Chapter 1. The Spectrum of Negative Symptoms across Schizophrenia and Affective Psychosis: Contribution to Prognosis


Petar S. Popov¹,², Stefan P. Popov¹,² and Drozdstoy S. Stoyanov¹
¹Medical University, Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
²University Multiprofile Hospital for Active Treatment “Sveti Georgi”, Clinic of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Chapter DOI:

Part of the book: Understanding Psychotic Disorders


Early dementia (“dementia praecox”), based mainly on negative symptoms and Manic-depressive psychosis were defined by Kraepelin. The concept was further developed by J.H. Jackson and Bleuler who introduced the term schizophrenia. The problem of the integrity of the disease as a single unit or a group of heterogenic disorders remains unanswered. Cognitive, social and affective (CAS) deficits are present in Schizophrenia, Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. CAS deficits are measured in clinical settings by means of Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and other methods. Besides in clinical evaluation of symptoms of schizophrenia, neurophysiological tests like SDT, Stroop test, Luria test, are also used for application as stimuli in functional MRI procedures. In the lack of reliable clinical differentiation the only possible way to distinguish Schizophrenia, Bipolar Depression, and MDD on the level of deficit symptoms is by using fMRI-adapted assessment tools in the search for potential biological markers In this review fMRI most recent advances and research findings are discussed.

Keywords: schizophrenia – deficit type, bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, fMRI, cognitive social and affective impairment


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