Chapter 1. Plasmids and Their Role in Human Diseases


Anukul Paul, Sriradha Ganguli and Ranadhir Chakraborty
OMICS Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, West Bengal, India

Part of the book: Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 62


Plasmids are DNA molecules that may replicate independently of chromosomal DNA and are found in a variety of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Even though they aren’t a part of the bacterial genome, their presence is critical for bacterial survival and stability in adverse settings. The capacity of broad host range (BHR) plasmids to disseminate favourable genetic features among species as well as among taxonomically distant species is of great interest. The presence of genes that code for antibiotics and antibiotic hydrolyzing enzymes, toxic heavy metal resistance, radiation resistance, xenobiotic-compound degradation, virulence determinants, and bacteriocin production can all be ascribed to the calibre of plasmids. Plasmids can also carry the genetic information for a type IV secretion system, such as the tumour inducing (Ti) plasmid in virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is involved in gene transfer. Plasmids acquire mobile genetic elements (insertion sequences, transposons) that mobilise antimicrobial resistance genes and promote horizontal resistance determinant transfer among bacteria of various species and genera, depending on their host range, conjugative properties, and conjugation efficiency. In bacteria like Escherichia coli, Yersinia spp., and Shigella spp., plasmids encode virulence factors that are responsible for pathogenicity. The existence of virulence plasmids in pathogenic bacteria is ubiquitous, albeit the genetic composition and involvement at different stages of the disease vary by species. Virulence plasmids have a low copy number (10 per cell) but are big (>40 kb) and work similarly to episomal PAIs (Pathogenicity Islands) by undergoing internal remodelling and horizontal gene transfer. Certain virulence plasmids can also exchange virulence components with the genome or integrate with it, resulting in a genomic PAI. Viruses that cause African swine fever, such as the iridovirus, have structures that are similar to plasmids. Borrelia species cause Lyme disease and relapsing fever via their linear plasmids, which appear to encode both hemolysins, which harm blood cells, and surface proteins, which protect the bacteria from the host immune system. Restriction/anti-restriction mechanisms and partitioning systems are frequently encoded by promiscuous broad-range plasmids, ensuring sustained inheritance during bacterial cell division. These strategies encourage the persistence of plasmids while providing no advantage to the bacterial host. Purified plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccines, on the other hand, have opened up new ways to treat emerging infectious pathogens like HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), SARS coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome virus), and highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses that have evolved strategies to rapidly change their genetic compositions and for which other conventional vaccines have failed. A gene encoding an antigen of the target pathogen is included in a plasmid used in DNA vaccination (immunogen gene). A promoter “turns on” protein antigen expression in the host cell, and a terminator “turns it off” (a polyadenylation signal sequence). In our ever-changing microbial environment, plasmid DNA vaccines have the potential to improve human health by preventing diseases through immunization. Apart from all of these aspects, the current review will shed light on how plasmids contribute to pathogen virulence, the fitness cost they impose on their hosts, and how their coevolution with the host resolves the plasmid paradox, as well as how temperature affects the genetic plasticity of virulence plasmids.


Adams, Vicki, Jihong Li, Jessica A. Wisniewski, Francisco A. Uzal, Robert J. Moore,
Bruce A. McClane, and Julian I. Rood. 2015. “Virulence Plasmids of Spore‐Forming
Bacteria.”Plasmids:Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery: 533-557.
Agnoli, Kirsty, Carmen Frauenknecht, Roman Freitag, Stephan Schwager, Christian Jenul,
Annette Vergunst, Aurelien Carlier, and Leo Eberl. 2014. “The thirdreplicon of
members of the Burkholderiacepaciacomplex, plasmid pC3, plays a role in stress
tolerance.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80, no. 4: 1340-1348.
Aktories, Klaus, Carsten Schwan, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, and Alexander E. Lang. 2012.
“Bidirectional attack on the act in cytoskeleton. Bacterial protein toxins causing
polymerization or depolymerization of actin.”Toxicon 60, no. 4: 572-581.
Arutyunov, Denis, and Laura S. Frost. 2013. “F conjugation: back to the
beginning.”Plasmid 70, no. 1: 18-32.
Austin, Stuart, Marcia Ziese, and Nat Sternberg. 1981. “A novelrole for site-specific
recombination in maintenance of bacterial replicons.” Cell 25, no. 3: 729-736.
Baltrus, D.A.2013. “Exploring the costs of horizontal gene transfer.”Trends Ecol. Evol.
Bannam, Trudi L., Wee Lin Teng, Dieter Bulach, Dena Lyras, and Julian I. Rood.
2006.”Functional identification of conjugation and replication regions of the
tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3 from Clostridium perfringens.” Journal of
Bacteriology 188, no. 13: 4942-4951.
Bäumler, Andreas J., Renee M. Tsolis, and Fred Heffron.1996.”Contribution of fimbrial
operons to attachment to and invasion of epithelial celllines by Salmonella
typhimurium.” Infection and Immunity 64, no. 5: 1862-1865.
Berglund, Peter, Cristian Smerdou, Marina N. Fleeton, and Peter Liljeström. 1998.
“Enhancing immune responses using suicidal DNA vaccines.” Nature Biotechnology
16, no. 6: 562-565.
Bergstrom, Carl T., Marc Lipsitch, and Bruce R. Levin.2000.”Natural selection, infectious
transfer and the existence conditions for bacterial plasmids.” Genetics 155, no. 4:
Billington, Stephen J., Eva U. Wieckowski, Mahfuzur R. Sarker, Dawn Bueschel, J. Glenn
Songer, and Bruce A. McClane. 1998. “Clostridium perfringens type E animal enteritis
isolates with highly conserved, silent entero toxin gene sequences.”Infection and
Immunity 66, no. 9: 4531-4536.
Binh, Chu Thi Thanh, Holger Heuer, Martin Kaupenjohann, and Kornelia Smalla.2008.
“Piggery manure used for soil fertilization is a reservoir for transferable antibiotic
resistance plasmids.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology 66, no. 1: 25-37.
Bonnin, Rémy A., Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann, Felix G. Eikmeyer, Daniel Wibberg,
Alfred Pühler, and Andreas Schlüter.2013. “Complete sequence of broad-host-range
plasmid pNOR-2000 harbouring the metallo-β-lactamase genebla VIM-2 from
Pseudomonas aeruginosa.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 68, no. 5: 1060-1065.
Boyd, Bret M., Julie M. Allen, Nam-Phuong Nguyen, PranjalVachaspati, Zachary S.
Quicksall, Tandy Warnow, Lawrence Mugisha, Kevin P. Johnson, and David L. Reed.
2017. “Primates, lice and bacteria: speciation and genome evolution in the symbionts
of hominid lice.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 34, no. 7: 1743-1757.
Boyd, E. Fidelma, and Daniel L. Hartl.1998.”Salmonella virulence plasmid:modular
acquisition of the spv virulence region by an F-plasmid in Salmonella enterica
subspecies I and insertion into the chromosome of subspecies II, IIIa, IV and VII
isolates.” Genetics 149, no. 3: 1183-1190.
Boyd, E. Fidelma, Charles W. Hill, Stephen M. Rich, and Daniel L. Hartl.1996.”Mosaic
structure of plasmids from natural populations of Escherichia coli.” Genetics 143, no.
3: 1091-1100.
Brefort, Georges, Michel Magot, Hélène Ionesco, and Madeleine Sebald. 1997.
“Characterization and transferability of Clostridium perfringens plasmids.”Plasmid 1,
no. 1: 52-66.
