Chapter 2. A Review of Tsunami Induced Forces on Idealized Onshore Buildings: Improvements in Design Equations
Selvam Harish¹,², Venkatachalam Sriram¹, PhD, Jan Oetjen², PhD, Holger Schüttrumpf², PhD, and Sannasi Annamalaisamy Sannasiraj¹, PhD
¹Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Adayar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
²Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Part of the book: Tsunamis: Detection Technologies, Response Efforts and Harmful Effects
Many structures along the shore have collapsed due to tsunami loads during previous tsunami disasters. In total, 400,000 buildings are estimated to have suffered from the 2011 Tōhoku Oki tsunami. These impacts emphasized an in-depth understanding of the tsunami interaction with structures. Subsequently, ample research has been conducted during the last decades to improve force prediction and design guidelines. By considering these extreme events during the design of structures, these structures shall be made more resistant to extreme loads, thereby considerably reducing human and economic losses. The present chapter reviews the past and recent research on the tsunami surge and bore forces and the existing available design equations for buildings against tsunami loads.
Keywords: impulsive load, quasi-static load, surge and bore force, tsunami
Alam, M. S., Winter, A. O., Galant, G., Shekhar, K., Barbosa, A. R., Motley, M. R.,
Eberhard, M. O., Cox, D. T., Arduino, P. and Lomonaco, P. (2020). Tsunami-like
wave-induced lateral and uplift pressures and forces on an elevated coastal structure.
Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 146(4), 04020008.
Al-Faesly, T., Palermo, D., Nistor, I. and Cornett, A. (2012). Experimental modeling of
extreme hydrodynamic forces on structural models. International Journal of
Protective Structures, 3(4), 477-505.
Arnason, H. (2005). Interactions between an incident bore and a free-standing coastal
structure. University of Washington.
Arnason, H., Petroff, C. and Yeh, H. (2009). Tsunami bore impingement onto a vertical
column. Journal of Disaster Research, 4(6), 391-403.
Asadollahi, N., Nistor, I.. and Mohammadian, A. (2019). Numerical investigation of
tsunami bore effects on structures, part I: drag coefficients. Natural Hazards, 96(1), 285-309.
Asakura, R., Iwase, K., Ikeya, T., Takao, M., Kaneto, T., Fujii, N. and Ohmori, M. (2002).
The tsunami wave force acting on land structures. In Coastal Engineering 2002:
Solving Coastal Conundrums, 1191-1202.
ASCE7-16 (2016). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE/SEI
7-16, Reston, Virginia.
CCH (2000). The City and County of Honolulu Building Code.
Chanson, H. (2006). Tsunami surges on dry coastal plains: Application of dam break wave
equations. Coastal Engineering Journal, 48(04), 355-370.
Chock, G., Carden, L., Robertson, I., Olsen, M. and Yu, G. (2013). Tohoku tsunami induced building failure analysis with implications for US tsunami and seismic design
codes. Earthquake Spectra, 29, 99-126.
Choi, B. H., Siripong, A., Sundar, V., Wijetunge, J. J. and Diposaptono, S. (2005). Post
runup survey of the December 26, 2004 earthquake tsunami of the Indian Ocean.
Proceedings of the Special Asia Tsunami Session at APAC, 1-20.
Cross, R. H. (1967). Tsunami surge forces. Journal of The Waterways and Harbors
Division, 93(4), 201-231.
Cumberbatch, E. (1960). The impact of a water wedge on a wall. Journal of Fluid
Mechanics, 7(3), 353-374.
Cuomo, G., Shams, G., Jonkman, S. and Van Gelder, P. (2009). Hydrodynamic loadings of
buildings in floods. In Coastal Engineering 2008: (In 5 Volumes), 3744-3756.
Felder, S. and Chanson, H. (2018). Air–water flow patterns of hydraulic jumps on uniform
beds macroroughness. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 144(3), 04017068.
FEMA (2008). Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis,
FEMA P-646 (First Edition), Washington, D.C.
FEMA (2012). Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis.
FEMA P-646, Washington, D.C.
Foster, A. S. J., Rossetto, T. and Allsop, W. (2017). An experimentally validated approach
for evaluating tsunami inundation forces on rectangular buildings. Coastal
Engineering, 128, 44-57.
Fritz, H. M., Borrero, J. C., Synolakis, C. E. and Yoo, J. (2006). 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
flow velocity measurements from survivor videos. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(24), L24605
Fritz, H. M., Phillips, D. A., Okayasu, A., Shimozono, T., Liu, H., Mohammed, F.,
Skanavis, V., Synolakis, C. E. and Takahashi, T. (2012). The 2011 Japan tsunami
current velocity measurements from survivor videos at Kesennuma Bay using LiDAR.
