Chapter 1. Modification of Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Implant Applications


R. Ghamsarizade1, H. Eivaz Mohammadloo2, and Sh. Roshan1
Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2Colour, Resin & Surface Coatings Department, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran

Part of the book: What to Know about Hydroxyapatite


Hydroxyapatites (HA) are ceramic coatings of the calcium phosphate group that researchers in dental and bone implants have highly regarded due to their high resemblance to bone and tooth constituents. Much research has been done on HA coatings applied to magnesium, stainless steel, NiTi alloy, and titanium implants to increase their compatibility with the body’s physiological environment and accelerate bone tissue formation. Still, there are problems with the mechanical strength of this coating. And their adhesion has led to restrictions on their use. Moreover, the durability of these coatings in the physiological environment of the body is still discussed in many scientific articles. Therefore, many efforts have been made to increase corrosion resistance, adhesion, mechanical properties, and compatibility with the body environment. These efforts can be classified into three groups: the method of application of these coatings (electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition. Sol-gel, dip coating, plasma spray, biomimetic coating, etc.), changes in the chemical structure of HA using the addition of different chemicals (cerium, magnesium, fluorine, carbon nanotubes, TiO2, etc.), and post-treatment using various biocompatible polymers (chitosan, polyamides, polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, collagen, etc.). In this chapter, the effects of the modifications on the corrosion resistance properties of HA coatings are collected to make an efficient comparison by examining the mechanism of action.

Keywords: hydroxyapatites, implants, corrosion


Abu Bakar, M. S., M. H. W. Cheng, S. M. Tang, S. C. Yu, K. Liao, C. T. Tan, K. A. Khor,
and P. Cheang. 2003. “Tensile properties, tension–tension fatigue and biological
response of polyetheretherketone–hydroxyapatite composites for load-bearing
orthopedic implants.” Biomaterials 24 (13):2245-2250.
Aebli, Nikolaus, Hermann Stich, Peter Schawalder, Jean-Claude Theis, and Jörg Krebs.
2005. “Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and hyaluronic acid on the
osseointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated implants: An experimental study in sheep.”
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 73A (3):295-302.
Afshari, M., H. Eivaz Mohammadloo, A. A. Sarabi, and Sh Roshan. 2021. “Modification
of hydroxyapatite-based coating in the presence of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) for
implant application: Corrosion, structure and surface study.” Corrosion Science
192:109859. doi:
Ahadi Parsa, M., H. Eivaz Mohammadloo, S. M. Mirabedini, and Sh Roshan. 2022. “Bio corrosion assessment and surface study of hydroxyapatite-coated AZ31 Mg alloy pre treated with vinyl tri-ethoxy silane.” Materials Chemistry and Physics 287:126147.
Albayrak, Onder, Osman El-Atwani, and Sabri Altintas. 2008. “Hydroxyapatite coating on
titanium substrate by electrophoretic deposition method: Effects of titanium dioxide
inner layer on adhesion strength and hydroxyapatite decomposition.” Surface and
Coatings Technology 202 (11):2482-2487.
Almeida, R. M., A. Gama, and Y. Vueva. 2011. “Bioactive sol–gel scaffolds with dual
porosity for tissue engineering.” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 57
(3):336-342. DOI: 10.1007/s10971-009-2134-8.
Alves Cardoso, D., J. A. Jansen, and S. C. G. Leeuwenburgh. 2012. “Synthesis and
application of nanostructured calcium phosphate ceramics for bone regeneration.”
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 100B
(8):2316-2326. doi:
Antala, Nikunj, and PA Rathod. 2017. “Review of the Coating Characteristics Achieved
Employing Thermal Flame-spray Coating Method.” Int. J. Eng. Technol. Manag.
Appl. Sci 5.
Arcos, Daniel, and María Vallet-Regí. 2020. “Substituted hydroxyapatite coatings of bone
implants.” Journal of Materials Chemistry B 8 (9):1781-1800. doi:
Arrés, Mar, Mariana Salama, Diogo Rechena, Patrizia Paradiso, Luis Reis, Marta M. Alves,
Ana M. Botelho do Rego, Maria J. Carmezim, Maria Fátima Vaz, Augusto M. Deus,
and Catarina Santos. 2020. “Surface and mechanical properties of a nanostructured
citrate hydroxyapatite coating on pure titanium.” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior
of Biomedical Materials 108:103794. doi:
Awasthi, Shikha, Sarvesh Kumar Pandey, E. Arunan, and Chandan Srivastava. 2021. “A
review on hydroxyapatite coatings for the biomedical applications: experimental and
theoretical perspectives.” Journal of Materials Chemistry B 9 (2):228-249. doi:
Bakan, Feray, Oral Laçin, and Hanifi Sarac. 2013. “A novel low temperature sol–gel
synthesis process for thermally stable nano crystalline hydroxyapatite.” Powder
Technology 233:295-302. doi:
Bakshi, Srinivasa R., Virendra Singh, Sudipta Seal, and Arvind Agarwal. 2009. “Aluminum
composite reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes from plasma spraying of
spray dried powders.” Surface and Coatings Technology 203 (10):1544-1554. doi:
Ballarre, Josefina, Damián A. López, Wido H. Schreiner, Alicia Durán, and Silvia M. Ceré.
