Chapter 11. Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems


Hemlal Bhattarai
Jigme Namgyel Engineering College, Dewathang, Bhutan

Part of the book: Energy Conversion: Methods, Technology and Future Directions
Chapter DOI:


Renewable energy sources are currently becoming the most promising sources for electricity generation as the focus on mitigating climate change is gaining momentum across the globe. Control measure in the usage of fossil fuel-based power generation and utilizations are proving to be very costly to people’s health and the environment. As pressure mount on the issues of addressing climate change, the scales of renewable energy penetration is becoming more significant. Renewable energy sources like solar and wind show promising potential but these sources are weather and season dependent. This dependence require the use of effective energy storage systems. Reliable energy storage systems have thus become a core considerations when there is a need for reliable, high quality power supply. The development and advancement of energy storage systems is essential when working with both stand-alone and grid-connected renewable power system. Advancements in science and technology have produced many energy storage systems options, each with their own merits and drawbacks. However continued research and development into energy storage systems is crucial if the realization of renewable power for meeting energy demand is to be successful.

Keywords: battery energy storage, climate change, energy storage system, renewable energy


[1] “Electricalenergy – Energy Education.” Electrical_energy (accessed: Jun. 18, 2022).
[2] “Energy Production and Consumption- Our World in Data.” https://ourworldindata. org/energy-production-consumption (accessed: Jun. 18, 2022).
[3]  “CO2.Earth – GlobalCarbon Emissions.” (accessed: Jun. 18, 2022).
[4] “International Energy Outlook 2020 – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). (accessed: Jun. 18, 2022).
[5] R.B. Jackson, P. Friedlingstein, R. M. Andrew, J. G. Canadell, C. Le Quéré, and G. P. Peters, “Persistent fossil fuel growth threatens the Paris Agreement and planetary health.” Environmental Research Letters, vol. 14, no. 12, p. 121001, 2019, doi:
[6] M. Ge, J. Friedrich, and L. Vigna. “4 Charts Explain Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Countries and Sectors – World Resources Institute” Feb. 06, 2020. https://www. (accessed: Apr. 02, 2022).
[7] H. Bhattarai, “Policy intervention and its consequences on the environment to combat climate change– A case from Bhutan.” International Journal of Energy Applicationsand Technologies, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 132-142, 2021, doi: 10.31593/ijeat.941741.
[8] K. Buchholz. “Growing Emissions: Which Countries Are to Blame? – Infographic: Growing emissions.” Feb. 14, 2020. -growing-co2-emissions-most/ (accessed: Apr. 02, 2022).
[9] IRENA-2022. “Renewable capacity highlights Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2022/Apr/IRENA_-RE_Capacity_Highlights_ 2022.pdf?la=en&hash=6122BF5666A36BECD5AAA2050B011ECE255B3BC7, (accessed: June, 2022).
[10] IRENA-2017. “Electricity storage and renewables: Costs and markets to 2030.” Oct. 2017. (accessed: Mar. 01, 2022).
[11] J. San Martín, I. Zamora, J. San Martín, V. Aperribay, and P. Eguía, “Energy storage technologiesfor electric applications.” Renewable Energy and Power Quality Journal, pp. 593-598, 2011, doi:
[12] A. Javaid, “Activated carbon fiber for energy storage.” Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles, pp. 281-303, 2017, doi: 11-0.
[13] “How do solar batteries work? Solar energy storage explained.” Sep. 16, 2021. (accessed: Jun. 18, 2022).
[14] L. Balza, C. Gischler, N. Janson, S. Miller, and G. Servett. “Potential for Energy Storage in Combination with Renewable Energyin Latin America and the Caribbean.” Feb. 2014.
[15] V. Arangarajan, A. M. T. O., J. Chandran, G. Shafiullah, and A. Stojcevski, “Role of energy storage in the power systemnetwork,” in publication/292682073_Role_of_energy_storage_in_the_power_system_network, 2015.
[16] P. Denholm, E. Ela, B. Kirby, and M. Milligan, “Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation.” 2010, doi:
[17] M. Gyalai-Korpos, “The Role of Electricity Balancing and Storage: Developing Input Parameters for the European Calculator for Concept Modeling.” Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 811, 2020, doi:
[18] “Benefitsof Energy Storage | Energy Storage Assocation.” (accessed: Apr. 18, 2022).
[19] M.J. Leahy, D. Connolly, and D. N. Buckley, “Wind energy storage technologies,” in Transactions on State of the Art in Science and Engineering, vol. 44, doi:, 2010.
[20] C.K. Das, O. Bass, G. Kothapalli, T. S. Mahmoud, and D. Habibi, “Overview of energy storage systemsin distribution networks: Placement, sizing, operation, and power quality.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 91, pp. 1205-1230, 2018, doi:
[21] “BatteryPerformance Characteristics – How to specify and test a battery.” (accessed: Jun. 18, 2022).
[22] J. Kondoh, I. Ishii, H.. Yamaguchi, A. Murata, K. Otani, K. Sakuta, N. Higuchi, S. Sekine, M. Kamimoto.”Electricalenergy storage systems for energy networks.” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 1863-1874, 2000, doi:
[23] E.O. Ogunniyi and H. Pienaar, “Overview of batteryenergy storage system advancement for renewable (photovoltaic) energy applications.” 2017 International Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy (DUE), 2017, doi: 10.23919/due.2017.7931849.
[24] E. Hossain, J. Hossain, and F. Un-Noor, “Utility Grid: Present Challengesand Their Potential Solutions.” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 60294-60317, 2018, doi:
[25} Y. Zhang, J. Jiang, Y. An, L. Wu, H. Dou, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Wu, M. Dong, X. Zhang, Z. Guo,” Sodium‐ion capacitors: Materials, Mechanism, and Challenges.” ChemSusChem, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 2522-2539, 2020, doi: cssc.201903440.
[26] G. Dib, P. Haberschill, R. Rullière, R. Revellin, “Modelling small-scale trigenerative advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storagefor building application.” Energy, Volume 237, 2021, 569.
[27] U.S. Department of Energy, “2018 OTT energy storage spotlight – department of energy,” 2019. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 18-Jun-2022].
[28] Asian Development Bank, “Handbook on batteryenergy storage system,” 2018,
[29] P. Jain, “Energy Storage in Grids with High Penetration of Variable Generation,” 2017,
[30] H. Ibrahim, and A. Ilinca, “Techno-Economic Analysisof Different Energy Storage Technologies,” in Energy Storage – Technologies and Applications. London, United Kingdom: IntechOpen, 2013 [Online]. Available: chapters/42273 doi:
[31] F. Mohamad, T. Jiashen, L. Ching-Ming, C. Liang-Rui, “Development of Energy Storage Systemsfor Power Network Reliability: A Review” Energies 11, no. 9: 2278. 2018.


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!