Geophysical Research Letters, 39(7), L00G23.
Fujima, K., Achmad, F., Shigihara, Y. and Mizutani, N. (2009). Estimation of tsunami force
acting on rectangular structures. Journal of Disaster Research, 4(6), 404-409.
Fukuyama, H., Kato, H., Ishihara, T., Tajiri, S., Tani, M., Okuda, Y. and Nakano, Y. (2011).
Structural design requirement on the tsunami evacuation buildings. UJNR, Tokyo.
Harish, S., Sriram, V., Schüttrumpf, H. and Sannasiraj, S. A. (2021). Tsunami-like flow
induced force on the structure: Prediction formulae for the horizontal force in quasi steady flow phase.
Coastal Engineering, 168, 103938.
Harish, S., Sriram, V., Schüttrumpf, H. and Sannasiraj, S. A. (2022). Tsunami-like flow
induced forces on the structure: Dependence of the hydrodynamic force coefficients
on Froude number and flow channel width in quasi-steady flow phase. Coastal
Engineering, 172, 104078.
Ikeya, T., Iwamae, N., Suenaga, S., Akiyama, Y., Tateno, T. and Suzuki, N. (2014). The
evaluation model of tsunami wave force acting on columnar body considering pressure
distribution. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B3 (Ocean
Engineering), 70(2), I_396–I_401 (In Japanese).
Ikeya, T., Suenaga, S., Fukuyama, T., Akiyama, Y., Suzuki, N. and Tateno, T. (2015).
Evaluation method of tsunami wave force acting on land structures considering
reflection properties. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B2 (Coastal
Engineering), 71, 985-990.
Ishiguro, R. and Kitamura, S. (2011). Japan quake’s economic impact worse than first
feared. Reuters.com Markets.
Jaffe, B. E., Goto, K., Sugawara, D., Richmond, B. M., Fujino, S. and Nishimura, Y. (2012).
Flow speed estimated by inverse modeling of sandy tsunami deposits: results from the
11 March 2011 tsunami on the coastal plain near the Sendai Airport, Honshu, Japan.
Sedimentary Geology, 282, 90-109.
Kihara, N. and Kaida, H. (2019). An application of semi-empirical physical model of
tsunami-bore pressure on buildings. Frontiers in Built Environment, 5, 3.
Kihara, N., Niida, Y., Takabatake, D., Kaida, H., Shibayama, A. and Miyagawa, Y. (2015).
Large-scale experiments on tsunami-induced pressure on a vertical tide wall. Coastal
Engineering, 99, 46-63.
Ko, H. T. S. and Yeh, H. (2018). On the splash-up of tsunami bore impact. Coastal
Engineering, 131, 1-11.
Krautwald, C., Von Häfen, H., Niebuhr, P., Vögele, K., Schürenkamp, D., Sieder, M. and
Goseberg, N. (2022). Large-scale physical modeling of broken solitary waves
impacting elevated coastal structures. Coastal Engineering Journal, 1-21.
Lukkunaprasit, P., Chinnarasri, C., Ruangrassamee, A., Weesakul, S. and Thanasisathit, N.
(2008). Experimental investigation of tsunami wave forces on buildings with
openings. In Solutions to Coastal Disasters 2008: Tsunamis, 82-93.
Macabuag, J., Raby, A., Pomonis, A., Nistor, I., Wilkinson, S. and Rossetto, T. (2018).
Tsunami design procedures for engineered buildings: a critical review. In Proceedings
of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Civil Engineering, 171(4), 166-178.
Madsen, P. A., Fuhrman, D. R. and Schäffer, H. A. (2008). On the solitary wave paradigm
for tsunamis. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 113(C12), C12012.
Manawasekara, C. D. (2013). Tsunami Impact on a Coastal Building and Effect of Spatial
Configuration of the Building on Acting Tsunami Force. Nagoya University, Japan.
Matsutomi, H., Sakakiyama, T., Nugroho, S. and Matsuyama, M. (2006). Aspects of
inundated flow due to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Coastal Engineering Journal, 48(02), 167-195.
Matsutomi, H., Shuto, N., Imamura, F. and Takahashi, T (2001). Field survey of the 1996
Irian Jaya earthquake tsunami in Biak Island. Natural hazards, 2001, 199–212.