2007. “Protective hybrid sol–gel coatings containing bioactive particles on surgical
grade stainless steel: Surface characterization.” Applied Surface Science 253
(17):7260-7264. doi:
Ballarre, Josefina, Inderchand Manjubala, Wido H Schreiner, Juan Carlos Orellano, Peter
Fratzl, and Silvia Ceré. 2010. “Improving the osteointegration and bone–implant
interface by incorporation of bioactive particles in sol–gel coatings of stainless steel
implants.” Acta biomaterialia 6 (4):1601-1609.
Ballarre, Josefina, Rocío Seltzer, Emigdio Mendoza, Juan Carlos Orellano, Yiu-Wing Mai,
Claudia García, and Silvia M. Ceré. 2011. “Morphologic and nanomechanical
characterization of bone tissue growth around bioactive sol–gel coatings containing
wollastonite particles applied on stainless steel implants.” Materials Science and
Engineering: C 31 (3):545-552. doi:
Bansal, Puneet, Gurpreet Singh, and Hazoor Singh Sidhu. 2020. “Investigation of surface
properties and corrosion behavior of plasma sprayed HA/ZnO coatings prepared on
AZ31 Mg alloy.” Surface and Coatings Technology 401:126241. doi: https://doi.
Bao, Quan He, Chao Sun, Chen Zhang, and Jie Qing Zhang. 2015. “Dip Coated
Magnesium-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Magnesium Alloy for
Biomedical Applications.” Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical
Engineering 25:83-89. doi: https://10.4028/
Bauer, Sebastian, Patrik Schmuki, Klaus von der Mark, and Jung Park. 2013. “Engineering
biocompatible implant surfaces: Part I: Materials and surfaces.” Progress in Materials
Science 58 (3):261-326. doi:
Bellucci, Devis, Elena Veronesi, Valentina Strusi, Tiziana Petrachi, Alba Murgia, Ilenia
Mastrolia, Massimo Dominici, and Valeria Cannillo. 2019. “Human Mesenchymal
Stem Cell Combined with a New Strontium-Enriched Bioactive Glass: An ex-vivo
Model for Bone Regeneration.” Materials 12 (21). doi: https://10.3390/ma12213633.
Ben-Nissan, Besim, and Andy H. Choi. 2006. “Sol-gel production of bioactive
nanocoatings for medical applications. Part 1: an introduction.” Nanomedicine 1
(3):311-319. doi: https://10.2217/17435889.1.3.311.
Berndt, C. C., Fahad Hasan, U. Tietz, and K. P. Schmitz. 2014. “A Review of
Hydroxyapatite Coatings Manufactured by Thermal Spray.” In Advances in Calcium
Phosphate Biomaterials, edited by Besim Ben-Nissan, 267-329. Berlin, Heidelberg:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Besra, Laxmidhar, and Meilin Liu. 2007. “A review on fundamentals and applications of
electrophoretic deposition (EPD).” Progress in Materials Science 52 (1):1-61. doi:
Bharati, S., M. K. Sinha, and D. Basu. 2005. “Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic
method on titanium alloy using concentrated SBF.” Bulletin of Materials Science 28
(6):617-621. doi: https://10.1007/BF02706352.
Bhattacharjee, Arjak, Amit Bandyopadhyay, and Susmita Bose. 2022. “Plasma sprayed
fluoride and zinc doped hydroxyapatite coated titanium for load-bearing implants.”
Surface and Coatings Technology 440:128464.
