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Julia Kudła, Dorota Bartusik-Aebisher and David Aebisher
Medical College of the University of Rzeszów, Poland
Part of the book: The Biochemical Guide to Proteins
Estrogens are a group of sex hormones that are derived from estran. These hormones interact by binding to specific estrogen receptors that stimulate transcriptional processes or signaling events, resulting in the control of gene expression. The estrogen receptors have many important functions during the development and maturation of tissues. Their expression is not only related to the reproductive system, but also occurs in the lungs, prostate, cardiovascular and nervous systems. In this chapter, the structural properties of the nuclear estrogen receptors Erα, Erβ of the membrane GPER1 and the mechanisms regulating gene expression through these receptors are described. The results of many studies carried out on their specification and mechanism of action have made it possible to create many therapies for various diseases in which estrogen receptors are involved in their formation. Despite the fact that these receptors were discovered in the 1960s, there are still many endocrine diseases that are associated with the abnormal interaction of estrogens, the role of their receptors has not yet been fully understood.
Keywords: estrogens, receptors, DNA, tamoxifen, clomiphene, toreomiphene, estran
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