MLIT (2011a). Concerning Setting the Safe Structure Method for Tsunamis Which Are
Presumed when Tsunami Inundation Occurs – Note 1318. Ministry of Land,
Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Tokyo, Japan.
MLIT (2011b). Further Information Concerning the Design Method of Safe Buildings that
Are Structurally Resistant to Tsunamis – Technical Advice No. 2570. Ministry of
Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Tokyo, Japan.
Moon, W. C., Lau, T. L. and Puay, H. T. (2020). Experimental investigations of tsunami
loading on internal wall of a building with various openings and wall configurations.
Coastal Engineering, 158, 103691.
Moon, W. C., Law, C. L., Liew, K. K., Koon, F. S. and Lau, T. L. (2019). Tsunami force
estimation for beachfront traditional buildings with elevated floor slab in Malaysia.
Coastal Engineering Journal, 61(4), 559-573.
Mori, N., Takahashi, T., Yasuda, T. and Yanagisawa, H. (2011). Survey of 2011 Tohoku
earthquake tsunami inundation and run‐up. Geophysical research letters, 38(7), L00G14
Nakamura, S. and Tsuchiya, Y. (1973). On the shock pressure of surge on a wall. Bulletin
of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, 23(3-4), 47-58.
Nandasena, N. A. K., Sasaki, Y. and Tanaka, N. (2012). Modeling field observations of the
2011 Great East Japan tsunami: Efficacy of artificial and natural structures on tsunami
mitigation. Coastal Engineering, 67, 1-13.
Nouri, Y., Nistor, I., Palermo, D. and Cornett, A. (2010). Experimental investigation of
tsunami impact on free standing structures. Coastal Engineering Journal, 52(1), 43-70.
Oetjen, J., Sundar, V., Venkatachalam, S., Reicherter, K., Engel, M., Schüttrumpf, H. and
Sannasiraj, S. A. (2022). A comprehensive review on structural tsunami
countermeasures. Natural Hazards, 1-31.
Palermo, D., Nistor, I., Al-Faesly, T. and Cornett, A. (2012). Impact of tsunami forces on
structures: The University of Ottawa experience. In Proceedings of the fifth
international tsunami symposium, 3-5.
Park, H., Tomiczek, T., Cox, D. T., van de Lindt, J. W. and Lomonaco, P. (2017).
Experimental modeling of horizontal and vertical wave forces on an elevated coastal
structure. Coastal Engineering, 128, 58-74.
Prabu, P., Murty Bhallamudi, S., Chaudhuri, A. and Sannasiraj, S. (2019). Numerical
investigations for mitigation of tsunami wave impact on onshore buildings using sea
dikes. Ocean Engineering, 187, 106159.
Qi, Z. X., Eames, I. and Johnson, E. R. (2014). Force acting on a square cylinder fixed in a
free-surface channel flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 756, 716-727.
Ramsden, J. D. (1996). Forces on a vertical wall due to long waves, bores, and dry-bed
surges. Journal of waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering, 122(3), 134-141.
Ramsden, J. D. and Raichlen, F. (1990). Forces on vertical wall caused by incident bores.
Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 116(5), 592-613.
Ravindar, R., Sriram, V., Schimmels, S. and Stagonas, D. (2021). Approaches in Scaling
Small-Scale Experiments on the Breaking Wave Interactions with a Vertical Wall
Attached with Recurved Parapets. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean
Engineering, 147(6), 04021034.
Robertson, I. N., Paczkowski, K., Riggs, H. R. and Mohamed, A. (2013). Experimental
investigation of tsunami bore forces on vertical walls. Journal of Offshore Mechanics
and Arctic Engineering, 135(2), 021601.
Rossetto, T., Peiris, N., Pomonis, A., Wilkinson, S.M., Del Re, D., Koo, R.and Gallocher,
S. (2007). The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004: Observations in Sri
Lanka and Thailand. Natural Hazards, 105-124.
Sannasiraj, S. A. (2018). Tsunami Hazards and Aspects on Design Loads. In Advances in
Indian Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, 67-91.
Sannasiraj, S.A. and Yeh, H. (2011) Numerical modelling of tsunami impact pressure on a
vertical wall. Coasts and Ports 2011, Diverse and Developing: Proceedings of the
20th Australasian Coastal and Ocean Engineering Conference and the 13th
Australasian Port and Harbour Conference, 647-652.
Sarjamee, S., Nistor, I. and Mohammadian, A. (2017). Numerical investigation of the
influence of extreme hydrodynamic forces on the geometry of structures using
OpenFOAM. Natural Hazards, 87(1), 213-235.