Bigi, Adriana, Elisa Boanini, Barbara Bracci, Alessandro Facchini, Silvia Panzavolta,
Francesco Segatti, and Luigina Sturba. 2005. “Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite
coatings on titanium: a new fast biomimetic method.” Biomaterials 26 (19):4085-
4089. doi:
Bolelli, Giovanni, Devis Bellucci, Valeria Cannillo, Luca Lusvarghi, Antonella Sola, Nico
Stiegler, Philipp Müller, Andreas Killinger, Rainer Gadow, Lina Altomare, and Luigi
De Nardo. 2014. “Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: Microstructure and
in vitro behaviour.” Materials Science and Engineering: C 34:287-303. doi:
Bolelli, Giovanni, Devis Bellucci, Valeria Cannillo, Rainer Gadow, Andreas Killinger,
Luca Lusvarghi, Philipp Müller, and Antonella Sola. 2015. “Comparison between
Suspension Plasma Sprayed and High Velocity Suspension Flame Sprayed bioactive
coatings.” Surface and Coatings Technology 280:232-249. doi:
Bryington, Matthew S., Mariko Hayashi, Yusuke Kozai, Stefan Vandeweghe, Martin
Andersson, Ann Wennerberg, and Ryo Jimbo. 2013. “The influence of nano
hydroxyapatite coating on osseointegration after extended healing periods.” Dental
Materials 29 (5):514-520. doi:
Bugbee, W. D., C. J. Sychterz, and C. A. Engh. 1996. “Bone remodeling around cementless
hip implants.” Southern medical journal 89 (11):1036-1040. doi: https://10.1097/
Cabañas, M. V., and M. Vallet-Regí. 2003. “Calcium phosphate coatings deposited by
aerosol chemical vapour deposition.” Journal of Materials Chemistry 13 (5):1104-
1107. doi: https://10.1039/B301435E.
Catauro, Michelina, Flavia Bollino, Ferdinando Papale, and Giuseppe Lamanna. 2015.
“TiO2/PCL Hybrid Layers Prepared via Sol-Gel Dip Coating for the Surface
Modification of Titanium Implants: Characterization and Bioactivity Evaluation.”
Applied Mechanics and Materials 760:353-358. doi: https://10.4028/www.scientific.
Chaharmahali, Razieh, Arash Fattah-Alhosseini, and Hamid Esfahani. 2020. “Increasing
the in-vitro corrosion resistance of AZ31B-Mg alloy via coating with hydroxyapatite
using plasma electrolytic oxidation.” Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies 8 (1):39-49.
doi: 10.1080/21870764.2019.1698143.
Chakraborty, Rajib, Srijan Sengupta, Partha Saha, Karabi Das, and Siddhartha Das. 2016.
“Synthesis of calcium hydrogen phosphate and hydroxyapatite coating on SS316
substrate through pulsed electrodeposition.” Materials Science and Engineering: C
69:875-883. doi:
Charlena, S. G. Sukaryo, and M. Fajar. 2016. “Hidroxyapatite Coating on CoCrMo Alloy
Titanium Nitride Coated Using Biomimetic Method.” Journal of Physics: Conference
Series 776:012056. doi: https://10.1088/1742-6596/776/1/012056.
Chen, X. B., N. Birbilis, and T. B. Abbott. 2011. “A simple route towards a hydroxyapatite–
Mg(OH)2 conversion coating for magnesium.” Corrosion Science 53 (6):2263-2268.
Chen, Xing-yu, Zhong-wei Zhao, Ai-liang Chen, and Hong-gui Li. 2007. “Pulsed
electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite on titanium substrate in solution containing
hydrogen peroxide.” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 17 (3):617-621.
Chen, Y. M., Y. P. Lu, and M. S. Li. 2006. “Surface changes of plasma sprayed
hydroxyapatite coatings before and after heat treatment.” Surface Engineering 22
(6):462-467. doi: https://10.1179/174329406X150413.
Choi, Andy H., and Besim Ben-Nissan. 2007. “Sol-gel production of bioactive
nanocoatings for medical applications. Part II: current research and development.”
Nanomedicine 2 (1):51-61. doi: https://10.2217/17435889.2.1.51.
Cizek, J., and J. Matejicek. 2018. “Medicine Meets Thermal Spray Technology: A Review
of Patents.” Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 27 (8):1251-1279. doi:
Clèries, L., E. Martınez, J. M. Fernández ́
-Pradas, G. Sardin, J. Esteve, and J. L. Morenza.
2000. “Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate coatings deposited by laser
ablation.” Biomaterials 21 (9):967-971.
Combes, C., and C. Rey. 2010. “Amorphous calcium phosphates: Synthesis, properties and
uses in biomaterials.” Acta Biomaterialia 6 (9):3362-3378. doi:
Córdoba, Laura. 2016. “Magnesium-based biodegradable materials: from surface
functionalization to cellular evaluation.”
