Chapter 20. Norepinephrine


Olga Pastuszko, Dorota Bartusik-Aebisher and David Aebisher
Medical College of The University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland

Part of the book: The Biochemical Guide to Hormones


Norepinephrine is known as norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is a neurohormone and neurotransmitter, acts on many receptors, reducing cortical activity, either limiting the outflow of neurotransmitters, or increasing sensitivity to inhibitory signaling. It is one of the most important neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. It plays a key role in all forebrain functions, such as perception, memory, learning and homeostasis, and its dysfunction is closely related to both neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system disorders. Norepinephrine stimulates both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. The activated β receptors increase the contractility and excitability of the heart, and accelerate its action. In wakefulness, the concentration increases, and much higher levels are observed in states of stress and danger.

Keywords: norepinephrine, adrenoceptors, hyperpolarised cyclic nucleotidegated (HCN), vesicle


Brown J C, Simons E, Rudders S A. Epinephrine in the Management of Anaphylaxis. J.
Allergy Clin. Immunol. Pract. 2020 Apr;8(4):1186-1195.
Kohno R, Detloff B L, Chen L Y, Norby F L, Benditt D G. Epinephrine rise concept. J.
Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 2019 Aug;30(8):1396-1397.
Shao H, Li C S. Epinephrine in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest: Helpful or Harmful? Chin.
Med. J. (Engl). 2017 Sep 5;130(17):2112-2116.
Sicherer S H, Simons F E R; Section on Allergy and Immunology. Epinephrine for First aid Management of Anaphylaxis. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar;139(3): e20164006.
Song T T, Lieberman P. Who needs to carry an epinephrine autoinjector? Cleve. Clin. J.
Med. 2019 Jan;86(1):66-72.


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!