4) while Cd and As had the highest proportion in the soluble and exchangeable fraction (F1) and oxidizable fraction (F3) respectively. The mobility order based on the BCR sequential extraction was: Cd (91.9%) > As (80.6%) > Zn (57.9%) > Mn (55.9%) > Pb (49%) > Fe (45.5%) ≈ Cu (45.3%) > Cr (34.5%) > Ni (27.2%). Contamination factors (Cf), risk assessment code (RAC) were calculated to assess the environmental risk. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects due to exposure to metals were assessed for both children and adults. For adults and children, the carcinogenic risks for Cr and As were both higher than 10-6 . For adults, the carcinogenic risk level for Ni was higher than 10-6 . Hazard index (HI) values for all studied metals were higher than the safe level of 1.
Keywords: PM2.5, heavy metal, sequential extraction, chemical fractionation, health risk
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