Publish with Nova Science Publishers
We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!
E. Bocharnikova, PhD, and V. Matichenkov, Dr. of Sci
Institute Basic Biological Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia
Part of the book: Advantages and Disadvantages of Sandy Soils
Sandy soils commonly exhibit low adsorption capacity. Leaching of macro- and micronutrients applied as fertilizer to sandy soil initiates eutrophication of natural waters, thus considerably deteriorating the water quality and posing a serious threat to aquatic communities. Soil amendments, such as lime or dolomite, can significantly improve the adsorption capacity, but Ca and Mg strongly fix phosphorus (P). As a result, much of the applied P becomes unavailable to crops leading to reduced farm profitability. In the laboratory experiment, limestone, CaSiO3, amorphous SiO2 and two types of slags from metallurgical and phosphate industries were applied together with traditional NPK fertilizers to sandy Spodosols in order to evaluate nutrient leaching. The results evidence that P, K, NO3 – and NH4 + leaching was reduced by 21 to 78%. The following range of efficiency for lowering nutrient leaching was determined: SiO2 < CaSiO3 < limestone < phosphate slag < metal slag. Silicon substances increased the biomass and accumulation of P, K, and N by barley plants by 26 to 104%; 16 to 72%; and 13 to 54%, respectively, while limestone reduced the plant P by 20-25%. In the demonstration field test, Si-rich steel slag applied to a sorghum field that was previously used as cattle pasture provided reductions in P concentrations in nearby rivers by 65 and 77%. Several mechanisms responsible for the Si effects are discussed: a) soil-applied Si-rich materials enhance nutrient adsorption; b) additional plant Si nutrition accelerates nutrient uptake; c) newly formed monosilicic acid attributes to soil adsorption capacity.
Keywords: leaching, nutrient, sandy soil
Ahmad, A., Ijaz, S. S. and He, Z. (2021). Effects of zeolitic urea on nitrogen leaching (NH4-
N and NO3-N) and volatilization (NH3) in spodosols and alfisols. Water, 13(14), 1921.
Alfaro, M. A., Jarvis, S. C. and Gregory, P. J. (2004). Factors affecting potassium leaching
in different soils. Soil Use and Management, 20(2), 182-189.
Andersson, H., Bergström, L., Djodjic, F., Ulén, B. and Kirchmann, H. (2016). Lime
placement on subsoil as a strategy to reduce phosphorus leaching from agricultural
soils. Soil Use and Management, 32(3), 381-389.
Andersson, H., Bergström, L., Ulén, B., Djodjic, F. and Kirchmann, H. (2015). The role of
subsoil as a source or sink for phosphorus leaching. Journal of Environmental Quality,
Bender, S. F. and van der Heijden, M. G. (2015). Soil biota enhance agricultural
sustainability by improving crop yield, nutrient uptake and reducing nitrogen leaching
losses. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52(1), 228-239.
Bergström, L., Kirchmann, H., Djodjic, F., Kyllmar, K., Ulén, B., Liu, J., Anderson, H.,
Aronsson, H., Börjesson, G., Kynkäänniemi, P., Svanbäck, A. and Villa, A. (2015).
Turnover and losses of phosphorus in Swedish agricultural soils: long‐term changes,
leaching trends, and mitigation measures. Journal of environmental quality, 44(2),
Bickelhaupt, D. H. and White, E. H. (1982). Laboratory manual for soil and plant tissue
analysis. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and
Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
Blum, J., Melfi, A. J., Montes, C. R. and Gomes, T. M. (2013). Nitrogen and phosphorus
leaching in a tropical Brazilian soil cropped with sugarcane and irrigated with treated
sewage effluent. Agricultural water management, 117, 115-122.
Campisi, T., Abbondanzi, F., Faccini, B., Di Giuseppe, D., Malferrari, D., Coltorti, M. and
Passaglia, E. (2016). Ammonium-charged zeolitite effects on crop growth and nutrient
leaching: greenhouse experiments on maize (Zea mays). Catena, 140, 66-76.
Cavagnaro, T., Bender, S. F., Asghari, H. R. and Van der Heijden, M. (2015). The role of
arbuscular mycorrhizas in reducing soil nutrient loss. Trends in Plant Science, 20 (5),
Chen, J., Zhang, D., Xie, P., Wang, Q. and Ma, Z. (2009). Simultaneous determination of
microcystin contaminations in various vertebrates (fish, turtle, duck and water bird)
from a large eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu, with toxic Microcystis blooms.
