Chapter 4. Does early life phthalate exposure mediate racial disparities in children’s cognitive abilities?


Marisa A Patti1,*, MHS, Melissa Eliot1, PhD, Nan Li1, PhD, Kimberly Yolton2, PhD, Bruce P Lanphear3,4, MPH, MD, Aimin Chen5, MD, PhD and Joseph M Braun1, RN, MSPH, PhD
1Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
2Department of Pediatrics, Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
3Child and Family Research Institute, British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
4Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
5Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Part of the book: Environmental Health: Poverty, Race and Child Health in the Time of COVID-19


Exposure to phthalates is associated with diminished cognition. It is unknown, however, if disproportionate exposure to phthalates among racial minorities contributes to racial disparities in children’s intellectual abilities. Methods: We used data from 253 mother-child pairs in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study, 2003-2006). We measured urinary concentrations of eleven phthalate metabolites twice during pregnancy and up to six times in childhood. We evaluated children’s cognitive abilities at ages 5 and 8 years. Using causal mediation models, we quantified covariate-adjusted direct and indirect effects of race on children’s Full Scale IQ scores for individual phthalate metabolite concentrations during gestation and childhood. Results: Average IQ scores among Black children (n=90) were 7.0-points lower (95% CI: -12, -1.8) than White children (n=145) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. Urinary monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations during gestation and childhood were higher among Black children. We did not observe compelling evidence that phthalate mediated the race-IQ association, with the exception of MEP. Childhood MEP concentrations partially mediated the race-IQ association. For instance, the disparities in IQ scores between Black and White children would have been reduced by 1.9 points (95% CI: -4.7, 0.7) for each 10- fold reduction in urinary MEP concentrations at age 2 years. Other phthalate metabolite concentrations during pregnancy or childhood did not mediate the race-IQ association. Conclusions: We found that urinary MEP concentrations partly mediated IQ disparities among HOME Study children. Reducing exposure to some phthalates might help reduce IQ disparities among Black and White children.


[1] Braun JM, Just AC, Williams PL, Smith KW, Calafat AM, Hauser R. Personal care
product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during
pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
2014;24:459–66. DOI: 10.1038/jes.2013.69.
[2] Carlstedt F, Jönsson BG, Bornehag CG. PVC flooring is related to human uptake of
phthalates in infants. Indoor Air 2013;23:32–39.
[3] Hauser R, Calafat AM. Phthalates and human health. Occup Environ Med
2005;62:806–18. Doi: 10.1136/oem.2004.017590.
[4] Rudel RA, Gray JM, Engel CL, Rawsthorne TW, Dodson RE, Ackerman JM, Rizzo
J, Nudelman JL, Brody JG. Food packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl)
phthalate exposure: Findings from a dietary intervention. Environ Health Perspect
2011;119:914–20. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1003170.
[5] Parlett LE, Calafat AM, Swan SH. Women’s exposure to phthalates in relation to
use of personal care products. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2013;23:197–206. DOI: 10.1038/jes.2012.105.
[6] Hernández-Díaz S, Su YC, Mitchell AA, Kelley KE, Calafat AM, Hauser R.
Medications as a potential source of exposure to phthalates among women of
childbearing age. Reprod Toxicol Elmsford N 2013;37:1–5. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.01.001.
[7] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile
for Di(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Atlanta GA: Agency Toxic Subst Dis Regist, 2004.
[8] Bornehag CG, Lundgren B, Weschler CJ, Sigsgaard T, Hagerhed-Engman
L, Sundell J. Phthalates in indoor dust and their association with
building characteristics. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:1399–404. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7809.
[9] Watkins DJ, Eliot M, Sathyanarayana S, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Braun
JM. Variability and predictors of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites
during early childhood. Environ Sci Technol 2014;48:8881–90. DOI: 10.1021/es501744v.
[10] Woodruff TJ, Zota AR, Schwartz JM. Environmental chemicals in pregnant women
in the United States: NHANES 2003-2004. Environ Health Perspect 2011;119:878–85. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1002727.
[11] Koch HM, Preuss R, Drexler H, Angerer J. Exposure of nursery school children and
their parents and teachers to Di-n-Butylphthalate and Butylbenzylphthalate. Int Arch
Occup Environ Health 2005;78:223–9. DOI: 10.1007/s00420-004-0570-x.