Brotcke Zumsteg, A., Goosmann, C., Brinkmann, V., Morona, R. and Zychlinsky, A., 2014.
IcsA Is a Shigella flexneri Adhesin Regulated by the Type III Secretion System and
Required for Pathogenesis. Cell Host & Microbe, 15(4), pp.435-445.
Brown, Gregory G., and Patrick M. Finnegan. 1989. “RNA plasmids.”International Review
of Cytology117: 1-56.
Brown, T. 2010. “Vectors for genecloning: Plasmids and bacteriophages.” In Gene Cloning
and DNA Analysis: An Introduction, 6th ed. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.
Brüggemann, Holger, Rosalie Bauer, Stéphanie Raffestin, and Gerhard Gottschalk. 2004.
“Characterization of a hemeoxygenase of Clostridium tetani and its possible role in
oxygentolerance.”Archives of Microbiology182, no. 2: 259-263.
Bruggemann, Holger, Sebastian Baumer, Wolfgang Florian Fricke, Arnim Wiezer, Heiko
Liesegang, Iwona Decker, Christina Herzberg, Rosa Martinez-Arias, Rainer Merkl,
Anke Henne, Gerhard Gottschalk. 2003. “The genomesequence of Clostridium tetani,
the causative agent of tetanusdisease.”Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 100, no. 3: 1316-1321.
Buchrieser, Carmen, Philippe Glaser, Christophe Rusniok, Hafed Nedjari, Helene
d’Hauteville, Frank Kunst, Philippe Sansonetti, and Claude Parsot. 2000. “The
Virulence Plasmid Pwr100 and the Repertoire of Proteins Secreted by the Type III
Secretion Apparatus of Shigella Flexneri.” Molecular Microbiology 38 (4): 760-771.
Buchrieser, Carmen, Philippe Glaser, Christophe Rusniok, Hafed Nedjari, Helene
d’Hauteville, Frank Kunst, Philippe Sansonetti, and Claude Parsot. 2000. “The
virulence plasmid pWR100 and the repertoire of proteins secreted by the type III
secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri.”Molecular Microbiology38, no. 4: 760-771.
Bukowski, Michal, Robert Lyzen, Weronika M. Helbin, Emilia Bonar, Agnieszka
Szalewska-Palasz, Grzegorz Wegrzyn, Grzegorz Dubin, Adam Dubin, and Benedykt
Wladyka. 2013.”A regulatory role for Staphylococcus aureus toxin–antitoxin system
PemIKSa.” Nature Communications 4, no. 1: 1-10.
Burland, Valerie, Ying Shao, Nicole T. Perna, Guy Plunkett, Frederick R. Blattner, and
Heidi J. Sofia. 1998. “The complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence
plasmid of Escherichia coli O157: H7.” Nucleic Acids, no. 18: 4196-4204.
Caleo, Matteo, and Giampietro Schiavo. 2009. “Central effects of tetanus and botulinum
neurotoxins.” Toxicon54, no. 5: 593-599.
Casali, Nicola, and Andrew Preston, eds. 2003.E. coli Plasmid Vectors: Methods and
Applications. Vol. 235. Springer Science & Business Media.
Cavanaugh, Dan C., and Raymond Randall. 1959. “The role of multiplication of
Pasteurellapestis in mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of flea-borne
plague.” The Journal of Immunology 83, no. 4: 348-363.
Charnetzky, W. T., and W. W. Shuford. 1985. “Survival and growth of Yersinia pestis
within macrophages and an effect of the loss of the 47-megadalton plasmid on growth
in macrophages.” Infection and Immunity 47, no. 1: 234-241.
Chua, Kaw Yan, I-Chun Kuo, and Chiung-Hui Huang. 2009. “DNA vaccines for the
prevention and treatment of allergy.” Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical
Immunology 9, no. 1: 50-54.
Clarke, S. C., R. D. Haigh, P. P. E. Freestone, and P. H. Williams. “Virulence of
enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, a global pathogen. 2003. “Clinical Microbiology
Reviews 16, no. 3: 365-378.
Cohan F. M. 1994. “The effects of rare but promiscuous genetic exchange on evolutionary
divergence in prokaryotes.” Am Naturalist 143: 965–986.
Cottell, Jennifer L., Mark A. Webber, and Laura J. V. Piddock.2012.”Persistence of
transferable extended-spectrum-β-lactamase resistance in the absence of antibiotic
pressure.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56, no. 9: 4703-4706.
Couturier, M. A. R. T. I. N. E., Francoise Bex, Peter L. Bergquist, and Werner K.
Maas.1988. “Identification and classification of bacterial plasmids.” Microbiological
Reviews 52, no. 3: 375-395.
Cover, Timothy L. 1989.”Aber RC. Yersinia enterocolitica.” N Engl J Med321: 16-24.
Datta, Naomi, and R. W. Hedges.1972. “Host ranges of R factors.” Microbiology 70, no. 3:
David P. Clark, Nanette Jean Pazdernik, and Michelle R. McGehee. 2019. Molecular
Biology. Academic Press.
De Gelder, Leen, Jose M. Ponciano, Paul Joyce, and Eva M. Top. 2007. “Stability of a
promiscuous plasmid in different hosts: no guarantee for a long-term relationship.”
Microbiology 153, no. 2: 452-463.
De Gelder, Leen, Julia J. Williams, José M. Ponciano, Masahiro Sota, and Eva M. Top.
2008. “Adaptive plasmid evolution results in host-range expansion of a broad-host range plasmid.” Genetics 178, no. 4: 2179-2190.
Deborah Chen, Huiwen, and Gad Frankel. 2005. “Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli:
unravelling pathogenesis.”FEMS Microbiology Reviews 29, no. 1: 83-98.
DebRoy, Chitrita, and Carol W. Maddox. 2001. “Identification of virulence attributes of
gastrointestinal Escherichia coli isolates of veterinary significance.”Animal Health
Research Reviews 2, no. 2: 129-140.
DiCenzo, George C., Allyson M. MacLean, Branislava Milunovic, G. Brian Golding, and
Turlough M. Finan. 2014. “Examination of prokaryotic multipartite genome evolution
through experimental genome reduction.” PLoSgenetics 10, no. 10: e1004742.
Dionisio, F., I. C. Conceicao, A. C. R. Marques, L. Fernandes, and I. Gordo. 2005. “The
evolution of a conjugative plasmid and its ability to fitness.”Biology Letters 1, no. 2:
Donnelly, John J., Jeffrey B. Ulmer, and Margaret A. Liu. 1996. “DNA vaccines.” Life
Sciences 60, no. 3: 163-172.
Doran, Kelly S., Donald R. Helinski, and Igor Konieczny.1999.”Host‐dependent
requirement for specific DnaA boxes for plasmid RK2 replication.” Molecular
Microbiology 33, no. 3: 490-498.
Doyle, Michael P., Francisco Diez-Gonzalez, and Colin Hill, eds. 2020. Food
Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. John Wiley & Sons.
Easter, Carla L., Helmut Schwab, and Donald R. Helinski.1998. “Role of the parCBA
operon of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 in stable plasmid maintenance.” Journal
of Bacteriology180, no. 22: 6023-6030.
Eberl, Leo, Claus S. Kristensen, Michael Givskov, Elisabeth Grohmann, Martin Gerlitz,
and Helmut Schwab.1994.”Analysis of the multimer resolution system encoded by the
parCBA operon of broad‐host‐range plasmid RP4.” Molecular Microbiology 12, no.
1: 131-141.
