Chapter 3. Process Scale-Up for Biorefineries in Latin America: Advances and Challenges


Henry F. González1, Melvin Durán-Rincónand Valentina Aristizábal-Marulanda1,2
Facultad de Tecnología, Escuela de Tecnología Química, Grupo de investigación en Desarrollo de Procesos Químicos, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Colombia
2Grupo de investigación en Procesos Agroindustriales y Desarrollo Sostenible (PADES), Universidad de Sucre, Sincelejo, Colombia

Part of the book: The Future of Biorefineries


In a Latin American approach (Caribbean, Central and South America), Brazil is a focus of research and development of biorefining processes. Researchers from that country have done remarkable work on first and second generation of biofuels just like Colombia on first generation biofuels. The research has been associated to sugarcane and oil palm transformation and their main residues (e.g., vinasse, bagasse, empty fruit bunches, etc.). Therefore, dealing with lignin and cellulose materials remains the main research challenge. Biomass availability is related to agricultural production. The largest agricultural economies in Latin America after Brazil are Mexico, Argentina, and Colombia. Different biorefinery options have been proposed in these countries to treat agricultural waste. It applies both to extensive crops and to smaller-scale crops and their residues. In this sense, this work addresses some challenges for process scaling up, and the search for sustainable biorefineries in the Latin America context concentrating on the following topics, i) stabilization of biorefinery feed, ii) technoeconomic analysis focused on finding alternatives or technologies for viable projects and iii) analysis of stakeholders in biorefineries. Other important elements discussed are the emerging microorganisms that could play a pivotal role in scaling process and the need to integrate environmental concepts and supply chain in biorefineries. In conclusion, there are opportunities for the development of biorefineries in Latin America taking advantage of the Brazilian experience and based on agricultural practices that may be common in the region. Research and development of new unit “bio” – operations should be strengthened.

Keywords: bioprocesses, residual biomass, biorefinery, Latin America context, scaling up


Abaide, Ederson R., Sérgio R. Mortari, Gustavo Ugalde, Alexsandra Valério, Suélen M.
Amorim, Marco di Luccio, Regina de F. P. M. Moreira, et al. 2019. “Subcritical Water
Hydrolysis of Rice Straw in a Semi-Continuous Mode.” Journal of Cleaner
Production 209 (February): 386–97.
Aboytes-Ojeda, Mario, Krystel K. Castillo-Villar, and Yajaira Cardona-Valdés. 2022.
“Bi Objective Stochastic Model for the Design of Biofuel Supply Chains Incorporating
Risk.” Expert Systems with Applications 202 (September): 117285.
Alves, J. L. F., J. C. G. da Silva, M. P. Languer, L. Batistella, M. di Domenico, V. F. da
Silva Filho, R. F. P. M. Moreira, and H. J. José. 2022. “Assessing the Bioenergy
Potential of High-Ash Anaerobic Sewage Sludge Using Pyrolysis Kinetics and
Thermodynamics to Design a Sustainable Integrated Biorefinery.” Biomass
Conversion and Biorefinery 12 (3): 693–704.
Aristizábal-Marulanda, Valentina, Juan Camilo Solarte-Toro, and Carlos Ariel Cardona
Alzate. 2020. “Economic and Social Assessment of Biorefineries: The Case of Coffee
Cut-Stems (CCS) in Colombia.” Bioresource Technology Reports 9 (February):
Assis, Tamires Condé de, Maria Lúcia Calijuri, Paula Peixoto Assemany, Alexia Saleme
Aona de Paula Pereira, and Márcio Arêdes Martins. 2019. “Using Atmospheric
Emissions as CO2 Source in the Cultivation of Microalgae: Productivity and
Economic Viability.” Journal of Cleaner Production 215 (April): 1160–69.
Borges, A. D. V., L. T. Fuess, I. Alves, P. Y. Takeda, and M. H. R. Z. Damianovic. 2021.
“Co-Digesting Sugarcane Vinasse and Distilled Glycerol to Enhance Bioenergy
Generation in Biofuel-Producing Plants.” Energy Conversion and Management 250.
