Chapter 2. Analytical Methodology of Ginsenosides: Their Health Benefits, Anticancer and Antidementia Activities: A Review

Chong-Zhi Wang¹, Samantha Anderson¹, Tomoe Ohta², Takuhiro Uto², I. Jung Lee³, Hiroyuki Tanaka⁴, Tung Nguyen Huu⁵, Chun-Su Yuan¹,⁶ and Yukihiro Shoyama²
¹Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, and Departments of Anesthesia & Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
²Faculty of Pharmacy, Nagasaki International University, Huis Tenbosh, Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan
³Yokohama University of Pharmacy, Matano-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
⁴Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sanyo-Onoda City University, Sanyo-Onoda, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Japan
⁵Faculty of Medicine, Phenikaa University, Hanoi, Vietnam
⁶Committee on Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Part of the book: Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 63

Abstract

Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng including white ginseng and red ginseng prepared by air-drying and steaming or heating, respectively, are widely used herbal medicines. Quality control is necessary to ensure their consistency. Therefore, many analytical methodologies have been developed to assess quality, focusing mainly on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against ginsenosides such as ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, and Re and notoginsenoside R1 have been applied in recently developed techniques like Eastern blotting, one-step separation methods, and knockout extract preparations from ginseng. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is higher than that of white ginseng due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming process, resulting in apoptosis/paraptosisinduction and angiogenesis inhibition. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs. Additionally, the cognitive benefits of major ginsenosides and their mechanisms have been widely confirmed. Clinical trials of ginseng as a treatment for Alzheimer’s patients support its beneficial activity without side effects, demonstrating that ginseng might be a promising medicine for Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Panax species, processed ginseng, monoclonal antibody, cancer chemoprevention, anti-dementia activity


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