Ebersbach, Gitte, and Kenn Gerdes. 2005. “Plasmid segregation mechanisms.” Annual
Review of Genetics 39, no. 1: 453-479.
Enne, Virve I., Peter M. Bennett, David M. Livermore, and Lucinda MC Hall. 2004.
“Enhancement of host fitness by the sul2-coding plasmid p9123 in the absence of
selective pressure.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy53, no. 6: 958-963.
Fernández-López, Raúl, M. Pilar Garcillán-Barcia, Carlos Revilla, Miguel Lázaro, Luis
Vielva, and Fernando De La Cruz. 2006. “Dynamics of the IncW genetic backbone
imply general trends in conjugative plasmid evolution.” FEMS Microbiology Reviews
30, no. 6: 942-966.
Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E., Derek J. Fisher, Rachael Poon, Sameera Sayeed, Vicki
Adams, Julian I. Rood, Bruce A. McClane, and Francisco A. Uzal. 2007. “Both
epsilon-toxin and beta-toxin are important for the lethal properties of Clostridium
perfringens type B isolates in the mouse intravenous injection model.” Infection and
Immunity 75, no. 3: 1443-1452.
Fernández-Tresguerres, M. E., M. Martín, D. García de Viedma, R. Giraldo, and Ramón
Díaz-Orejas.1995.”Host growth temperature and a conservative amino acid
substitution in the replication protein of pPS10 influence plasmid host range.” Journal
of Bacteriology 177, no. 15: 4377-4384.
Fields, Patricia I., Ronald V. Swanson, Constantine G. Haidaris, and Fred Heffron. 1986.
“Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that cannot survive within the macrophage are
avirulent.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83, no. 14: 5189-5193.
Finch, Roger G., David Greenwood, Richard J. Whitley, and S. Ragnar Norrby. 2010.
Antibiotic and Chemotherapy E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Finn Jr, Charles W., Richard P. Silver, William H. Habig, M. Carolyn Hardegree, Gerald
Zon, and Claude F. Garon. 1984. “The structural gene for tetanus neurotoxin is on a
plasmid.” Science 224, no. 4651: 881-884.
Fischer, Egil A. J., Cindy M. Dierikx, Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen, Herman J. W. Van
Roermund, Dik J. Mevius, Arjan Stegeman, and Don Klinkenberg. 2014. “The IncI1
plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene persists in in vitro culture of an Escherichia
coli strain from broilers.” BMC Microbiology 14, no. 1: 1-9.
Foucault, M.-L., Depardieu, F.,Courvalin,P.,andGrillot-Courvalin,C.2010. “Inducible
expression eliminated the fitness cost of vancomycin resistance in enterococci.” Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(39):16964-16969.
Fredericq, Pierre. 1969. “The recombination of colicinogenic factors with other episomes
and plasmids.” In Ciba Foundation Symposium‐Synthesis and Metabolism of
Adrenocortical Steroids (Colloquia on Endocrinology), pp. 163-178. Chichester, UK:
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Funnell, E. B. & Phillips, J. G.2004. Plasmid Biology. American Society for Microbiology
Fynan, Ellen F., Robert G. Webster, Deborah H. Fuller, Joel R. Haynes, Joseph C. Santoro,
and Harriet L. Robinson. 1993. “DNA vaccines: protective immunizations by
parenteral, mucosal, and gene-gun inoculations.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences 90, no. 24: 11478-11482.
Gaastra, Wim, and Ann-Mari Svennerholm. 1996. “Colonization factors of human
enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).” Trends in Microbiology4, no. 11: 444-452.
Garcia, J. P., V. Adams, J. Beingesser, Meredith Lesley Hughes, Rachael Poon, Dena
Lyras, A. Hill, Bruce A. McClane, Julian Ian Rood, and Francisco A. Uzal. 2013.
“Epsilon toxinis essential for the virulence of Clostridium perfringens type D infection
in sheep, goats, and mice.” Infection and Immunity 81, no. 7: 2405-2414.
Gerdes, Kenn, Martin Howard, and Florian Szardenings.2010.”Pushing and pulling in
prokaryotic DNA segregation.” Cell 141, no. 6: 927-942.
Ghaffarifar, F. 2018. “Plasmid DNA vaccines: where are we now.” Drugs Today 54, no. 5:
Götz, A., Pukall, R., Smit, E., Tietze, E., Prager, R., Tschäpe, H., van Elsas, J. D., & Smalla,
K. 1996. “Detection and characterization of broad-host-range plasmids in
environmental bacteria by PCR.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(7),
Gulig, Paul A., and Thomas J. Doyle. 1993. “The Salmonella typhimurium virulence
plasmid increases the growth rate of salmonellae in mice.” Infection and Immunity 61,
no. 2: 504-511.
Gurjar, Abhijit, Jihong Li, and Bruce A. McClane. 2010. “Characterization of toxin
plasmids in Clostridium perfringens type C isolates.” Infection and Immunity 78, no.
11: 4860-4869.
Gurunathan, Sanjay, Dennis M. Klinman, and Robert A. Seder. 2000. “DNA vaccines:
immunology, application, and optimization.” Annual Review of Immunology 18, no.
1: 927-974.
Haines, Anthony S., Parveen Akhtar, Elton R. Stephens, Karen Jones, Christopher M.
Thomas, Caroline D. Perkins, Jacqueline R. Williams, Martin J. Day, and John C. Fry.
2006. “Plasmids from fresh water environments capable of IncQ retrotransfer are
diverse and include pQKH54, a new IncP-1 subgroup archetype.” Microbiology 152,
no. 9: 2689-2701.
Hariharan, Mangala J., David A. Driver, Kay Townsend, Duane Brumm, John M. Polo,
Barbara A. Belli, Donald J. Catton, David Hsu, Denise Mittelstaedt, James E.
McCormack, Linda Karavodin, Thomas W. Dubensky, Jr., Stephen M. W. Chang, and
Theresa A. Banks. 1998. “DNA immunization against herpes simplex virus: enhanced
efficacy using a Sindbis virus-based vector.”Journal of Virology 72, no. 2: 950-958.
Harrison, E., Guymer, D., Spiers, A.J., Paterson, S., and Brockhurst, M.A. 2015. “Parallel
compensatory evolution stabilizes plasmids across the parasitism-mutualism
continuum.” Curr. Biol 25:2034-2039.
Harrison, Ellie, and Michael A. Brockhurst.2012.”Plasmid-mediated horizontal gene
transfer is a coevolutionary process.” Trends in Microbiology 20, no. 6:262-267.
Harrison, Peter W., Ryan P. J.Lower, Nayoung K. D. Kim, and J. Peter W.
Young.2010.”Introducing the bacterial ‘chromid’: not a chromosome, not a plasmid.”
Trends in Microbiology 18, no. 4: 141-148.
Harry, Kathryn H., Ruanbao Zhou, Lee Kroos, and Stephen B. Melville. 2009. “Sporulation
and enterotoxin (CPE) synthesis are controlled by the sporulation-specific sigma
factors SigE and SigK in Clostridium perfringens.” Journal of Bacteriology 191, no.
8: 2728-2742.
Haugan, Kåre, Ponniah Karunakaran, Anne Tøndervik, and Svein Valla.1995. “The host
range of RK2 minimal replicon copy-up mutants is limited by species-specific
differences in the maximum tolerable copy number.” Plasmid 33, no. 1:27-39.
Heffernan, E. J., J. Harwood, J. Fierer, and D. Guiney. 1992. “The Salmonella typhimurium
virulence plasmid complement resistance generckishomologous to a family of
virulence-related outer membrane protein genes, including pagC and ail.” Journal of
Bacteriology 174, no. 1: 84-91.