Branco-Vieira, Monique, Sergio San Martin, Cristian Agurto, Marcos A. V. Freitas,
António A. Martins, Teresa M. Mata, and Nídia S. Caetano. 2020. “Biotechnological
Potential of Phaeodactylum Tricornutum for Biorefinery Processes.” Fuel 268 (May):
Brenelli, L. B., R. Bhatia, D. T. Djajadi, L. G. Thygesen, S. C. Rabelo, D. J. Leak, T. T.
Franco, and J.A. Gallagher. 2022. “Xylo-Oligosaccharides, Fermentable Sugars, and
Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Straw Using Steam Explosion Pretreatment at
Pilot-Scale.” Bioresource Technology 357.
Brenelli, Lívia B., Rakesh Bhatia, Demi T. Djajadi, Lisbeth G. Thygesen, Sarita C. Rabelo,
David J. Leak, Telma T. Franco, and Joe A. Gallagher. 2022. “Xylo-Oligosaccharides,
Fermentable Sugars, and Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Straw Using Steam
Explosion Pretreatment at Pilot-Scale.” Bioresource Technology 357 (August):
Process Scale-Up for Biorefineries in Latin America 131
Bressanin, J. M., V. C. Geraldo, F. D. A. M. Gomes, B. C. Klein, M. F. Chagas, M. D. B.
Watanabe, A. Bonomi, E. R. D. Morais, and O. Cavalett. 2021. “Multiobjective
Optimization of Economic and Environmental Performance of Fischer-Tropsch
Biofuels Production Integrated to Sugarcane Biorefineries.” Industrial Crops and
Products 170.
Bressanin, J. M., H. R. Guimarães, M. F. Chagas, I. L. D. M. Sampaio, B. C. Klein, M. D.
B. Watanabe, A. Bonomi, E. R. D. Morais, and O. Cavalett. 2021. “Advanced
Technologies for Electricity Production in the Sugarcane Value Chain Are a Strategic
Option in a Carbon Reward Policy Context.” Energy Policy 159.
Caxiano, I. N., P. A. Mello, P. H. R. Alijó, L. V. Teixeira, R. F. Cano, J. G. S. S. Maia, J.
B. V. Bastos, and M. S. G. Pavão. 2022. “Continuous Design and Economic Analysis
of a Sargassum Muticum Biorefinery Process.” Bioresource Technology 343.
Chandel, Anuj K., Juliana Q. Albarelli, Diego T. Santos, Shishir Ps Chundawat, Munish
Puri, and Maria Angela A. Meireles. 2019. “Comparative Analysis of Key
Technologies for Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse at
a Commercial Scale.” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 13 (4): 994–1014.
Costa, M. A. L., C. S. Farinas, and E. A. Miranda. 2018. “Ethanol Precipitation as a
Downstream Processing Step for Concentration of Xylanases Produced by Submerged
and Solid-State Fermentation.” Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 35 (2):
477–88. 0502.
Cutz, L., P. Haro, D. Santana, and F. Johnsson. 2016. “Assessment of Biomass Energy
Sources and Technologies: The Case of Central America.” Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews 58 (May): 1411–31. 2015.12.322.
DeAngelo, Julianne, Inês Azevedo, John Bistline, Leon Clarke, Gunnar Luderer, Edward
Byers, and Steven J. Davis. 2021. “Energy Systems in Scenarios at Net-Zero CO2
Emissions.” Nature Communications 2021 12:1 12 (1): 1–10.
Deuber, R. D. S., D. S. Fernandes, J. M. Bressanin, J. Watson, M. F. Chagas, A. Bonomi,
L. V. Fregolente, and M. D. B. Watanabe. 2021. “Techno-Economic Assessment of
HTL Integration to the Brazilian Sugarcane Industry: An Evaluation of Different
Scenarios.” Industrial Crops and Products 173.
Díaz-Vázquez, D., D. A. Orozco-Nunnelly, C. Yebra-Montes, C. Senés-Guerrero, and M.
S. Gradilla-Hernández. 2022. “Using Yeast Cultures to Valorize Tequila Vinasse
Waste: An Example of a Circular Bioeconomy Approach in the Agro-Industrial
Sector.” Biomass and Bioenergy 161.