Costa, Daniel O., S. Jeffrey Dixon, and Amin S. Rizkalla. 2012. “One- and Three
Dimensional Growth of Hydroxyapatite Nanowires during Sol–Gel–Hydrothermal
Synthesis.” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 4 (3):1490-1499. doi:
Cotell, C. M., D. B. Chrisey, and K. S. Grabowski. 1991. “Pulsed Laser Deposition of
Biocompatible Thin Films: Calcium Hydroxylapatrte and Other Calcium Phosphates.”
MRS Proceedings 252:3. doi: https://10.1557/PROC-252-3.
Das, Biswajit, P. P. Bandyopadhyay, and A. K. Nath. 2018. “An investigation on corrosion
resistance and mechanical properties of laser remelted flame sprayed coating.”
Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies 4 (4):660-668. doi:
Davar, Fatemeh, and Nasrin Shayan. 2017. “Preparation of zirconia-magnesia
nanocomposite powders and coating by a sucrose mediated sol-gel method and
investigation of its corrosion behavior.” Ceramics International 43 (3):3384-3392.
Dehghanian, Changiz, Neda Aboudzadeh, and Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar. 2018.
“Characterization of silicon- substituted nano hydroxyapatite coating on magnesium
alloy for biomaterial application.” Materials Chemistry and Physics 203:27-33. doi:
Dinda, G. P., J. Shin, and J. Mazumder. 2009. “Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite
thin films on Ti–6Al–4V: Effect of heat treatment on structure and properties.” Acta
Biomaterialia 5 (5):1821-1830. doi:
Ding, Qiongqiong, Xuejiao Zhang, Yong Huang, Yajing Yan, and Xiaofeng Pang. 2015.
“In vitro cytocompatibility and corrosion resistance of zinc-doped hydroxyapatite
coatings on a titanium substrate.” Journal of Materials Science 50 (1):189-202. doi:
Dohan Ehrenfest, David M., Paulo G. Coelho, Byung-Soo Kang, Young-Taeg Sul, and
Tomas Albrektsson. 2010. “Classification of osseointegrated implant surfaces:
materials, chemistry and topography.” Trends in Biotechnology 28 (4):198-206. doi:
Drevet, R., F. Velard, S. Potiron, D. Laurent-Maquin, and H. Benhayoune. 2011. “In vitro
dissolution and corrosion study of calcium phosphate coatings elaborated by pulsed
electrodeposition current on Ti6Al4V substrate.” Journal of Materials Science:
Materials in Medicine 22 (4):753-761. doi: 10.1007/s10856-011-4251-5.
Ducheyne, Paul. 2015. Comprehensive biomaterials. Vol. 1: Elsevier.
Escada, A. L. A., J. P. B. Machado, S. G. Schneider, M. C. R. Alves Rezende, and A. P. R.
Alves Claro. 2011. “Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on Ti-7.5Mo alloy for
dental application.” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 22
(11):2457-2465. doi: https://10.1007/s10856-011-4434-0.
Fathi, Mehdad, Mir Saman Safavi, Sahand Mirzazadeh, Alireza Ansariyan, and Iraj
Ahadzadeh. 2020. “A Promising Horizon in Mechanical and Corrosion Properties
Improvement of Ni-Mo Coatings Through Incorporation of Y2O3 Nanoparticles.”
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 51 (2):897-908. doi: 10.1007/s11661-019-05559-5.
Fauchais, P., and A. Vardelle. 2011. “Innovative and emerging processes in plasma
spraying: from micro- to nano-structured coatings.” Journal of Physics D: Applied
Physics 44 (19):194011. doi: https://10.1088/0022-3727/44/19/194011.
Feng, Yashan, Shijie Zhu, Liguo Wang, Lei Chang, Bingbing Yan, Xiaozhe Song, and
Shaokang Guan. 2017. “Characterization and corrosion property of nano-rod-like HA
on fluoride coating supported on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.” Bioactive Materials 2 (2):63-70.
Feng, Yashan, Xun Ma, Lei Chang, Shijie Zhu, and Shaokang Guan. 2017.
“Characterization and cytocompatibility of polydopamine on MAO-HA coating
supported on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.” Surface and Interface Analysis 49 (11):1115-1123.
Fernández-Pradas, J. M., L. Clèries, E. Martı́nez, G. Sardin, J. Esteve, and J. L. Morenza.
2001. “Influence of thickness on the properties of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited
by KrF laser ablation.” Biomaterials 22 (15):2171-2175. doi:
Fielding, Gary A., Mangal Roy, Amit Bandyopadhyay, and Susmita Bose. 2012.