Helling, R.B., Kinney, T., and Adams, J. 1981. “The Maintenance of Plasmid-containing
Organisms in Populations of Escherichia coli.” J.Gen.Microbiol. 123: 129-141.
Hemmi, Hiroaki, Osamu Takeuchi, Taro Kawai, TsuneyasuKaisho, Shintaro Sato, Hideki
Sanjo, Makoto Matsumoto, Katsuaki Hoshino, Hermann Wagner, Kiyoshi Takeda &
Shizuo Akira. 2000. “A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA.” Nature 408, no.
6813: 740-745.
Heuer, Holger, Chu T. T. Binh, Sven Jechalke, Christoph Kopmann, Ute Zimmerling, Ellen
Krögerrecklenfort, Thomas Ledger, Bernardo González, Eva Top, and Kornelia
Smalla. 2012. “IncP-1ε plasmids are important vectors of antibiotic resistance genes
in agricultural systems: diversification driven by class 1 integron gene cassettes.”
Frontiers in Microbiology3: 2.
Heuer, Holger, Randal E. Fox, and Eva M. Top.2007.”Frequent conjugative transfer
accelerates adaptation of a broad-host-range plasmid to an unfavorable Pseudomonas
putida host.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology59, no. 3: 738-748.
Hill, K. K., T. J. Smith, C. H. Helma, L. O. Ticknor, B. T. Foley, R. T. Svensson, J. L.
Brown, E. A. Johnson, L. A. Smith, R. T. Okinaka, P. J. Jackson, J. D. Marks. 2007.
“Genetic diversity among botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridial strains.”
Journal of Bacteriology189, no. 3: 818-832.
Hill, Karen K., and Theresa J. Smith. 2012. “Genetic diversity within Clostridium
botulinum serotypes, botulinum neurotoxin gene clusters and toxin subtypes.” In
Botulinum neurotoxins, pp. 1-20. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Hong, H, Jung, J, and Park, W. 2014. “Plasmid-EncodedTetracycline Efflux
PumpProteinAltersBacterial Stress Responses and Ecological Fitness of
Acinetobacter oleivorans.” PLoS One, 9(9): e107716.
Huang, David B., AlakanandaMohanty, Herbert L. DuPont, Pablo C. Okhuysen, and Tom
Chiang. 2006. “A review of an emerging enteric pathogen: entero aggregative
Escherichia coli.” Journal of Medical Microbiology 55, no. 10: 1303-1311.
Huang, I-Hsiu, Michael Waters, Roberto R. Grau, and Mahfuzur R. Sarker. 2004.
“Disruption of the gene (spo0A) encoding sporulation transcription factor blocks
endospore formation and enterotoxin production in enterotoxigenic Clostridium
perfringens type A.”FEMS Microbiology Letters233, no. 2: 233-240.
Hughes, Julie M., Brian K. Lohman, Gail E. Deckert, Eric P. Nichols, Matt Settles, Zaid
Abdo, and Eva M. Top. 2012. “The role of clonal interference in the evolutionary
dynamics of plasmid-host adaptation.” MBio 3, no. 4: e00077-12.
Humphrey, Bruce, Nicholas R. Thomson, Christopher M. Thomas, Karen Brooks, Mandy
Sanders, Anne A. Delsol, John M. Roe, Peter M. Bennett, and Virve I.
Enne.2012.”Fitness of Escherichia coli strains carrying expressed and partially silent
IncN and IncP1 plasmids.” BMC Microbiology 12, no: 1-9.
Ingram, Lewis C., M. H. Richmond, and R. B. Sykes.1973.”Molecular characterization of
the R factor simplicated in the carbenicillin resistance of a sequence of Pseudomonas
aeruginosa strains isolated from burns.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 3,
no. 2: 279-288.
Israel, M. A., H. W. Chan, S. L. Hourihan, W. P. Rowe, and M. A. Martin. 1979.
“Biologicalactivity of polyoma viral DNA in mice and hamsters.” Journal of Virology
29, no. 3: 990-996.
Jacob, François, and Elie L. Wollman.1996. Sexuality and the Genetics of Bacteria.
Academic Press.
Johnson, James R., and Thomas A. Russo. 2002. “Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia
coli: the other bad E coli. ” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 139, no. 3:
Johnson, James R., and Thomas A. Russo. 2005. “Molecular epidemiology of
extraintestinal pathogenic (uropathogenic) Escherichia coli.” International Journal of
Medical Microbiology 295, no. 6-7: 383-404.
Johnson, Timothy J., and Lisa K. Nolan. 2009. “Pathogenomics of the virulence plasmids
of Escherichia coli.” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 73, no. 4: 750-774.
Johnson, Timothy J., Catherine W. Giddings, Shelley M. Horne, Penelope S. Gibbs,
Richard E. Wooley, Jerod Skyberg, Pam Olah, Ronda Kercher, Julie S. Sherwood,
Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan 2002. “Location of increased serum survival gene and
selected virulence traits on a conjugative R plasmid in an avian Escherichia coli
isolate.” Avian Diseases 46, no. 2: 342-352.
Johnson, Timothy J., Randall S. Singer, Richard E. Isaacson, Jessica L. Danzeisen, Kevin
Lang, Kristi Kobluk, Bernadette Rivet, Borewicz K., Frye J. G., Englen M., Anderson
J., Davies P. R.2015. “In vivo transmission of an IncA/C plasmid in Escherichia coli
depends on tetracycline concentration, and acquisition of the plasmid results in a
variable cost of fitness.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81, no. 10: 3561-3570.
Johnson, Timothy J., Yvonne M. Wannemuehler, Sara J. Johnson, Catherine M. Logue,
David G. White, Curt Doetkott, and Lisa K. Nolan. 2007. “Plasmid replicon typing of
commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.” Applied and Environmental
Microbiology 73, no. 6: 1976-1983.
Kaper, James B. 2005. “Pathogenic escherichia coli.” Int J Med Microbiol 295: 355-356.
Kaper, James B., James P. Nataro, and Harry L. T. Mobley. 2004. “Pathogenic escherichia
coli.” Nature Reviews Microbiology2, no. 2: 123-140.
Kern, Justin W., and Olaf Schneewind. 2008. “BslA, a pXO1‐encoded adhesin of Bacillus
anthracis.” Molecular Microbiology 68, no. 2: 504-515.
Klinman, Dennis M., Galina Yamshchikov, and Yoshiaki Ishigatsubo. 1997. “Contribution
of CpG motifs to the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines.” The Journal of Immunology
158, no. 8: 3635-3639.
Knutton, S., M. M. Baldini, J. B. Kaper, and A. S. McNeish. 1987. “Role of plasmid encoded adherence factors in adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2
cells.” Infection and Immunity 55, no. 1: 78-85.
Koch R. 1877. “The etiology of anthrax, based on the life history of Bacillus anthracis.”
Contributions to the Biology of Plants 2:277–310.
Koehler, Theresa M. 2009. “Bacillus anthracis physiology and genetics.” Molecular
Aspects of Medicine 30, no. 6: 386-396.
Kolsto, Anne-Brit, Nicolas J. Tourasse, and Ole Andreas Okstad. 2009. “What sets Bacillus
anthracis apart from other Bacillus species?” Annual Review of Microbiology 63, no.
1: 451-476.
Korch, Shaleen B., Heidi Contreras, and Josephine E. Clark-Curtiss.2009. “Three
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rel toxin-antitoxin modules inhibit mycobacterial
growth and are expressed in infected human macrophages.” Journal of Bacteriology
191, no. 5: 1618-1630.