Ellilä, Simo, Lucas Fonseca, Cristiane Uchima, Junio Cota, Gustavo Henrique Goldman,
Markku Saloheimo, Vera Sacon, and Matti Siika-Aho. 2017. “Development of a Low Cost Cellulase
Production Process Using Trichoderma Reesei for Brazilian
Biorefineries.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 10: 30.
132 H. F. González, M. Durán-Rincón and V. Aristizábal-Marulanda
Ferreira, G. F., L. F. Ríos Pinto, R. Maciel Filho, and L. V. Fregolente. 2021. “Effects of
Cultivation Conditions on Chlorella Vulgaris and Desmodesmus Sp. Grown in
Sugarcane Agro-Industry Residues.” Bioresource Technology 342.
Finkler, Anelize Terezinha Jung, Alessandra Biz, Luana Oliveira Pitol, Bruna Schweitzer
Medina, Henrique Luithardt, Luiz Fernando de Lima Luz, Nadia Krieger, and David
Alexander Mitchell. 2017. “Intermittent Agitation Contributes to Uniformity across
the Bed during Pectinase Production by Aspergillus Niger Grown in Solid-State
Fermentation in a Pilot-Scale Packed-Bed Bioreactor.” Biochemical Engineering
Journal 121 (May): 1–12.
Fuess, Lucas Tadeu, Moacir Messias de Araújo Júnior, Marcelo Loureiro Garcia, and
Marcelo Zaiat. 2017. “Designing Full-Scale Biodigestion Plants for the Treatment of
Vinasse in Sugarcane Biorefineries: How Phase Separation and Alkalinization Impact
Biogas and Electricity Production Costs?” Chemical Engineering Research and
Design 119 (March): 209–20.
Fuess, Lucas Tadeu, Marcelo Loureiro Garcia, and Marcelo Zaiat. 2018. “Seasonal
Characterization of Sugarcane Vinasse: Assessing Environmental Impacts from
Fertirrigation and the Bioenergy Recovery Potential through Biodigestion.” Science
of The Total Environment 634 (September): 29–40.
Fuess, Lucas Tadeu, Bruno Colling Klein, Mateus Ferreira Chagas, Mylene Cristina Alves
Ferreira Rezende, Marcelo Loureiro Garcia, Antonio Bonomi, and Marcelo Zaiat.
2018. “Diversifying the Technological Strategies for Recovering Bioenergy from the
Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Vinasse: An Integrated Techno Economic
and Environmental Approach.” Renewable Energy 122 (July): 674–87.
Fuess, Lucas Tadeu, and Marcelo Zaiat. 2018. “Economics of Anaerobic Digestion for
Processing Sugarcane Vinasse: Applying Sensitivity Analysis to Increase Process
Profitability in Diversified Biogas Applications.” Process Safety and Environmental
Protection 115 (April): 27–37.
García, Carlos A., Ramiro Betancourt, and Carlos A. Cardona. 2017. “Stand-Alone and
Biorefinery Pathways to Produce Hydrogen through Gasification and Dark
Fermentation Using Pinus Patula.” Journal of Environmental Management 203
(December): 695–703.
Gómez, J. A., P. Berni, L. G. Matallana, Ó. J. Sánchez, J. A. Teixeira, and C. Nobre. 2022.
“Towards a Biorefinery Processing Waste from Plantain Agro–Industry: Process
Development for the Production of an Isomalto–Oligosaccharide Syrup from Rejected
Unripe Plantain Fruits.” Food and Bioproducts Processing 133: 100–118.
Gómez, J. A., C. Nobre, J. A. Teixeira, and Ó. J. Sánchez. 2022. “Towards a Biorefinery
Processing Waste from Plantain Agro-Industry: Assessment of the Production of
Dairy Cattle Feed through Process Simulation.” Biosystems Engineering 217: 131–49.
González, G., N. V. Ehman, Y. S. Aguerre, S. Henríquez-Gallegos, A. P. N. da Fonte, G.