“Antibacterial and biological characteristics of silver containing and strontium doped
plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.” Acta Biomaterialia 8 (8):3144-3152. doi:
Fornell, J., Y. P. Feng, E. Pellicer, S. Suriñach, M. D. Baró, and J. Sort. 2017. “Mechanical
behaviour of brushite and hydroxyapatite coatings electrodeposited on newly
developed FeMnSiPd alloys.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 729:231-239. doi:
Francis, Marion D., and Ned C. Webb. 1970. “Hydroxyapatite formation from a hydrated
calcium monohydrogen phosphate precursor.” Calcified Tissue Research 6 (1):335-
342. doi: https://10.1007/BF02196214.
Fu, Tao, Jian-min Sun, Zafer Alajmi, and Feng Wu. 2015. “Sol-gel preparation, corrosion
resistance and hydrophilicity of Ta-containing TiO2 films on Ti6Al4V alloy.”
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 25 (2):471-476. doi:
Furko, M., Y. Jiang, T. A. Wilkins, and C. Balázsi. 2016. “Electrochemical and
morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic
coatings on metallic implant materials.” Materials Science and Engineering: C
62:249-259. doi:
Furko, Monika, Viktor Havasi, Zoltán Kónya, Alina Grünewald, Rainer Detsch, Aldo R.
Boccaccini, and Csaba Balázsi. 2018. “Development and characterization of multi element
doped hydroxyapatite bioceramic coatings on metallic implants for
orthopedic applications.” Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio 57
(2):55-65. doi:
Gadow, R., A. Killinger, and N. Stiegler. 2010. “Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical
applications deposited by different thermal spray techniques.” Surface and Coatings
Technology 205 (4):1157-1164. doi:
40 R. Ghamsarizade, H. Eivaz Mohammadloo and Sh. Roshan
Gao, Ya Li, Yu Liu, and Xue Ying Song. 2018. “Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating
for Improved Corrosion Resistance and Bioactivity of Magnesium Alloy.” Journal of
Thermal Spray Technology 27 (8):1381-1387. doi: https://10.1007/s11666-018-0760-9.
Gayathri, B., Muthukumarasamy N., Shanthi Bhupathi Santhosh, and Dhayalan
Velauthapillai. 2019. “Investigation of Corrosion protection performance of
Magnesium incorporated Hydroxyapatite coating on surgical grade Titanium.”
Materials Today: Proceedings 18:1678-1685. doi:
Goto, Takashi, and Hirokazu Katsui. 2015. “Chemical vapor deposition of Ca–P–O film
coating.” In Interface oral health science 2014, 103-115. Springer, Tokyo.
GRAFTS, I Bone, and Bone Substitutes. 2004. “Three-dimensionally engineered
hydroxyapatite ceramics with interconnected pores as a bone substitute and tissue
engineering scaffold.” Biomaterials in orthopedics 287.
Grandfield, Kathryn, Anders Palmquist, Stéphane Gonçalves, Andy Taylor, Mark Taylor,
Lena Emanuelsson, Peter Thomsen, and Håkan Engqvist. 2011. “Free form fabricated
features on CoCr implants with and without hydroxyapatite coating in vivo: a
comparative study of bone contact and bone growth induction.” Journal of Materials
Science: Materials in Medicine 22 (4):899-906. doi: https://10.1007/s10856-011-4253-3.
Gunputh, Urvashi F., and Huirong Le. 2020. “A Review of In-Situ Grown Nanocomposite
Coatings for Titanium Alloy Implants.” Journal of Composites Science 4 (2).
DOI: https://10.3390/jcs4020041.
Guo, D. Z., F. L. Li, J. Y. Wang, and J. S. Sun. 1995. “Effects of post-coating processing
on structure and erosive wear characteristics of flame and plasma spray coatings.”
Surface and Coatings Technology 73 (1):73-78.
Guo, Yunting, Yingchao Su, Siqi Jia, Guixun Sun, Rui Gu, Donghui Zhu, Guangyu Li, and
Jianshe Lian. 2018. “Hydroxyapatite/Titania Composite Coatings on Biodegradable
Magnesium Alloy for Enhanced Corrosion Resistance, Cytocompatibility and
Antibacterial Properties.” Journal of The Electrochemical Society 165 (14):C962-
C972. doi: 10.1149/2.1171814jes.