Science of the Total Environment, 407(10), 3317-3322.
Coonan, E. C., Kirkby, C. A., Kirkegaard, J. A., Amidy, M. R., Strong, C. L. and
Richardson, A. E. (2020). Microorganisms and nutrient stoichiometry as mediators of
soil organic matter dynamics. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 117(3), 273-298.
Corkidi, L., Merhaut, D. J., Allen, E. B., Downer, J., Bohn, J. and Evans, M. (2011). Effects
of mycorrhizal colonization on nitrogen and phosphorus leaching from nursery
containers. HortScience, 46(11), 1472-1479.
Dick R. P. (2011). Methods of soil enzymology. Soil Science Society of America, Inc.,
Madison, Wisxonsin, USA
Drinkwater, L. E., Schipanski, M., Snapp, S. and Jackson, L. E. (2017). Ecologically based
nutrient management. In: Agricultural Systems (Second Edition) (pp. 203-257).
Duncan, D. B. (1957). Multiple range tests for correlated and heteroscedastic means.
Biometrics, 13(2), 164-176.
Eslamian, F., Qi, Z. and Qian, C. (2021). Lime amendments to enhance soil phosphorus
adsorption capacity and to reduce phosphate desorption. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution,
Fagodiya, R. K., Kumar, A., Kumari, S., Medhi, K. and Shabnam, A. A. (2020). Role of
nitrogen and its agricultural management in changing environment. In Contaminants
in Agriculture (pp. 247-270). Springer, Cham.
Frank Stephano, M., Geng, Y., Cao, G., Wang, L., Meng, W. and Meiling, Z. (2021). Effect
of silicon fertilizer and straw return on the maize yield and phosphorus efficiency in
Northeast China. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 52(2), 116-127.
Gholamhoseini, M., Ghalavand, A., Khodaei-Joghan, A., Dolatabadian, A., Zakikhani, H.
and Farmanbar, E. (2013). Zeolite-amended cattle manure effects on sunflower yield,
seed quality, water use efficiency and nutrient leaching. Soil and Tillage Research,
Henryson, K., Kätterer, T., Tidåker, P. and Sundberg, C. (2020). Soil N2O emissions, N
leaching and marine eutrophication in life cycle assessment–A comparison of
modelling approaches. Science of The Total Environment, 725, 138332.
Hocheng, H., Su, C. and Jadhav, U. U. (2014). Bioleaching of metals from steel slag by
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans culture supernatant. Chemosphere, 117, 652-657.
Houben, D., Sonnet, P. and Cornelis, J. T. (2014). Biochar from Miscantuc: a potential
silicon fertilizer. Plant and soil, 374(1-2), 871-882.
Huang, J., Xu, C. C., Ridoutt, B. G., Wang, X. C. and Ren, P. A. (2017). Nitrogen and
phosphorus losses and eutrophication potential associated with fertilizer application to
cropland in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 159, 171-179.
Idris, A. O. A. and Ahmed, H. S. (2012). Phosphorus sorption capacity as a guide for
phosphorus availability. African Crop Science Journal, 20, 59 – 65.
Kleinman, P. J., Sharpley, A. N., Withers, P. J., Bergström, L., Johnson, L. T. and Doody,
D. G. (2015). Implementing agricultural phosphorus science and management to
combat eutrophication. Ambio, 44(2), 297-310.
Kozlov A. V. and Uromova I. P. (2017). The effectiveness of the silicon contained
substances in optimization of the properties and increasing of soil productivity in
Nizegorodsky region. Moscow Published “Flinta.”
Kuzyakov, Y. and Xu, X. (2013). Competition between roots and microorganisms for
nitrogen: mechanisms and ecological relevance. New Phytologist, 198(3), 656-669.
Laird, D., Fleming, P., Wang, B., Horton, R. and Karlen, D. (2010). Biochar impact on
nutrient leaching from Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma, 158(3-4), 436-442.
Lindsay, W. L. (1979). Chemical Equilibria in Soil. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y.
Macolino, S. and Zanin, G. (2014). Effectiveness of a zeolite-based fertilizer in reducing
nutrient leaching in a recently sodded turfgrass. In XXIX International Horticultural
Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014):
III 1122 (pp. 73-82).
