Chapter 10. Some Rare and Endemic Fungal Species: The Cause of Difficult-To-Diagnose Community-Acquired Mycoses


Justus Amuche Nweze1,2,3, Julius Eyiuche Nweze1,2, Somtochukwu Cecilia Agbo4, Emeka Innocent Nwezeand Emmanuel A. Eze4
1Department of Ecosystem Biology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
2Institute of Soil Biology and Biogeochemistry, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Part of the book: The Book of Fungal Pathogens


Endemic mycoses caused by fungi such as Coccidioides sp. (valley fever), Paracoccidioides sp., Cryptococcus sp., Basidiobolus sp., Sporothrix sp., etc. have become a major health concern in areas where these diseases are prevalent. The epidemiology of these fungal diseases continues to evolve as infections are discovered outside their formerly limited endemic areas. These fungal diseases are transmitted during a variety of recreational and occupational activities, many of which are associated with known risk factors for these diseases. Because public health does not require surveillance for fungal diseases in most cases, most estimates are conservative. Public awareness of these rare mycoses should be raised, especially in developing countries that lack adequate diagnostic facilities. Because some of these pathogenic fungal diseases are rare and difficult to diagnose, it is important to understand the risks of infection. Early diagnosis and a better understanding of the risk factors and possible prevention strategies will go a long way in curbing the spread of the diseases. It is recommended that more attention be paid to the biology and epidemiology of these endemic fungi worldwide, with particular attention to diseases affecting developing countries, to avoid damage to agriculture, the environment, and especially human health. These infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with unusual respiratory illnesses or wounds. Medical professionals should suspect these mycoses based on the patient’s signs and symptoms to ensure appropriate treatment and prevention of these diseases.

Keywords: rare mycoses, coccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, basidiobolomycosis, sporotrichosis


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