Hameed, Pearlin, Vasanth Gopal, Stefan Bjorklund, Ashish Ganvir, Dwaipayan Sen,
Nicolaie Markocsan, and Geetha Manivasagam. 2019. “Axial Suspension Plasma
Spraying: An ultimate technique to tailor Ti6Al4V surface with HAp for orthopaedic
applications.” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 173:806-815. doi: https://doi.
Hanawa, Takao. 1999. “In vivo metallic biomaterials and surface modification.”
Materials Science and Engineering: A 267 (2):260-266.
Hannink, Gerjon, and J. J. Chris Arts. 2011. “Bioresorbability, porosity and mechanical
strength of bone substitutes: What is optimal for bone regeneration?” Injury 42:S22-
S25. doi:
He, Dai-Hua, Pu Wang, Ping Liu, Xin-Kuan Liu, Feng-Cang Ma, and Jun Zhao. 2016. “HA
coating fabricated by electrochemical deposition on modified Ti6Al4V alloy.” Surface
and Coatings Technology 301:6-12. doi:
Heimann, Robert B. 2013. “Structure, properties, and biomedical performance of
osteoconductive bioceramic coatings.” Surface and Coatings Technology 233:27-38.
Hench, L, and J Jones. 2005. Biomaterials, artificial organs and tissue engineering: Elsevier.
Hiromoto, Sachiko, and Masanari Tomozawa. 2010. “Corrosion behavior of magnesium
with hydroxyapatite coatings formed by hydrothermal treatment.” Materials
transactions 51 (11):2080-2087. doi:
Horandghadim, Nazila, and Jafar Khalil-Allafi. 2019. “Characterization of hydroxyapatite
tantalum pentoxide nanocomposite coating applied by electrophoretic deposition on
Nitinol superelastic alloy.” Ceramics International 45 (8):10448-10460. doi:
Horandghadim, Nazila, Jafar Khalil-Allafi, and Mustafa Urgen. 2020. “Influence of
tantalum pentoxide secondary phase on surface features and mechanical properties of
hydroxyapatite coating on NiTi alloy produced by electrophoretic deposition.” Surface
and Coatings Technology 386:125458. doi:
Hsieh, Ming-Fa, Li-Hsiang Perng, and Tsung-Shune Chin. 2002. “Hydroxyapatite coating
on Ti6Al4V alloy using a sol–gel derived precursor.” Materials Chemistry and
Physics 74 (3):245-250. doi:
Huang, Yong, Min Hao, Xiaofeng Nian, Haixia Qiao, Xuejiao Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhang,
Guiqin Song, Jiachi Guo, Xiaofeng Pang, and Honglei Zhang. 2016. “Strontium and
copper co-substituted hydroxyapatite-based coatings with improved antibacterial
activity and cytocompatibility fabricated by electrodeposition.” Ceramics
International 42 (10):11876-11888. doi:
Huang, Yong, Qiongqiong Ding, Xiaofeng Pang, Shuguang Han, and Yajing Yan. 2013.
“Corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of strontium and fluorine co-doped
electrodeposited hydroxyapatite coatings.” Applied Surface Science 282:456-462. doi:
Hung, Kuo-Yung, Sung-Cheng Lo, Chung-Sheng Shih, Yung-Chin Yang, Hui-Ping Feng,
and Yi-Chih Lin. 2013. “Titanium surface modified by hydroxyapatite coating for
dental implants.” Surface and Coatings Technology 231:337-345. doi:
Iconaru, Simona L., Daniela Predoi, Carmen S. Ciobanu, Mikael Motelica-Heino, Régis
Guegan, and Coralia Bleotu. 2022. “Development of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite
Thin Films for Biomedical Applications.” Coatings 12 (3). doi: 10.3390/coatings12030341.
Indira, K., U. KamachiMudali, and N. Rajendran. 2014. “In vitro bioactivity and corrosion
resistance of Zr incorporated TiO2 nanotube arrays for orthopaedic applications.”
Applied Surface Science 316:264-275. doi:
Jansen van Vuuren, Ludwig, J. Odendaal, and P. Pistorius. 2008. “Galvanic corrosion of
dental cobalt-chromium alloys and dental amalgam in artificial saliva.” SADJ: journal
of the South African Dental Association = tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse
Tandheelkundige Vereniging 63:034-8.
Jiang, Dan, Qi-Ke Li, Yun-Zhi Liu, Zhe Xiao, Bao-Hong Xia, Shuo-Qi Li, Fen Zhang, Lan Yue Cui,
and Rong-Chang Zeng. 2022. “Polyphosphate assisted hydrothermal
synthesis of hydroxyapatite coating on Mg alloys: Enhanced mechanical properties
and corrosion resistance.” Surface and Coatings Technology 432:128033. doi:
Jiang, Jiawei, Gui Han, Xuesong Zheng, Gang Chen, and Peizhi Zhu. 2019.