[12] Koch HM, Drexler H, Angerer J. Internal exposure of nursery-school children and
their parents and teachers to Di(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthalate (DEHP). Int J Hyg Environ
Health 2004;207:15–22. DOI: 10.1078/1438-4639-00270.
[13] Silva MJ, Barr DB, Reidy JA, Malek NA, Hodge CC, Caudill SP, Brock JW,
Needham LL, Calafat AM. Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the US
population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
1999-2000. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:331–8. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6723.
[14] Sørensen LK. Determination of phthalates in milk and milk products by liquid
chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom RCM
2006;20:1135–43. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.2425.
[15] Desvergne B, Feige JN. Casals-Casas, C. PPAR-mediated activity of phthalates: A
link to the obesity epidemic? Mol Cell Endocrinol 2009;304:43–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.017.                          [16] Li N, Papandonatos GD, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A,
Braun JM. Identifying periods of susceptibility to the impact of phthalates
on children’s cognitive abilities. Environ Res 2019;172:604–14. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.03.009.
[17] Doherty BT, Engel SM, Buckley JP, Silva MJ, Calafat AM, Wolff MS. Prenatal
phthalate biomarker concentrations and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant
Development-II in a population of young urban children. Environ Res 2017;152:51–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.09.021.
[18] Factor-Litvak P, Insel B, Calafat AM, Liu X, Perera F, Rauh VA, Whyatt RM.
Persistent associations between maternal prenatal exposure to phthalates on child IQ
at age 7 years. PloS One 2014;9:e114003. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114003.
[19] Huang HB, Chen HY, Su PH, Huang PC, Sun CW, Wang CJ, Chen HY, Hsiung
CA, Wang SL. Fetal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and cognitive
function in children up to 12 years of age: Taiwanese maternal and infant cohort
study. PloS One 2015;10:e0131910. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131910.
[20] Kim JI, Hong YC, Shin CH, Lee YA, Lim YH, Kim BN. The effects of maternal
and children phthalate exposure on the neurocognitive function of 6-year-old
children. Environ Res 2017;156:519–25. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.003.
[21] Kim S, Eom S, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Choi G, Choi S, Kim S, Kim SY, Cho G, Kim YD,
et al. Association between maternal exposure to major phthalates, heavy metals, and
persistent organic pollutants, and the neurodevelopmental performances of their
children at 1 to 2 years of age- CHECK Cohort Study. Sci Total Environ
2018;624:377–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.058.
[22] Polanska K, Ligocka D, Sobala W, Hanke W. Phthalate exposure and child
development: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Early Hum Dev
2014;90:477–85. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.06.006.
[23] Engel SM, Patisaul HB, Brody C, Hauser R, Zota AR, Bennet DH, Swanson M,
Whyatt RM. Neurotoxicity of ortho-phthalates: Recommendations for critical policy
reforms to protect brain development in children. Am J Public Health
2021;111:687–95. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.306014.
[24] Ipapo KN, Factor-Litvak P, Whyatt RM, Calafat AM, Diaz D, Perera F, Rauh V,
Herbstman JB. Maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and
visual recognition memory among infants at 27 weeks. Environ Res 2017;155:7–14. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.01.019.
[25] Téllez-Rojo MM, Cantoral A, Cantonwine DE, Schnaas L, Peterson K, Hu H,
Meeker JD. Prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites levels and neurodevelopment in
children at two and three years of age. Sci Total Environ 2013 Jun 05. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.021.
[26] Gottfredson LS. Social consequences of group differences in cognitive ability.
University of Delaware: Newark, DE, 2004. URL:
[27] Herrnstein RJ, Murray C. The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in
American life. New York: Free Press, 1994
[28] Coyle TR, Pillow DR. SAT and ACT predict college GPA after removing g.
intelligence 2008;36: 719–29. DOI: 10.1016/j.intell.2008.05.001.
[29] Schmidt FL, Hunter JE. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel
psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings.
Psychol Bull 1998;124: 262–74. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.262.
[30] Schmidt FL, Hunter J. General mental ability in the world of work: Occupational
attainment and job performance. J Pers Soc Psychol 2004;86:162–73. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.86.1.162.
[31] Thomas D. Racial IQ differences among transracial adoptees: fact or artifact? J Intell
2017;5:1. DOI: 10.3390/jintelligence5010001.
[32] Templer DI, Arikawa H. Association of race and color with mean IQ across nations.