Kotloff, Karen L., Jonathan P. Winickoff, Bernard Ivanoff, John D. Clemens, David L.
Swerdlow, Philippe J. Sansonetti, G. K. Adak, and M. M. Levine. 1999. “Global
burden of Shigella infections: implications for vaccine development and
implementation of control strategies.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77,
no. 8: 651.
Krause, M., and D. G. Guiney. 1999. “Identification of a multimer resolution system
involved in stabilization of the Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid pSDL2.” Journal
of Bacteriology 173, no. 18: 5754-5762.
Lacatena, R. M., and G. Cesareni.1981.”Base pairing of RNA I with its complementary
sequence in the primer precursorinhibits ColE1 replication.” Nature 294, no. 5842:
Laddy, Dominick J., and David B. Weiner. 2006. “From plasmids to protection: a review
of DNA vaccines against infectious diseases.”International Reviews of Immunology
25, no. 3-4: 99-123.
Lawley, T. D., W. A. Klimke, M. J. Gubbins, and L. S. Frost. 2003. “F factor conjugation
is a true type IV secretion system.” FEMS Microbiology Letters 224, no. 1: 1-15.
Lawrence, Gregor. 2005. “The pathogenesis of pig-bel in Papua New Guinea.” Papua New
Guinea Medical Journal 48, no. 1/2: 39-49.
Lazdins, Alessandro, Anand Prakash Maurya, Claire E. Miller, Muhammad Kamruzzaman,
Shuting Liu, Elton R. Stephens, Georgina S. Lloyd, Mona Haratianfar, Melissa
Chamberlain, Anthony S. Haines, Jan-Ulrich Kreft, Mark. A. Webber, Jonathan
Iredell, Christopher M. Thomas. 2020. “Potentiation of curing by a broad-host-range
self-transmissible vector for displacing resistance plasmids to tackle AMR.” PloS one
15, no. 1: e0225202.
Le Gall, Tony, Maria Mavris, Maria Celeste Martino, Maria Lina Bernardini, Erick
Denamur, and Claude Parsot. 2005. “Analysis of virulence plasmid gene expression
defines three classes of effectors in the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri.”
Microbiology 151, no. 3: 951-962.
Lean, S.S.,Yeo, C.C., Suhaili, Z.,Thong, K.L. 2015.“Comparative Genomics of Two ST
195 Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with Different Susceptibility to
Polymyxin Revealed Underlying Resistance Mechanism.” Front. Microbiol. 6.
Lederberg J, Tatum E. L. 1946. “Gene recombination in E. Coli.” Nature 158:558–562.
Lederberg, Joshua. 1952. “Cell genetics and hereditary symbiosis.” Physiological Reviews
32, no. 4: 403-430.
Lee, S.W., and Edlin, G. 1985. “Expression of tetracycline resistance in pBR322
derivatives reduces the reproductive fitness of plasmid-containing Escherichia coli.”
Gene, 39:173–180.
Leitner, Wolfgang W., Leroy N. Hwang, Michael J. Deveer, Aimin Zhou, Robert H.
Silverman, Bryan R. G. Williams, Thomas W. Dubensky, Han Ying, and Nicholas P.
Restifo. 2003. “Alphavirus-based DNA vaccine breaks immunological tolerance by
activating innate antiviral pathways.” Nature Medicine 9, no. 1: 33-39.
Levine, Myron M., James P. Nataro, Helge Karch, Mary M. Baldini, James B. Kaper,
Robert E. Black, Mary Lou Clements, and Alison D. O’Brien. 1985. “The diarrheal
response of humans to some classic serotypes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is
dependent on a plasmid encoding an entero adhesiveness factor.” Journal of Infectious
Diseases 152, no. 3: 550-559.
Levine, Myron M., Jian-guo Xu, James B. Kaper, Hermy Lior, Valeria Prado, Ben Tall,
James Nataro, Helge Karch, and Kaye Wachsmuth. 1987. “A DNA probe to identify
entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli of 0157: H7 and other serotypes that cause
hemorrhagic colitis and hemolyticuremic syndrome.” Journal of Infectious Diseases
156, no. 1: 175-182.
Li, Jihong, and Bruce A. McClane. 2010. “Evaluating the involvement of alternative sigma
factors SigF and SigG in Clostridium perfringens sporulation and enterotoxin
synthesis.”Infection and Immunity 78, no. 10: 4286-4293.
Li, Jihong, Kazuaki Miyamoto, and Bruce A. McClane. 2007. “Comparison of virulence
plasmids among Clostridium perfringens type E isolates.” Infection and Immunity 75,
no. 4: 1811-1819.
Li, Jihong, Vicki Adams, Trudi L. Bannam, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Jorge P. Garcia, Francisco
A. Uzal, Julian I. Rood, and Bruce A. McClane. 2013. “Toxinplasmids of Clostridium
perfringens.”Microbiology and MolecularBiology Reviews77, no. 2: 208-233.
Lindler, Luther E., Gregory V. Plano, Valerie Burland, George F. Mayhew, and Frederick
R. Blattner. 1998. “Complete DNA sequence and detailed analysis of the Yersinia
pestis KIM5 plasmid encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen.” Infection and
Immunity 66, no. 12: 5731-5742.
Little, Stephen F., and Bruce E. Ivins.1999.”Molecular pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis
infection.” Microbes and Infection 1, no. 2: 131-139.
Liu, Margaret A., and Jeffrey B. Ulmer. 2005. “Human clinical trials of plasmid DNA
vaccines.”Advances in Genetics55: 25-40.
Löhr, Iren Høyland, Nils Hülter, Eva Bernhoff, Pål Jarle Johnsen, Arnfinn Sundsfjord, and
Umaer Naseer. 2015. “Persistence of a pKPN3-like CTX-M-15-encoding IncFIIK
plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumonia ST17 host during two years of intestinal
colonization.” PLoS One 10, no. 3: e0116516.
Lowbury, E. J. L., H. A. Lilly, A. Kidson, G. A. J. Ayliffe, and R. J. Jones.1969.”Sensitivity
of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics: emergence of strains highly resistant to
carbenicillin.” The Lancet 294, no. 7618: 448-452.
Ma, Menglin, Jihong Li, and Bruce A. McClane. 2012. “Genotypic and phenotypic
characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from Darmbrand cases in post World War II Germany.” Infection and Immunity 80, no. 12: 4354-4363.
MacGregor, Rob Roy, Jean D. Boyer, Kenneth E. Ugen, Kim E. Lacy, Stephen J.
Gluckman, Mark L. Bagarazzi, Michael A. Chattergoon, YaelaBaine, Terry J.
Higgins, Richard B. Ciccarelli, Leslie R. Coney, Richard S. Ginsberg and David B.
Weiner. 1998. “First human trial of a DNA-based vaccine for treatment of human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: safety and host response.” Journal of
Infectious Diseases 178, no. 1: 92-100.
Maestro, Beatriz, Jesús M. Sanz, Michel Faelen, Martine Couturier, Ramón Díaz‐Orejas,
and Elena Fernández‐Tresguerres. 2002. “Modulation of pPS10 host range by DnaA.”
Molecular Microbiology 46, no. 1: 223-234.
Maestro, Beatriz, Jesús M. Sanz, Ramón Díaz-Orejas, and Elena Fernández-Tresguerres.
2003. “Modulation of pPS10 host range by plasmid-encoded RepA initiator protein.”
Journal of Bacteriology 185, no. 4: 1367-1375.