“Characterization and biocompatibility study of hydroxyapatite coating on the surface
of titanium alloy.” Surface and Coatings Technology 375:645-651. doi:
Jung, Ui-Won, Ji-Wan Hwang, Da-Yae Choi, Kyung-Seok Hu, Mi-Kyung Kwon, Seong Ho Choi, and Hee-Jin Kim. 2012. “Surface characteristics of a novel hydroxyapatite coated dental implant.” JPIS 42 (2):59-63. doi: https://10.5051/jpis.2012.42.2.59.
Kadhim, Mustafa M., Haider Abdulkareem AlMashhadani, Raid D. Hashim, Anees A.
Khadom, Khulood Abid Salih, and Abbas Washeel Salman. 2022. “Effect of Sr/Mg
co-substitution on corrosion resistance properties of hydroxyapatite coated on Ti–
6Al–4V dental alloys.” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 161:110450. doi:
Kannan, M. B. 2015. “13 – Hydroxyapatite coating on biodegradable magnesium and
magnesium-based alloys.” In Hydroxyapatite (Hap) for Biomedical Applications,
edited by Michael Mucalo, 289-306. Woodhead Publishing.
Karacan, Ipek, Innocent Jacob Macha, Gina Choi, Sophie Cazalbou, and Besim Ben Nissan. 2017.
“Antibiotic Containing Poly Lactic Acid/Hydroxyapatite Biocomposite
Coatings for Dental Implant Applications.” Key Engineering Materials 758:120-125.
doi: 10.4028/
Kezhi, Li, Guo Qian, Zhang Leilei, Zhang Yulei, Liu Shoujie, Guo Kebing, and Li
Shaoxian. 2017. “Synthesis and characterization of Si-substituted hydroxyapatite
bioactive coating for SiC-coated carbon/carbon composites.” Ceramics International
43 (1, Part B):1410-1414. doi:
Khandelwal, Himanshu, Gurbhinder Singh, Khelendra Agrawal, Satya Prakash, and R. D.
Agarwal. 2013. “Characterization of hydroxyapatite coating by pulse laser deposition
technique on stainless steel 316 L by varying laser energy.” Applied Surface Science
265:30-35. doi:
Kokubo, T., S. Ito, Z. T. Huang, T. Hayashi, S. Sakka, T. Kitsugi, and T. Yamamuro. 1990.
“Ca, P-rich layer formed on high-strength bioactive glass-ceramic A-W.” Journal of
Biomedical Materials Research 24 (3):331-343. doi:
Kurzweg, H., R. B. Heimann, T. Troczynski, and M. L. Wayman. 1998. “Development of
plasma-sprayed bioceramic coatings with bond coats based on titania and zirconia.”
Biomaterials 19 (16):1507-1511. doi:
Lacefield, W. R. 1988. “Hydroxyapatite coatings.” Annals of the New York Academy of
Sciences 523:72-80. doi: https://10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb38501.x.
Latifi, Afrooz, Mohammad Imani, Mohammad Taghi Khorasani, and Morteza Daliri
Joupari. 2014. “Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving
adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate.” Applied Surface
Science 320:471-481. doi:
LeGeros, R. Z., R. Kijowska, W. Jia, and J. P. LeGeros. 1988. “Fluoride-cation interactions
in the formation and stability of apatites.” Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 41 (1):53-
64. doi:
Levingstone, Tanya J., Malika Ardhaoui, Khaled Benyounis, Lisa Looney, and Joseph T.
Stokes. 2015. “Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings: Understanding process
relationships using design of experiment analysis.” Surface and Coatings Technology
283:29-36. doi:
Li, Hanyang, Zainen Qin, Yiqiang Ouyang, Bo Zheng, Hong Wei, Jun Ou, and Chong Shen.
2022. “Hydroxyapatite/chitosan-metformin composite coating enhances the
biocompatibility and osteogenic activity of AZ31 magnesium alloy.” Journal of Alloys
and Compounds 909:164694. doi:
Li, Ting-Ting, Lei Ling, Mei-Chen Lin, Qian Jiang, Qi Lin, Jia-Horng Lin, and Ching-Wen
Lou. 2019. “Properties and Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Coating Prepared by
Electrodeposition on a Braid for Biodegradable Bone Scaffolds.” Nanomaterials 9 (5).
doi: 10.3390/nano9050679.