Psychol Rep 2006;99:191–6. DOI: 10.2466/pr0.99.1.191-196.
[33] LeWinn KZ, Bush NR, Batra A, Tylavsky F, Rehkopf D. Identification of
modifiable social and behavioral factors associated with childhood cognitive
performance. JAMA Pediatr 2020;174(11):1063-72. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics. 2020.2904.
[34] Rushton JP, Jensen AR. Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive
ability. Psychol Public Policy Law 2005;11:235–94. DOI: 10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.235.
[35] Lynn R. Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA:
Washington Summit Books, 2006.
[36] Nisbett RE, Aronson J, Blair C, Dickens W, Flynn J, Halpern DF, Turkheimer E.
Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments. Am Psychol 2012;67:130–59. DOI: 10.1037/a0026699.
[37] Breslau N, Chilcoat HD, Susser ES, Matte T, Liang KY, Peterson EL. Stability and
change in children’s intelligence quotient scores: A comparison of two
socioeconomically disparate communities. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:711–17. DOI: 10.1093/aje/154.8.711.
[38] Kobrosly RW, Evans S, Miodovnik A, Barrett ES, Thurston SW, Calafat AM, Swan
SH. Prenatal phthalate exposures and neurobehavioral development scores in boys
and girls at 6-10 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 2014;122:521–8. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1307063.
[39] James-Todd T, Meeker J, Huang T, Hauser R, Seely E, Ferguson K, Rich-Edwards
J, McElrath T. Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentrations
across pregnancy. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2017;27:160–6. DOI: 10.1038/jes.2016.2.
[40] Potischman N, Troisi R, Thadhani R, Hoover RN, Dodd K, Davis WW, Sluss PM,
Hsieh CC, Ballard-Barbash R. Pregnancy hormone concentrations across ethnic
groups: Implications for later cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev Publ Am
Assoc Cancer Res Cosponsored Am Soc Prev Oncol 2005;14:1514–20. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0869.
[41] Faupel-Badger JM, Wang Y, Karumanchi SA, Stanczyk F, Pollak M, McElrath T,
Hoover RN, Troisi R. Associations of pregnancy characteristics with maternal and
cord steroid hormones, angiogenic factors, and insulin-like growth factor Axis.
Cancer Causes Control CCC 2011;22:1587–95. DOI: 10.1007/s10552-011-9835-3.
[42] Henderson BE, Bernstein L, Ross RK, Depue RH, Judd HL. The early in utero
oestrogen and testosterone environment of Blacks and whites: Potential effects on
male offspring. Br J Cancer 1988;57:216–8. DOI: 10.1038/bjc.1988.46.
[43] Huang T, Saxena AR, Isganaitis E, James-Todd T. Gender and racial/ethnic
differences in the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with markers of
diabetes risk: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008.
Environ. Health 2014;13:6. DOI: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-6.
[44] Bellavia A, Zota AR, Valeri L, James-Todd T. Multiple mediators approach to study
environmental chemicals as determinants of health disparities. Environ Epidemiol
2018;2(2):e015. DOI: 10.1097/EE9.0000000000000015.
[45] Braun JM, Kalloo G, Chen A, Dietrich KN, Liddy-Hicks S, Morgan S, Xu Y,
Yolton K, Lanphear BP. Cohort Profile: The Health Outcomes and Measures
of the Environment (HOME) Study. Int J Epidemiol 2017;46:24–24. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyw006.
[46] Jackson-Browne MS, Papandonatos GD, Chen A, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Lanphear
BP, Braun JM. Identifying vulnerable periods of neurotoxicity to triclosan exposure
in children. Environ Health Perspect 2018;126:057001. DOI: 10.1289/EHP2777.
[47] Stacy SL, Eliot M, Etzel T, Papandonatos G, Calafat AM, Chen A, Hauser R,
Lanphear BP, Sathyanarayana S, Ye X, et al. Patterns, variability, and predictors of
urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy and childhood. Environ Sci
Technol 2017;51: 6404–13. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b00325.
[48] Meeker JD, Ferguson KK. Urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with
decreased serum testosterone in men, women, and children from NHANES 2011–
2012. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:4346–52. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2014-2555.
[49] Hornung RW, Reed LD. Estimation of average concentration in the
presence of nondetectable values. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1990;5:46–51.
DOI: 10.1080/1047322X.1990.10389587.