I. B. Muniz, M. Pereira, et al. 2022. “Quality of Microfibrillated Cellulose Produced
Process Scale-Up for Biorefineries in Latin America 133
from Unbleached Pine Sawdust Pulp as an Environmentally Friendly Source.” Waste
and Biomass Valorization 13 (3): 1609–26.
Grangeia, Carolina, Luan Santos, and Lira Luz Benites Lazaro. 2022. “The Brazilian
Biofuel Policy (RenovaBio) and Its Uncertainties: An Assessment of Technical,
Socioeconomic and Institutional Aspects.” Energy Conversion and Management: X
13 (January): 100156.
Guimarães, H. R., J. M. Bressanin, I. L. Motta, M. F. Chagas, A. Bonomi, R. M. Filho, and
M. D. B. Watanabe. 2022. “Techno-Economic and Environmental Assessments of
Thermochemical Routes Integrated into the Brazilian Sugarcane Industry for the
Production of Renewable Jet Fuel.” Chemical Engineering Transactions 92: 115–20.
Imlauer Vedoya, C. M., M. C. Area, N. Raffaeli, and F. E. Felissia. 2022. “Study on
Soda−Ethanol Delignification of Pine Sawdust for a Biorefinery.” Sustainability
(Switzerland) 14 (11).
Katayama, E., N. A. Rodrigues, S. Bilatto, F. P. Casciatori, and C. S. Farinas. 2022.
“Nanocellulose Isolation Using a Thermostable Endoglucanase-Rich Cocktail from
Myceliophthora Thermophila Cultivated in a Multilayer Packed-Bed Bioreactor.”
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery.
Klein, Bruno Colling, Mateus Ferreira Chagas, Tassia Lopes Junqueira, Mylene Cristina
Alves Ferreira Rezende, Terezinha de Fátima Cardoso, Otavio Cavalett, and Antonio
Bonomi. 2018. “Techno-Economic and Environmental Assessment of Renewable Jet
Fuel Production in Integrated Brazilian Sugarcane Biorefineries.” Applied Energy 209
(January): 290–305.
Klein, Bruno Colling, Mateus Ferreira Chagas, Marcos Djun Barbosa Watanabe, Antonio
Bonomi, and Rubens Maciel Filho. 2019. “Low Carbon Biofuels and the New
Brazilian National Biofuel Policy (RenovaBio): A Case Study for Sugarcane Mills and
Integrated Sugarcane-Microalgae Biorefineries.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews 115 (November): 109365. 109365.
López-Díaz, Dulce Celeste, Luis Fernando Lira-Barragán, Eusiel Rubio-Castro, Medardo
Serna-González, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi, and José María Ponce-Ortega. 2018.
“Optimization of Biofuels Production via a Water–Energy–Food Nexus Framework.”
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 20 (7): 1443–66.
Machin Ferrero, L. M., and F. D. Mele. 2022. “Optimal Design of Sugar-Cane-Based
Biorefinery Networks in Argentina.” ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering.
Mariana, Ortiz Sanchez, Cardona Alzate, and Carlos Ariel. 2021. “Comparative
Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Orange Peel Waste in Present Productive
Chains.” Journal of Cleaner Production 322 (November): 128814.
Martins, L. B., J. Soares, W. B. da Silveira, R. C. S. Sousa, and M. A. Martins. 2021. “Dilute
Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis of Chlorella Vulgaris Biomass Improves the Multistage
Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lipids.” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 11 (6):
134 H. F. González, M. Durán-Rincón and V. Aristizábal-Marulanda
Mello, Matheus Lima de, Marco Aurelio Sperança, and Fabíola Manhas Verbi Pereira.
2022. “Mineral Scale Formed During the Evaporation in Biorefineries —
Characterization Using X-Ray Fluorescence and Exploratory Analysis.” Food
Analytical Methods 1 (April): 1–4.
Mendieta, C. M., J. Kruyeniski, F. E. Felissia, and M. C. Area. 2022. “Modelling of the
Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation for a Pine Sawdust Biorefinery.”
Fermentation 8 (3).
Menon, Vishnu, and Mala Rao. 2012. “Trends in Bioconversion of Lignocellulose:
Biofuels, Platform Chemicals & Biorefinery Concept.” Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science 38 (4): 522–50.