Schimmels, S., Sriram, V. and Didenkulova, I. (2016). Tsunami generation in a large scale
experimental facility. Coastal Engineering, 110, 32-41.
Shafiei, S., Melville, B. W. and Shamseldin, A. Y. (2016). Experimental investigation of
tsunami bore impact force and pressure on a square prism. Coastal Engineering, 110, 1-16.
Shen, J., Wei, L., Wu, D., Liu, H. and Huangfu, J. (2020). Spatiotemporal characteristics
of the dam-break induced surge pressure on a vertical wall. Coastal Engineering
Journal, 62(4), 566-581.
Sriram, V., Didenkulova, I., Sergeeva, A. and Schimmels, S. (2016). Tsunami evolution
and run-up in a large scale experimental facility. Coastal Engineering, 111, 1-12.
Stolle, J., Krautwald, C., Robertson, I., Achiari, H., Mikami, T., Nakamura, R., Takabatake,
T., Nishida, Y., Shibayama, T., Esteban, M., Nistor, T. and Goseberg, N. (2020).
Engineering lessons from the 28 September 2018 Indonesian tsunami: debris loading.
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 47(1), 1-12.
Streicher, M., Kortenhaus, A., Gruwez, V., Hofland, B., Chen, X., Hughes, S. A. and Hirt,
M. (2018). Prediction of dynamic and quasi-static impacts on vertical sea walls caused
by an overtopped bore. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 36, 28-28.
Sundar, V., Sannasiraj, S. A., Murali, K. and Sriram, V. (2020). Tsunami: Engineering
Perspective For Mitigation, Protection And Modeling (Vol. 50). World Scientific.
Sundar, V., Sannasiraj, S. A., Murali, K. and Sundaravadivelu, R. (2007). Runup and
inundation along the Indian peninsula, including the Andaman Islands, due to Great
Indian Ocean Tsunami. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ccean Engineering, 133(6), 401-413.
Suppasri, A., Mas, E., Charvet, I., Gunasekera, R., Imai, K., Fukutani, Y., Abe, Y. and
Imamura, F. (2013). Building damage characteristics based on surveyed data and
fragility curves of the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami. Natural Hazards, 66(2), 319-341.
Thusyanthan, N. I. and Gopal Madabhushi, S. P. (2008). Tsunami wave loading on coastal
houses: a model approach. In Proceedings of the institution of civil engineers-civil
engineering, 161(2), 77-86).
Triatmadja, R. and Nurhasanah, A. (2012). Tsunami force on buildings with openings and
protection. Journal of Earthquake and tsunami, 6(04), 1250024.
Wilson, J. S., Gupta, R., van de Lindt, J. W., Clauson, M. and Garcia, R. (2009). Behavior
of a one-sixth scale wood-framed residential structure under wave loading. Journal of
Performance of Constructed Facilities, 23(5), 336-345.
Winter, A. O., Alam, M. S., Shekhar, K., Motley, M. R., Eberhard, M. O., Barbosa, A. R.,
Lomonaco, P., Arduino, P. and Cox, D. T. (2020). Tsunami-like wave forces on an
elevated coastal structure: effects of flow shielding and channeling. Journal of
Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 146(4), 04020021.
Wüthrich, D., Pfister, M. and Schleiss, A. J. (2020). Forces on buildings with openings and
orientation in a steady post-tsunami free-surface flow. Coastal Engineering, 161, 103753.
Wüthrich, D., Pfister, M. and Schleiss, A. J. (2019). Effect of bed roughness on tsunami like waves and induced loads on buildings. Coastal Engineering, 152, 103508.
Wüthrich, D., Pfister, M., Nistor, I. and Schleiss, A. J. (2018a). Experimental study on the
hydrodynamic impact of tsunami-like waves against impervious free-standing
buildings. Coastal Engineering Journal, 60(2), 180-199.
Wüthrich, D., Pfister, M., Nistor, I. and Schleiss, A. J. (2018b). Experimental study on
forces exerted on buildings with openings due to extreme hydrodynamic events.
Coastal Engineering, 140, 72-86.
Wüthrich, D., Pfister, M., Nistor, I. and Schleiss, A. J. (2018c). Experimental study of
tsunami-like waves generated with a vertical release technique on dry and wet beds.
Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 144(4), 04018006
Xie, P. and Chu, V. H. (2019). The forces of tsunami waves on a vertical wall and on a
structure of finite width. Coastal Engineering, 149, 65-80.
Xie, P. and Chu, V. H. (2020). The impact of tsunami wave force on elevated coastal
structures. Coastal Engineering, 162, 103777.