[50] Larsen K. Creatinine assay by a reaction-kinetic principle. Clin Chim Acta Int J Clin
Chem 1972;41:209–17. DOI: 10.1016/0009-8981(72)90513-x.
[51] Jackson-Browne MS, Papandonatos GD, Chen A, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Braun
JM. Early-life triclosan exposure and parent-reported behavior problems in 8-yearold children. Environ Int 2019;128:446–56. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.021.
[52] Carroll RJ, Ruppert D, Stefanski LA, Crainiceanu CM. Measurement error in
nonlinear models: A modern perspective, Second edition. London: Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006.
[53] Wechsler D. Manual for the Weschler intelligence scale for children, Third edition
(WISC-III). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, 1991.
[54] Wechsler D. The Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, Third
Edition (WPPSI-III). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, 2002
[55] Goldstein S, Naglieri JA, eds. WISC-IV. In: Goldstein S, Naglieri JA, eds.
Encyclopedia of child behavior and development. Boston, MA: Springer, 2011.
[56] Werner EF, Braun JM, Yolton K, Khoury JC, Lanphear BP. The association between
maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and blood pressure in pregnancy: The
HOME Study. Environ Health Glob Access Sci 2015;14:75. DOI: 10.1186/s12940-015-0062-3.
[57] van der Laan MJ, Polley EC, Hubbard AE. Super learner. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol
2007;6:25. DOI: 10.2202/1544-6115.1309.
[58] Benowitz NL, Bernert JT, Caraballo RS, Holiday DB, Wang J. Optimal serum
cotinine levels for distinguishing cigarette smokers and nonsmokers within different
racial/ethnic groups in the United States between 1999 and 2004. Am J Epidemiol
2009;169:236–48. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwn301.
[59] Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated scale of intelligence, Second edition. San
Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, 1999.
[60] Hintze JL, Nelson RD. Violin plots: A box plot-density trace synergism. Am Stat
1998;52:181. DOI: 10.2307/2685478.
[61] Tingley D, Yamamoto T, Hirose K, Keele L, Imai K, Trinh M, Woing W. Causal
mediation analysis, 2019. URL
[62] Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social
psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers
Soc Psychol 1986;51:1173–82. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.
[63] Caldwell BM, Bradley RH. The Home Observation for Measurement of the
Environment Revisited. Child Adolesc Ment Health 1978;9:25–35.
DOI: 10.1046/j.1475-357X.2003.00073.x.
[64] Braun JM, Hornung R, Chen A, Dietrich KN, Jacobs DE, Jones R, Khoury JC,
Liddy-Hicks S, Morgan S, Vanderbeek SB, et al. Effect of residential lead-hazard
interventions on childhood blood lead concentrations and neurobehavioral
outcomes: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr 2018;172:934–42.
DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.2382.
[65] Jones DR, Jarrett JM, Tevis DS, Franklin M, Mullinix NJ, Wallon KL, Derrick
Quarles C, Caldwell KL, Jones RL. Analysis of whole human blood for Pb, Cd, Hg,
Se, and Mn by ICP-DRC-MS for biomonitoring and acute exposures. Talanta
2017;162:114–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2016.09.060.
[66] Sears CG, Braun JM, Ryan PH, Xu Y, Werner EF, Lanphear BP, Wellenius GA.
The association of traffic-related air and noise pollution with maternal blood
pressure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the HOME Study Cohort.
Environ Int 2018;121: 574–81. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.049.
[67] Diez Roux AV, Merkin SS, Arnett D, Chambless L, Massing M, Nieto FJ, Sorlie P,
Szklo M, Tyroler HA, Watson RL. Neighborhood of residence and
incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:99–106. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200107123450205.
[68] R Core Team R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R
foundation for statistical computing. Vienna: European Environment Agency, 2020.
[69] Rubin IL, Merrick J. Introduction: Out of Africa. In: Rubin IL, Merrick J, eds.
International aspects of environmental health. Public Health: Practices, Methods and
Policies. New York: Nova Science, 2016.
[70] Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Reidy JA, Earl Gray L, Samandar E, Preau JL, Herbert AR,
Needham LL. Mono-(3-Carboxypropyl) phthalate, a metabolite of
Di-n-Octyl phthalate. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2006;69:215–27. DOI: 10.1080/15287390500227381.
[71] Wallner P, Kundi M, Hohenblum P, Scharf S, Hutter HP. Phthalate metabolites,
consumer habits and health effects. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13(7):717. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13070717.