Michelon, W., M. L. B. da Silva, A. Matthiensen, C. J. de Andrade, L. M. de Andrade, and
H. M. Soares. 2022. “Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, and Peptides in Microalgae Biomass
Harvested from Phycoremediation of Swine Wastewaters.” Biomass Conversion and
Biorefinery 12 (3): 869–80.
Montoya, G., M. I. Gutierrez, J. D. Giraldo, L. D. Jaramillo, J. Ruiz-Sandoval, S. Orozco,
F. Orozco, J. Ward, G. Rojas, and M. F. Villegas-Torres. 2021. “Sustainable
Sugarcane Vinasse Biorefinement for Trans-Aconitic Acid-Based Biopolymer
Synthesis and Bioenergy Generation.” Bioresource Technology Reports 15.
Morales Chavez, M. M., Y. Costa, and W. Sarache. 2021. “A Three-Objective Stochastic
Location-Inventory-Routing Model for Agricultural Waste-Based Biofuel Supply
Chain.” Computers and Industrial Engineering 162.
Morales-Rodriguez, R., J. D. Ponce-Rocha, F. I. Gómez-Castro, E. Sánchez-Ramírez, J. G.
Segovia-Hernández, A. Sánchez, and D. Rodriguez-Gomez. 2021. “Acetone, Butanol,
Ethanol and, Xylitol Production Through a Biorefinery Platform: An Experimental
& Simulation Approach.” Waste and Biomass Valorization 12 (9): 4915–30.
Morreeuw, Z. P., L. J. Ríos-González, C. Salinas-Salazar, E. M. Melchor-Martínez, J. A.
Ascacio-Valdés, R. Parra-Saldívar, H. M. N. Iqbal, and A. G. Reyes. 2021. “Early
Optimization Stages of Agave Lechuguilla Bagasse Processing toward Biorefinement:
Drying Procedure and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Flavonoid Extraction.” Molecules 26
Ortiz-Sanchez, M., J. C. Solarte-Toro, C. E. Orrego-Alzate, C. D. Acosta-Medina, and C.
A. Cardona-Alzate. 2021. “Integral Use of Orange Peel Waste through the Biorefinery
Concept: An Experimental, Technical, Energy, and Economic Assessment.” Biomass
Conversion and Biorefinery 11 (2): 645–59. 10.1007/S13399-020-00627-Y/FIGURES/3.
Pedrozo, H. A., A. I. Casoni, F. D. Ramos, V. Estrada, and M. S. Diaz. 2022. “Simultaneous
Design of Macroalgae-Based Integrated Biorefineries and Their Heat Exchanger
Network.” Computers and Chemical Engineering 164.
Peña-Jurado, E., Samuel Pérez-Vega, Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Ildebrando
Pérez-Reyes, Nestor Gutiérrez-Méndez, José Vazquez-Castillo, and Ivan Salmerón.
Process Scale-Up for Biorefineries in Latin America 135
2019. “Production of Poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate) from a Dairy Industry Wastewater
Using Bacillus Subtilis EPAH18: Bioprocess Development and Simulation.”
Biochemical Engineering Journal 151 (November): 107324.
Pereira, B., W.F. Marcondes, W. Carvalho, and V. Arantes. 2021. “High Yield Biorefinery
Products from Sugarcane Bagasse: Prebiotic Xylooligosaccharides, Cellulosic
Ethanol, Cellulose Nanofibrils and Lignin Nanoparticles.” Bioresource Technology
Perez, C. L., L. P. R. D. C. Pereira, T. S. Milessi, J. P. Sandri, M. Demeke, M. R. Foulquié Moreno,
J. M. Thevelein, and T. C. Zangirolami. 2022. “Towards a Practical Industrial
2G Ethanol Production Process Based on Immobilized Recombinant S. Cerevisiae:
Medium and Strain Selection for Robust Integrated Fixed-Bed Reactor Operation.”
Renewable Energy 185: 363–75. 10.1016/j.renene.2021.12.044.
Pinto, A. S. S., A. M. Elias, F. F. Furlan, M. P. A. Ribeiro, R. C. Giordano, and C. S.
