Chapter 3. Endophytic Actinobacteria: A Source of Novel Bioactive Metabolites for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases


Juri Saikia¹,², Rajkumari Mazumdar¹,³ and Debajit Thakur¹
¹Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, Life Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Guwahati, India
²Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, India
³Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Cotton University, Guwahati, India

Part of the book: Infectious Diseases: From Prevention to Control


The emergence of infectious diseases has put on an alarming threat to human health and progress. The World Health Organization (WHO) claims that infectious diseases continue to spread and emerge and that efforts being made globally to combat newly emerging and drug-resistant infections are jeopardized by a lack of new antimicrobials (2020). Covid-19, a recent pandemic that has affected the entire world and claimed the lives of 2.7 million people, has hundreds of millions of documented cases (2021). Outbreaks of infectious disease can have detrimental social, political, and economic ramifications, and emerging and overlooking infectious diseases pose a real threat to public health. Since the historic IOM report that emphasized the significance of emerging infectious diseases, much has been taught from previous outbreaks and significant strides have been made. Yet, preparing for pandemics continues to be a significant global challenge. It has been discovered that a wide range of factors, including human behavior and activities, pathogen evolution, poverty, environmental changes, and dynamic human interactions with animals, all contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Furthermore, the emergence of pathogens that are resistant to antibiotics has reduced the number of available treatments and caused incurable infections, necessitating the development of novel antibiotics. There is a global need to find novel sources of antibiotics. Natural products produced by endophytic actinobacteria (EA) act as a source of potential new antibiotics. In addition, they seem to be a source of brand-new, potent compounds to fight the rising tide of pathogens with multidrug resistance. Endophytic actinobacteria reside within plant tissues and interact with the host to produce diverse bioactive metabolites. Exploration of endophytic actinobacteria from untouched ecosystems is going on in the search for new bioactive molecules. The current review highlights the isolation and discovery of potent novel bioactive metabolites produced by endophytic actinobacteria associated with diverse ecosystems.


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