[72] Bloom MS, Wenzel AG, Brock JW, Kucklick JR, Wineland RZ, Cruze L, Unal ER,
Yucel RM, Jiyessova A, Newman RB. Racial disparity in maternal phthalates
exposure; association with racial disparity in fetal growth and birth outcomes.
Environ Int 2019;127:473–86. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.04.005.
[73] James-Todd TM, Chiu YH, Zota A. Racial/ethnic disparities in environmental
endocrine disrupting chemicals and women’s reproductive health outcomes:
Epidemiological examples across the life course. Curr Epidemiol Rep 2016;3:161–80. DOI: 10.1007/s40471-016-0073-9.
[74] Varshavsky JR, Zota AR, Woodruff TJ. A novel method for calculating potencyweighted cumulative phthalates exposure with implications for identifying
racial/ethnic disparities among U.S. reproductive-aged women in NHANES 2001-
2012. Environ Sci Technol 2016;50:10616–24. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b00522.
[75] Branch F, Woodruff TJ, Mitro SD, Zota AR. Vaginal douching and racial/ethnic
disparities in phthalates exposures among reproductive-aged women: National
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Environ Health Glob Access
Sci 2015;14:57. DOI: 10.1186/s12940-015-0043-6.
[76] Buckley JP, Palmieri RT, Matuszewski JM, Herring AH, Baird DD, Hartmann KE,
Hoppin JA. Consumer product exposures associated with urinary phthalate levels in
pregnant women. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2012;22:468–75. DOI: 10.1038/jes.2012.33.
[77] Zota AR, Shamasunder B. The environmental injustice of beauty: Framing chemical
exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern. Am J Obstet
Gynecol 2017;217:418. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.07.020.
[78] Krieger,N. Discrimination and health inequities. Int J Health Serv Plan Adm Eval
2014; 44:643–10. DOI: 10.2190/HS.44.4.b.
[79] Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agénor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett MT. Structural racism
and health inequities in the USA: Evidence and interventions. Lancet Lond Engl
2017;389: 1453–63. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30569-X
[80] Parameswaran R, Cardoza K. Melanin on the margins: Advertising and the cultural
politics of fair/light/white beauty in India. J Commun Monogr 2009;11:213–74.
DOI: 10.1177/152263790901100302.
[81] Bristor JM, Lee RG, Hunt MR. Race and ideology: African-American
images in television advertising. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995. URL:
[82] Adibi JJ, Whyatt RM, Williams PL, Caalafat AM, Camann D, Herrick R, et al.
Characterization of phthalate exposure among pregnant women assessed by repeat
air and urine samples. Environ Health Perspect 2008;116:467.
[83] Braun JM, Smith KW, Williams PL, Calafat AM, Berry K, Ehrlich S, Hauser R.
Variability of urinary phthalate metabolite and Bisphenol A concentrations before
and during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 2012;120:739–45. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1104139.
[84] Banks I. Hair matters: Beauty, power, and Black women’s consciousness. New York: NYU Press, 2000.
[85] Robinson CL. Hair as Race: Why “good hair” may be bad for Black females. Howard J Commun 2011;22(4):358–76.
[86] Johnson AM, Godsil R, MacFarlane J, Tropp L, Goff PA. The “good hair” study:
Explicit and implicit attitudes toward Black women’s hair. River Falls, WI: Perception Institute, 2017.
[87] James-Todd T, Fitzgeraald T. Caution: “Acceptable” Black women’s hairstyles may
harm health. Common Health 2014. URL:
[88] Bristor JM, Gravois Lee R, Hunt MR. Race and ideology: African-American images
in television advertising. J Public Policy Marketing 1995;14:48–59. DOI: 10.1177/074391569501400105.
[89] Harley KG, Kogut K, Madrigal DS, Cardenas M, Vera IA, Meza-Alfaro G, et al.
Reducing phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure from personal care products in
adolescent girls: Findings from the HERMOSA intervention study. Environ Health
Perspect 2016;124:1600–7. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1510514.
[90] Braun JM, Yolton K, Stacy SL, Erar B, Papandonatos GD, Bellinger DC,
Lanphear BP, Chen A. Prenatal environmental chemical exposures and longitudinal
patterns of child neurobehavior. Neurotoxicology 2017;62:192–9.
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.07.027.


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!

See some of our Authors and Editors