Farinas. 2021. “Techno-Economic Feasibility of Biomass Washing in 1G2G
Sugarcane Biorefineries.” Bioenergy Research 14 (4): 1253–64.
Rachid-Casnati, C., F. Resquin, and L. Carrasco-Letelier. 2021. “Availability and
Environmental Performance of Wood for a Second-Generation Biorefinery.” Forests
12 (11).
Ramos, L. R., G. Lovato, J. A. D. Rodrigues, and E. L. Silva. 2022. “Scale-up and Energy
Estimations of Single- and Two-Stage Vinasse Anaerobic Digestion Systems for
Hydrogen and Methane Production.” Journal of Cleaner Production 349.
Rangel, C., J. Sastoque, J. Calderón, J. Gracia, I. Cabeza, S. Villamizar, and P. Acevedo.
2022. “Pilot-Scale Assessment of Biohydrogen and Volatile Fatty Acids Production
via Dark Fermentation of Residual Biomass.” Chemical Engineering Transactions 92:
Restrepo-Serna, D. L., J. C. Solarte-Toro, and C. A. Cardona-Alzate. 2022. “A Biorefinery
Approach for an Integral Valorisation of Avocado Peel and Seeds through
Supercritical Fluids.” Waste and Biomass Valorization.
Rodríguez, F., E. Aguilar-Garnica, A. Santiago-Toribio, and A. Sánchez. 2022.
“Polysaccharides Release in a Laboratory-Scale Batch Hydrothermal Pretreatment of
Wheat Straw under Rigorous Isothermal Operation.” Molecules 27 (1).
Rosales-Calderon, Oscar, and Valdeir Arantes. 2019. “A Review on Commercial-Scale
High-Value Products That Can Be Produced alongside Cellulosic Ethanol.”
Biotechnology for Biofuels 12 (1): 1–58.
Sánchez Muñoz, Salvador, Thércia Rocha Balbino, Edith Mier Alba, Fernanda Gonçalves
Barbosa, Fernando Tonet de Pier, Alexandra Lazuroz Moura de Almeida, Ana Helena
Balan Zilla, et al. 2022. “Surfactants in Biorefineries: Role, Challenges &
Perspectives.” Bioresource Technology 345 (February): 126477.
136 H. F. González, M. Durán-Rincón and V. Aristizábal-Marulanda
Santana, Hugo, Carolina R. Cereijo, Valérya C. Teles, Rodrigo C. Nascimento, Maiara S.
Fernandes, Patrícia Brunale, Raquel C. Campanha, et al. 2017. “Microalgae
Cultivation in Sugarcane Vinasse: Selection, Growth and Biochemical
Characterization.” Bioresource Technology 228 (March): 133–40.
Schneider, Willian Daniel Hahn, Roselei Claudete Fontana, Simone Mendonça, Félix
Gonçalves de Siqueira, Aldo José Pinheiro Dillon, and Marli Camassola. 2018. “High
Level Production of Laccases and Peroxidases from the Newly Isolated White-Rot
Basidiomycete Marasmiellus Palmivorus VE111 in a Stirred-Tank Bioreactor in
Response to Different Carbon and Nitrogen Sources.” Process Biochemistry 69
(June): 1–11.
Serna-Loaiza, Sebastián, Estefanny Carmona-Garcia, and Carlos A. Cardona. 2018.
“Potential Raw Materials for Biorefineries to Ensure Food Security: The Cocoyam
Case.” Industrial Crops and Products 126 (December): 92–102.
Sganzerla, W. G., D. Lachos-Perez, L. S. Buller, G. L. Zabot, and T. Forster-Carneiro.
2022. “Cost Analysis of Subcritical Water Pretreatment of Sugarcane Straw and
Bagasse for Second-Generation Bioethanol Production: A Case Study in a Sugarcane
Mill.” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 16 (2): 435–50.
Silva-Martínez, Rodolfo Daniel, Alessandro Sanches-Pereira, Willington Ortiz, Maria
Fernanda Gómez Galindo, and Suani Teixeira Coelho. 2020. “The State-of-the-Art of
Organic Waste to Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and
Opportunities.” Renewable Energy 156 (August): 509–25.