Maloy, Stanley, and Kelly Hughes, eds.2013. Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics.
Academic Press.
Martín, I. Freire, Christopher M. Thomas, Emma Laing, Manal Abu Oun, Roberto M. La
Ragione, and Martin J. Woodward.2016. “Curing vector for IncI1 plasmids and its use
to provide evidence for a metabolic burden of IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmid pIFM3791 on
Klebsiella pneumoniae.” Journal of Medical Microbiology 65: 611-618.
Mayer, Leonard W. 1988. “Use of plasmid profiles in epidemiologic surveillance of disease
outbreaks and in tracing the transmission of antibiotic resistance.” Clinical
Microbiology Reviews 1, no. 2: 228-243.
McClane, Bruce A., Francisco A. Uzal, M. Fernández Miyakawa, D. A. V. I. D. Lyerly,
and T. R. A. C. Y. Wilkins. 2006. “The enterotoxic clostridia.” The Prokaryotes 4:
McDaniel, Timothy K., Karen G. Jarvis, Michael S. Donnenberg, and James B. Kaper.
1995. “A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse entero
bacterial pathogens.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92, no. 5:
Meinhardt, Friedhelm, and Roland Klassen, eds.2007. Microbial Linear Plasmids. Vol. 7.
Springer Science & Business Media.
Meyer R.2009. “Replication and conjugative mobilization of broad host-range
IncQplasmids.” Plasmid 62:57–70.
Meyer, Richard, David Figurski, and Donald R. Helinski.1977. “Physical and genetic
restriction endonucleases on the broad host-range plasmid RK2.” Molecular and
General Genetics MGG 152, no. 2: 129-135.
Millan, A. San, Rafael Peña-Miller, Macarena Toll-Riera, Z. V. Halbert, A. R. McLean, B.
S. Cooper, and R. C. MacLean. 2014.”Positive selection and compensatory adaptation
interact to stabilize non-transmissible plasmids.” Nature Communications 5, no. 1: 1-11.
Møller-Jensen, Jakob, Rasmus Bugge Jensen, Jan Löwe, and Kenn Gerdes. 2002.
“Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament.” The EMBO Journal 21, no.
12: 3119-3127.
Mosqueda, Noraida, Eva Gato, Ignasi Roca, María López, Carlos Ruíz de Alegría, Felipe
Fernández Cuenca, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Jerónimo Pachón, José Miguel Cisneros,
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Álvaro Pascual, Jordi Vila, Germán Bou, María Tomás. 2014.
“Characterization of plasmids carrying the bla OXA-24/40 carbapenemase gene and
the genes encoding the AbkA/AbkB proteins of a toxin/antitoxin system.” Journal of
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 69, no. 10: 2629-2633.
Murrell, T. G. C., and P. D. Walker. 1991. “The pigbel story of Papua New Guinea.”
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85, no. 1: 119-122.
Nagy, Béla, and Péter Zs Fekete. 2005. “Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in veterinary
medicine.” International Journal of Medical Microbiology 295, no. 6-7: 443-454.
Nataro, James P., Deng Yikang, Susan Cookson, Alejandro Cravioto, Stephen J. Savarino,
Linda D. Guers, Myron M. Levine, and Carol O. Tacket. 1995. “Heterogeneity of
entero aggregative Escherichia coli virulence demonstrated.” Journal of Infectious
Diseases 171, no. 2: 465-468.
Nataro, James P., I. C. A. Scaletsky, James B. Kaper, M. M. Levine, and Luiz Rachid
Trabulsi. 1985. “Plasmid-mediated factors conferring diffuse and localized adherence
of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.” Infection and Immunity 48, no. 2: 378-383.
Norberg, Peter, Maria Bergström, Vinay Jethava, Devdatt Dubhashi, and Malte
Hermansson. 2011. “The IncP-1 plasmid backbone adapts to different host bacterial
species and evolves through homologous recombination.” Nature Communications 2,
no. 1: 1-11.
Nordstrom, Kurt, and Stuart J. Austin. 1989. “Mechanisms that contribute to the stable
segregation of plasmids.” Annual Review of Genetics23: 37-69.
Nordström, Kurt. 2006. “Plasmid R1—replication and its control.” Plasmid 55, no. 1: 1-26.
Novick, Richard P. 1987. “Plasmid incompatibility.” MicrobiolRev 51:381–395.
Novick, Richard P., and F. C. Hoppensteadt. 1978.”On plasmid incompatibility.” Plasmid
1, no. 4: 421-434.
Novick, Richard P.1969.” Extrachromosomal inheritance in bacteria.” Bacteriol Rev
Ogawa, Michinaga, YutakaHanda, Hiroshi Ashida, Masato Suzuki, and Chihiro Sasakawa.
2008. “The Versatility Of Shigella Effectors.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 6 (1): 11-16.
Ogawa, Naoto, Ananda M. Chakrabarty, and Olga Zaborina. 2004. “Degradative plasmids.”
Plasmid Biology341-376.
Okinaka, R. T., K Cloud, O. Hampton, A. R. Hoffmaster, K. K. Hill, P. Keim, T. M.
Koehler, G. Lamke, S. Kumano, J. Mahillon, D. Manter, Y. Martinez, D. Ricke, R.
Svensson, P. J. Jackson. 1999. “Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus
anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxingenes.” Journal of Bacteriology 181, no.
20: 6509-6515.
Okinaka, R., K. Cloud, O. Hampton, A. Hoffmaster, K. Hill, P. Keim, T. Koehler, G.
Lamke, S. Kumano, D. Manter, Y. Martinez, D. Ricke, R. Svensson, P. Jackson.1999.
“Sequence, assembly and analysis of pX01 and pX02.” Journal of Applied
Microbiology 87, no. 2: 261-262.
Orden, José A., Gustavo Domínguez-Bernal, Susana Martínez-Pulgarín, Miguel Blanco,
Jesús E. Blanco, Azucena Mora, Jorge Blanco, and Ricardo de la Fuente. 2007.
“Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli from sheep and goats produce a new type of
cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF3) associated with the eae and ehxA genes.
International Microbiology 10, no. 1: 47.
Orth, G., P. Atanasiu, M. Boiron, J. P. Rebiere, and C. Paoletti. 1964. “Infectious and on
cogenic effect of DNA extracted from cells infected with polyoma virus.”Proceedings
of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 115, no. 4: 1090-1095.
Ostroff, Stephen M., Phillip I. Tarr, Marguerite A. Neill, Jay H. Lewis, Nancy Hargrett Bean, and John M. Kobayashi. 1989. “Toxin genotypes and plasmid profiles as
determinants of systemic sequelae in Escherichia coli O157: H7 infections.” Journal
of Infectious Diseases 160, no. 6: 994-998.
Pagotto, Franco, and Jo-Anne R. Dillon. 2001. “Multiple origins and replication proteins
influence biological properties of β-lactamase-producing plasmids from Neisseria
gonorrhoeae.” Journal of Bacteriology 183, no. 19: 5472-5481.
Parsot, Claude. 2005. “Shigella spp. And entero invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity
factors.” FEMS Microbiology Letters 252, no. 1: 11-18.
Petersen, J. 2011. “Phylogeny and compatibility: plasmid classification in the
genomicsera.” Archives of Microbiology 193:313–321.
Petit, Laetitia, Maryse Gibert, and Michel R. Popoff. 1999. “Clostridium perfringens:
toxinotype and genotype.” Trends in Microbiology 7, no. 3: 104-110.
