Chapter 6. A Review of Hydroxyapatite – Sustainable Product Development in Terms of Waste Valorization


Murugiah Krishani1, M. Tech, Hazwani Suhaimi1, PhD, and Nonni Soraya Sambudi2, PhD
1Faculty of Integrated Technologies, Universiti Brunei Darussalam Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Part of the book: What to Know about Hydroxyapatite


Million tons of shell waste are dumped in oceans and landfills and considered nuisance waste. Rather than disposing of the shells, recycling and reusing are excellent alternatives. In general, shells are rich in calcium carbonate, so sustainable development of calcium-based products may help reduce waste shell accumulation. Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate-based mineral having similar composition and structure to natural human bone and teeth. Excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability, and non-toxicity; are some properties that enable hydroxyapatite to use as a superior biomaterial. The demand to obtain hydroxyapatite in a simple, efficient, scalable, and environmentally friendly way is increasing daily. Not only from shells but hydroxyapatite can also be synthesized from animal bones, fish scales, plants, and algae. This review discussed the highlights of hydroxyapatite and its natural sources, synthesis, and biomedical applications. Moreover, it also explained the importance of hydroxyapatite synthesized from biogenic waste materials. From this review, researchers may get an idea of the synthesis of hydroxyapatite from various sources in the development of biomedical applications and the conservation of food and agricultural waste management in terms of waste valorization.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, waste valorization, biomaterial, waste management


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