Solarte-Toro, J. C., M. Ortiz-Sanchez, and C. A. Cardona Alzate. 2022. “Environmental
Life Cycle Assessment (E-LCA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) of Small-Scale
Biorefineries Implemented in Rural Zones: The Avocado (Persea Americana Var.
Americana) Case in Colombia.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
Solarte-Toro, J. C., M. Ortiz-Sanchez, D. L. Restrepo-Serna, P. Peroza Piñeres, A. Pérez
Cordero, and C. A. Cardona Alzate. 2021. “Influence of Products Portfolio and
Process Contextualization on the Economic Performance of Small- and Large-Scale
Avocado Biorefineries.” Bioresource Technology 342.
Solarte-Toro, Juan Camilo, Mariana Ortiz-Sanchez, and Carlos Ariel Cardona Alzate.
2022. “Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (E-LCA) and Social Impact Assessment
(SIA) of Small-Scale BiorefineriesImplemented in Rural Zones: The Avocado (Persea
Americana Var. Americana) Case in Colombia.” Environmental Science and Pollution
Research, June, 1–19.
Sosa-Martínez, J., N. Balagurusamy, J. R. Benavente-Valdés, J. Montañez, and L. Morales Oyervides. 2021.
“Process Performance Improvement for the Simultaneous
Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes in Solid Culture Using Agricultural Wastes
through the Taguchi Method.” Journal of Environmental Management 293.
Process Scale-Up for Biorefineries in Latin America 137
Sousa, M. H. de, A. S. F. da Silva, R. C. Correia, N. P. Leite, C. E. G., Bueno, R. L. dos
Santos Pinheiro, J. S. de Santana, et al. 2022. “Valorizing Municipal Organic Waste
to Produce Biodiesel, Biogas, Organic Fertilizer, and Value-Added Chemicals: An
Integrated Biorefinery Approach.” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 12 (3): 827–
Tessari, L. F. A., C. R. Soccol, C. Rodrigues, E. G., González, V. O. A. Tanobe, P. C. S.
Kirnev, and J. C. de Carvalho. 2022. “Development of a Culture Medium for
Microalgae Production Based on Minimal Processing of Oil Palm Biomass Ash.”
Fermentation 8 (2).
Uchôa, P. Z., R. C. T. Porto, R. Battisti, C. Marangoni, N. Sellin, and O. Souza. 2021.
“Ethanol from Residual Biomass of Banana Harvest and Commercialization: A Three Waste
Simultaneous Fermentation Approach and a Logistic-Economic Assessment of
the Process Scaling-up towards a Sustainable Biorefinery in Brazil.” Industrial Crops
and Products 174.
Valentim Bastos, J. B., J. G. Soares Santos Maia, S. Borschiver, A. Szklo, and A. R. Secchi.
2022. “Addressing Scale and Seasonality in the Design of Sugarcane to Ethylene
Glycol Biorefineries.” Journal of Cleaner Production 337.
Volpi, M. P. C., L. B. Brenelli, G. Mockaitis, S. C. Rabelo, T. T. Franco, and B. S. Moraes.
2022. “Use of Lignocellulosic Residue from Second-Generation Ethanol Production
to Enhance Methane Production Through Co-Digestion.” Bioenergy Research 15 (1):
Volpi, M. P. C., A. D. N. F. Junior, T. T. Franco, and B. S. Moraes. 2021. “Operational and
Biochemical Aspects of Co-Digestion (Co-AD) from Sugarcane Vinasse, Filter Cake,
and Deacetylation Liquor.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 105 (23): 8969–
Watanabe, Marcos D. B., Lucas G. Pereira, Mateus F. Chagas, Marcelo Pereira da Cunha,
Charles D. F. Jesus, Alexandre Souza, Elmer C. Rivera, R. Maciel Filho, Otávio
Cavalett, and Antonio Bonomi. 2016. “Sustainability Assessment Methodologies,”
Zuorro, A., K. A. Moreno-Sader, and Á. D. González-Delgado. 2021. “Evaluating the
Feasibility of a Pilot-Scale Shrimp Biorefinery via Techno-Economic Analysis.”
Journal of Cleaner Production 320.


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!