Chapter 4. Functionalized Hydroxyapatite in Bone Regeneration

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Prasenjit Mukherjee1, Subhasis Roy1, Shubhamitra Chaudhuri1, Rahul Deb Mukherjee2, Biswanath Kundu3 and Samit Kumar Nandi4
1Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2Coochbehar Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
3Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
4Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Part of the book: What to Know about Hydroxyapatite

Abstract

From 1990 to 2019, there were globally 178 million new cases of fracture which accounts for a 33.4% increment. The epidemiological studies explored that in the last three decades the years lived with disabilities (YLD) have increased to 65.3%. The challenges of orthopedic surgery still deal with the dearth of satisfactory solutions for the healing of large osseous defects. Even though autografts are the gold standard, surgeons must rely on synthetic graft alternatives due to a lack of availability and donor site morbidity. Due to its close physio-biological and chemical similarity to natural bone, osteoconductive nature, and ease of adaptability with many other necessary elements for functionalization, calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has gained considerable attention as a bone graft substitute since 1980. They consistently aid in bone growth on the implant surface. However, limited bioactivity is the main hindrance behind their wide use in orthopedic surgeries. In recent years, several strategies have been undertaken to improve the biological performances with the various ionic substitutions with the apatite. Functionalization is one of the key processes to alter the surface properties of materials aiming toward specific properties to be induced depending on the target tissue or to minimize any unwanted negative or hindrance factors. Functionalization of HA with specific biomolecules is the process by which the surface of HA is made more bioactive i.e., increment of bio integration and osteogenesis. The use of functionalized HA is not only restricted to bone tissue engineering, they are equally important for skin, cartilage, periodontal, vascular tissue, hepatic tissue, tendon, ligament as well as corneal tissue engineering. But, in this chapter, special emphasis has been given to the brief introduction of HA, basic properties, different synthesis techniques, summarized application in biomedical engineering in general, and especially the use and scope of clinical translational aspect of functionalized HA in bone tissue engineering.


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