Pfeiffer, Margaret L., Herbert L. DuPont, and Theresa J. Ochoa. 2012. “The Patient
Presenting With Acute Dysentery – A Systematic Review.” Journal of Infection 64
(4): 374-386.
Pilla, Giulia, Gareth McVicker, and Christoph M. Tang. 2017. “Genetic Plasticity Of The
Shigella Virulence Plasmid Is Mediated By Intra- And Inter-Molecular Events
Between Insertion Sequences.” PLOS Genetics 13 (9): e1007014.
Pilo, Paola, and Joachim Frey. 2011. “Bacillus anthracis: molecular taxonomy, population
genetics, phylogeny and patho-evolution.” Infection, Genetics and Evolution 11, no.
6: 1218-1224.
Popoff, Michel R., and Philippe Bouvet. 2009. “Clostridialtoxins.”Future Microbiology 4,
no. 8: 1021-1064.
Porse, Andreas, Kristian Schønning, Christian Munck, and Morten O. A
Sommer.2016.”Survival and evolution of a large multi drug resistance plasmid in new
clinical bacterial hosts.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 33, no. 11: 2860-2873.
Pugsley, A. P., B. Oudega, and K. G. Hardy. 1987. Plasmids, a Practical Approach. KG
Hardy, IRL Press, Oxford: 105-161.
Qadri, Firdausi, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, A. S. G. Faruque, and R. Bradley Sack. 2005.
“Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology,
microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention.” Clinical Microbiology
Reviews 18, no. 3: 465-483.
Ramshaw, Ian A., Susan A. Fordham, Claude CA Bernard, Deborah Maguire, William B.
Cowden, and David O. Willenborg. 1997. “DNA vaccines for the treatment of
autoimmunedisease.” Immunology and Cell Biology 75, no. 4: 409-413.
Ratnam, S. S. R. G. S., S. B. March, R. Ahmed, G. S. Bezanson, and S. Kasatiya. 1988.
“Characterization of Escherichia coli serotype O157: H7.” Journal of Clinical
Microbiology 26, no. 10: 2006-2012.
Rood, Julian I. 1998. “Virulence genes of Clostridium perfringens.” Annual Review of
microbiology52: 333.
Rood, Julian I., Eileen A. Maher, Eileen B. Somers, Elena Campos, and Charles L. Duncan.
1978. “Isolation and characterization of multiply antibiotic-resistant Clostridium
perfringens strainsfrom porcine feces.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 13,
no. 5: 871-880.
Rotger, Rafael, and Josep Casadesús. 1999. “The virulence plasmids of Salmonella.”
International Microbiology 2: 177-184.
Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko, Tetsuya Hayashi, Ken Kurokawa, Keisuke Nakayama, Kenshiro
Oshima, Yukako Fujinaga, Makoto Ohnishi, Eiichi Ohtsubo, Masahira Hattori, and
Keiji Oguma. 2005. “The genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum type C
neurotoxin-converting phage and the molecular mechanisms of unstable lysogeny.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, no. 48: 17472-17477.
Sakurai, Jun, Masahiro Nagahama, Masataka Oda, Hideaki Tsuge, and Keiko Kobayashi.
2009. “Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin: structure and function.” Toxins 1, no. 2:
San Millan, A., Pena-Miller, R., Toll-Riera, M., Halbert, Z.V., McLean, A.R., Cooper, B.S.,
MacLean, R.C. 2014b. Positive selection and compensatory adaptation interact to
stabilize non- transmissible plasmids. Nat. Commun. 5: 5208.
San Millan, A., Toll-Riera, M., Qi, Q., and MacLean. R.C. 2015. “Interactions between
horizontally acquired genes create a fitness cost in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.” Nat.
Commun. 6: 6845.
San Millan, Alvaro, and R. Craig Maclean.2017.”Fitness costs of plasmids: a limit to
plasmid transmission.” Microbiology Spectrum 5, no. 5: 5-5.
Sansonetti, P., d’Hauteville, H., Écobichon, C. and Pourcel, C., 1983. Molecular
comparison of virulence plasmids in Shigella and entero invasive Escherichia coli.
Annals of the Pasteur Institute /Microbiology 134(3), pp.295-318.
Sato, Yukio, Mark Roman, Helen Tighe, Delphine Lee, Maripat Corr, Minh-Duc Nguyen,
Gregg J. Silverman, Martin Lotz, Dennis A. Carson, and Eyal Raz. 1996.
“Immunostimulatory DNA sequences necessary for effective intradermal gene
immunization.” Science 273, no. 5273: 352-354.
Sayeed, Sameera, Jihong Li, and Bruce A. McClane. 2010. “Characterization of virulence
plasmid diversity among Clostridium perfringens type B isolates.” Infection and
Immunity 78, no. 1: 495-504.
Schlüter, Andreas, H. Heuer, Rafael Szczepanowski, L. J. Forney, C. M. Thomas, Alfred
Pühler, and E. M. Top.2013. “The 64 508 bp IncP-1β antibiotic multiresistance
plasmid pB10 isolated from a waste-water treatment plant provides evidence for
recombination between members of different branches of the IncP-1β group.”
Microbiology 149, no. 11: 3139-3153.
Schmidhauser, Thomas J., Marcin Filutowicz, and Donald R. Helinski.1983.”Replication
of derivatives of the broad host range plasmid RK2 in two distantly related bacteria.”
Plasmid 9, no. 3: 325-330.
Schrag, Stephanie J., Véronique Perrot, and Bruce R. Levin.1997.”Adaptation to the fitness
costs of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of
London. Serie sB: Biological Sciences 264, no. 1386: 1287-1291.
Schroeder, Gunnar N., and Hubert Hilbi. 2008. “Molecular Pathogenesis Of Shigella Spp.:
Controlling Host Cell Signaling, Invasion, And Death By Type III Secretion.” Clinical
Microbiology Reviews 21 (1): 134-156.
Sen, D., Van der Auwera, G. A., Rogers, L. M., Thomas, C. M., Brown, C. J., & Top, E.
M.2011. “Broad-host-range plasmidsfrom agricultural soils have IncP-1 backbones
with diverse accessory genes.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77(22),
Shah, Deepan S., Michael A. Cross, David Porter, and Christopher M. Thomas. 1995.
“Dissection of the core and auxiliary sequences in the vegetative replication origin of
promiscuous plasmid RK2.” Journal of Molecular Biology254, no. 4: 608-622.
Singh, Ramandeep, Clifton E. Barry III, and Helena I. M. Boshoff.2010. “The three RelE
homologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have individual, drug-specific effects on
bacterial antibiotic tolerance.” Journal of Bacteriology 192, no. 5: 1279-1291.
Skarin, Hanna, and Bo Segerman. 2011. “Horizontal gene transfer of toxin genes in
Clostridium botulinum: Involvement of mobile elements and plasmids.” Mobile
Genetic Elements 1, no. 3: 213-215.
Slater, Frances R., Mark J. Bailey, Adrian J. Tett, and Sarah L. Turner.2008.”Progress
towards understanding the fate of plasmids in bacterial communities.” FEMS
Microbiology Ecology 66, no. 1: 3-13.
Smillie, C., M. P. Garcillán-Barcia, M. V. Francia, E. P. Rocha, and F. De La Cruz.2010.
“Mobility of plasmids.” Microbiol Mol Biol Rev74: 434–452.
Smith, Williams H., and M. B. Huggins. 1976. “Further observations on the association of
the colicine V plasmid of Escherichia coli with pathogenicity and with survival in the
alimentary tract.” Microbiology 92, no. 2: 335-350.