Major, J., Steiner, C., Downie, A. and Lehmann, J. (2012). Biochar effects on nutrient
leaching. In: Biochar for environmental management. Routledge, 303-320.
Matichenkov, V. V., Dyakov, V. M. and Bocharnikova, E. A. (1997). The complex silicon phosphate fertilizer. Russian patent, registration N97121543.
Matichenkov, V. V. and Snyder, G. H. (1996). The mobile silicon compounds in some
South Florida soils. Eurasian Soil Sci, 12, 1165-1180.
Mehrab, N., Chorom, M. and Hojati, S. (2016). Effect of raw and NH4+-enriched zeolite
on nitrogen uptake by wheat and nitrogen leaching in soils with different textures.
Comm in Soil Sci and Plant Anal, 47(10), 1306-1316.
Mendes, W. D. C., Alves Júnior, J., Da Cunha, P. C., Silva, A. R. D., Evangelista, A. W.
and Casaroli, D. (2016). Potassium leaching in different soils as a function of irrigation
depths. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 20, 972-977.
Plaster, E. (2013). Soil science and management. Cengage learning.
Raave, H., Keres, I., Kauer, K., Nõges, M., Rebane, J., Tampere, M. and Loit, E. (2014).
The impact of activated carbon on NO3−‐N, NH4+‐N, P and K leaching in relation to
fertilizer use. European Journal of Soil Science, 65(1), 120-127.
Reddy, K. S., Mohanty, M., Rao, D. L. N., Singh, M., Rao, A. S., Pandey, M. and Menzies,
N. W. (2015). Nutrient mass balances and leaching losses from a farmyard manure pit
in Madhya Pradesh. Journal Indian Society Soil Science, 63(1), 64-68.
Rosolem, C. A. and Steiner, F. (2017). Effects of soil texture and rates of K input on
potassium balance in tropical soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 68(5), 658-666.
Saad, M. A., Abdel Salam, R. M., Kenawy, S. A. and Attia, A. S. (2015). Pinocembrin
attenuates hippocampal inflammation, oxidative perturbations and apoptosis in a rat
model of global cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Pharmacological Reports, 67(1), 115-122.
Saihua, L., Yunhe, X., Ji, X., Juan, H., Bocharnikova, E. A. and Matichenkov, V. V. (2018).
Microwave digestion for colorimetric determination of total Si in plant and mineral
samples. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 49(7), 840-847.
Sardans, J. and Peñuelas, J. (2015). Potassium: a neglected nutrient in global change.
Global Ecology and Biogeography, 24(3), 261-275.
Schaller, J., Frei, S., Rohn, L. and Gilfedder, B. S. (2020). Amorphous silica controls water
storage capacity and phosphorus mobility in soils. Frontiers in Environmental
Science, 8, 94.
Siedt, M., Schäffer, A., Smith, K. E., Nabel, M., Roß-Nickoll, M. and van Dongen, J. T.
(2021). Comparing straw, compost, and biochar regarding their suitability as
agricultural soil amendments to affect soil structure, nutrient leaching, microbial
communities, and the fate of pesticides. Science of The Total Environment, 751, 141607.
Sindhu, S. S., Parmar, P. and Phour, M. (2014). Nutrient cycling: potassium solubilization
by microorganisms and improvement of crop growth. In Geomicrobiology and
biogeochemistry (pp. 175-198). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Tahir, S. and Marschner, P. (2017). Clay addition to sandy soil reduces nutrient leaching—
effect of clay concentration and ped size. Communications in soil science and plant
analysis, 48(15), 1813-1821.
van Beusekom, J. E. (2018). Eutrophication. In Handbook on Marine Environment
Protection (pp. 429-445). Springer, Cham.
Walsh, L.M. and Beaton, J.D. (1973). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Science Society
of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Wang, Y., Xiao, X. and Chen, B. (2018). Biochar impact on soil silicon dissolution kinetics
and their interaction mechanisms. Scientific reports, 8(1), 8040.
Widowati, W., Asnah, A. and Utomo, W. H. (2014). The use of biochar to reduce nitrogen
and potassium leaching from soil cultivated with maize. Journal of Degradation and
Mining Lands Management, 2(1), 211-218.
We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!