Sota, Masahiro, Hirokazu Yano, Julie M Hughes, Gary W. Daughdrill, Zaid Abdo, Larry J.
Forney, and Eva M. Top.2010.”Shifts in the host range of a promiscuous plasmid
through parallel evolution of its replication initiation protein.” The ISME Journal 4,
no. 12: 1568-1580.
Stark, W. Marshall, Martin R. Boocock, and David J. Sherratt.1992.”Catalysis by site specific recombinases.” Trends in Genetics 8, no. 12: 432-439.
StenforsArnesen, Lotte P., Annette Fagerlund, and Per Einar Granum. 2008. “From soil to
gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins.” FEMS Microbiology Reviews32,
no. 4: 579-606.
Stiles, Bradley G., Darran J. Wigelsworth, Michel R. Popoff, and Holger Barth. 2011.
“Clostridial binary toxins: iota and C2 family portraits.” Frontiers in Cellular and
Infection Microbiology 1: 11.
Summers, David K., Christopher WH Beton, and Helen L. Withers. 1993. “Multi copy
plasmid instability: the dimer catastrophe hypothesis.” Molecular Microbiology 8, no.
6: 1031-1038.
Tang, De-chu, Michael DeVit, and Stephen A. Johnston. 1992. “Genetic immunization is a
simple method for elicitingan immune response.” Nature 356, no. 6365: 152-154.
Thomas, C. M.2000. “Paradigms of plasmid organization.” Mol. Microbiol.37:485–491.
Thomas, Christopher M., and David Summers. 2008. “Bacterial plasmids.”eLS.
Tiwari, Prabhakar, GarimaArora, Mamta Singh, Saqib Kidwai, Om Prakash Narayan, and
Ramandeep Singh. 2015. “MazF ribonucleases promote Mycobacterium tuberculosis
drug tolerance and virulence in guinea pigs.” Nature Communications 6, no. 1: 1-13.
Tobe, Toru, Tetsuya Hayashi, Chang-Gyun Han, Gary K. Schoolnik, EiichiOhtsubo, and
Chihiro Sasakawa.1999.”Complete DNA sequence and structural analysis of the
enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adherence factor plasmid.” Infection and Immunity
67, no. 10: 5455-5462.
Tomizawa, J-I., and Tateo Itoh.1981.”Plasmid ColE1 incompatibility determined by
interaction of RNA I with primer transcript.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 78, no. 10: 6096-6100.
Top, E.M., Van Daele, P., De Saeyer, N., Forney, L.J. 1998. “Enhancement of 2,4-
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degradation in soil by dissemination of catabolic
plasmids.” Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek73, 87–94.
Trawick, John D., and Bruce C. Kline. 1985. “A two-stage molecular model for control of
mini-F replication.” Plasmid 13, no. 1: 59-69.
Tregoning, John S., and Ekaterina Kinnear. 2015. “Using plasmids as DNA vaccines for
infectious diseases.” Plasmids: Biology and impact in biotechnology and discovery
Turner, Susan M., Anthony Scott-Tucker, Lisa M. Cooper, and Ian R. Henderson. 2006.
“Weapons of mass destruction: virulence factors of the global killer entero toxigenic
Escherichia coli.” FEMS Microbiology Letters 263, no. 1: 10-20.
Uga, Hitoshi, Fujihiko Matsunaga, and Chieko Wada. 1999. “Regulation of DNA
replication by iterons: an interaction between the ori2 and incC regions mediated by
RepE-bound iterons inhibits DNA replication of mini-F plasmid in Escherichia coli.”
The EMBO Journal 18, no. 13: 3856-3867.
Ulmer, Jeffrey B., John J. Donnelly, Suezanne E. Parker, Gary H. Rhodes, Philip L.
Felgner, V. J. Dwarki, Stanislaw H. Gromkowski, R. Randall Deck, Corrille M.
DeWitt, Arthur Friedman, Linda A. Hawe, Karen R. Leander, Douglas Martinez,
Helen C. Perry, John W. Shiver, Donna L. Montgomery and Margaret A. Liu. 1993.
“Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral
protein.” Science 259, no. 5102: 1745-1749.
Uzal, Francisco A., and J. Glenn Songer. “Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal
infections in sheep and goats. 2008.” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
20, no. 3: 253-265.
Valenzuela, M.S., Ikpeazu, E.V., and Siddiqui, K.A. 1996. E. coli growth inhibition by a
high copy number derivative of plasmid pBR322. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
Venkatesan, Malabi M., Marcia B. Goldberg, Debra J. Rose, Erik J. Grotbeck, Valerie
Burland, and Frederick R. Blattner. 2001. “Complete DNA Sequence And Analysis of
the Large Virulence Plasmid of Shigella flexneri.” Infection and Immunity 69 (5):
Wang, Bin, Kenneth E. Ugen, Vasantha Srikantan, Michael G. Agadjanyan, Kesen Dang,
Yosef Refaeli, Alice I. Sato, Jean Boyer, William V. Williams, and David B. Weiner.
1993. “Gene inoculation generates immune responses against human immuno deficiency virus type 1.”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences90, no. 9:
Watanabe, Tsutomu, Hiroshi Nishida, Chizuko Ogata, Toshihiko Arai, and Sachiko Sato.
1964. “Episome-Mediated Transfer of Drug Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae VII:
Two Types of Naturally Occurring R Factors.” Journal of Bacteriology 88, no. 3: 716-726.
Will, Hans, Roberto Cattaneo, Gholamreza Darai, Fritz Deinhardt, Huub Schellekens, and
Heinz Schaller. 1985. “Infectious hepatitis B virus from cloned DNA of known
nucleotide sequence.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82, no. 3:
Williams, Steven G., Rocky M. Cranenburgh, Amanda M. E. Weiss, Christopher J.
Wrighton, Julian AJ Hanak, and David J. Sherratt. 1998. “Repressor titration: a novel
system for selection and stable maintenance of recombinant plasmids.” Nucleic Acids
Research 26, no. 9: 2120-2124.
Wong, Alex. 2017. “Epistasis and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.” Frontiers in
Microbiology 246.
Wood, Thammajun L., and Thomas K. Wood.2016. “The HigB/HigAtoxin/antitoxin
system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa influences the virulence factors pyochelin,
pyocyanin, and biofilm formation.” Microbiologyopen 5, no. 3: 499-511.
Yano, Hirokazu, Katarznya Wegrzyn, Wesley Loftie‐Eaton, Jenny Johnson, Gail E.
Deckert, Linda M. Rogers, Igor Konieczny, and Eva M. Top.2016. “Evolved plasmid‐
host interactions reduce plasmid interference cost.” Molecular Microbiology 101, no.
5: 743-756.
Yoon, Jang W., and Carolyn J. Hovde. 2008. “All blood, no stool: entero hemorrhagic
Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection.” Journal of Veterinary Science 9, no. 3: 219-231.
Zarhl, D., Wagner, M., Bischof, K., and Koraimann, G. 2006. “Expressionand Assembly
of a Functional Type IV Secretion System Elicit Extracytoplasmic and Cytoplasmic
Stress Responses in Escherichia coli.” J. Bacteriol. 188(18):6611-6621/.
Zatyka M.& Thomas, C.M.1998. “Control of genes for conjugative transfer of plasmids
and other mobile elements.” FEMS Microbiol Rev21: 291–319.
Zychlinsky, Arturo, Marie Christine Prevost, and Philippe J. Sansonetti. 1992. “Shigella
Flexneri Induces Apoptosis In Infected Macrophages.” Nature 358 (6382): 167-169.


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!