Li, Yunfeng, Qing Li, Songsong Zhu, En Luo, Jihua Li, Ge Feng, Yunmao Liao, and Jing
Hu. 2010. “The effect of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coating on implant
fixation in ovariectomized rats.” Biomaterials 31 (34):9006-9014. doi:
Liu, Dean-Mo, T. Troczynski, and Wenjea J. Tseng. 2001. “Water-based sol–gel synthesis
of hydroxyapatite: process development.” Biomaterials 22 (13):1721-1730. doi:
Liu, Dean-Mo, Quanzu Yang, and Tom Troczynski. 2002. “Sol–gel hydroxyapatite
coatings on stainless steel substrates.” Biomaterials 23 (3):691-698. doi:
Liu, Yu-Cheng, Geng Sheng Lin, Jheng-Yang Wang, Che-Shun Cheng, Yung-Chin Yang,
Bor-Shiunn Lee, and Kuo-Lun Tung. 2018. “Synthesis and characterization of porous
hydroxyapatite coatings deposited on titanium by flame spraying.” Surface and
Coatings Technology 349:357-363. doi:
Lobo, AO, FR Marciano, I Regiani, JT Matsushima, SC Ramos, and EJ Corat. 2011.
“Influence of temperature and time for direct hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on
superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotube films.” J. Nanomedic. Nanotechnol. S 8 (2).
Lu, Minxun, Hongjie Chen, Bo Yuan, Yong Zhou, Li Min, Zhanwen Xiao, Xiangdong Zhu,
Chongqi Tu, and Xingdong Zhang. 2020. “Electrochemical Deposition of
Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium with Enhanced Early Stage
Osteogenic Activity and Osseointegration.” International journal of nanomedicine
15:6605-6618. doi: https://10.2147/IJN.S268372.
Ma, J., C. Z. Wang, C. L. Ban, C. Z. Chen, and H. M. Zhang. 2016. “Pulsed laser deposition
of magnesium-containing bioactive glass film on porous Ti–6Al–4V substrate
pretreated by micro-arc oxidation.” Vacuum 125:48-55.
Ma, Menghan, Wei Ye, and Xiao-Xiang Wang. 2008. “Effect of supersaturation on the
morphology of hydroxyapatite crystals deposited by electrochemical deposition on
titanium.” Materials Letters 62 (23):3875-3877.
Ma, Yifei, Jiemin Han, Mei Wang, Xuyuan Chen, and Suotang Jia. 2018. “Electrophoretic
deposition of graphene-based materials: A review of materials and their applications.”
Journal of Materiomics 4 (2):108-120. doi:
Mahapatro, Anil. 2015. “Bio-functional nano-coatings on metallic biomaterials.” Materials
Science and Engineering: C 55:227-251. doi:
Maier, Petra, Benjamin Clausius, Jens Wicke, and Norbert Hort. 2020. “Characterization
of an Extruded Mg-Dy-Nd Alloy during Stress Corrosion with C-Ring Tests.” Metals 10 (5):584.
Mali, S. A., K. C. Nune, and R. D. K. Misra. 2016. “Biomimetic nanostructured
hydroxyapatite coatings on metallic implant materials.” Materials Technology 31
(13):782-790. doi: https://10.1080/10667857.2016.1224609.
Manivasagam, Geetha, A. K. Singh, Asokamani Rajamanickam, and Ashok Gogia. 2009.
“Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants–A review.”
Progress in Materials Science 54:397-425. doi: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2008.06.004.
Manso, Miguel, Carmen Jiménez, Carmen Morant, Pilar Herrero, and J. M. Martınez ́
Duart. 2000. “Electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite coatings in basic conditions.”
Biomaterials 21 (17):1755-1761. doi:
Marie, P. J., D. Felsenberg, and M. L. Brandi. 2011. “How strontium ranelate, via opposite
effects on bone resorption and formation, prevents osteoporosis.” Osteoporosis
International 22 (6):1659-1667. doi: 10.1007/s00198-010-1369-0.
Martin, R. I., and P. W. Brown. 1995. “Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite formed at
physiological temperature.” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 6
(3):138-143. doi: https://10.1007/BF00120289.
Mediaswanti, Kun, Cuie Wen, Elena Ivanova, Christopher Berndt, Francois Malherbe, Vy
Pham, and James Wang. 2013. “A review on bioactive porous metallic biomaterials.”
Journal of Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering 18 (1):1-8. doi:
Mehrvarz, Alireza, Jafar Khalil-Allafi, and Amir Kahaie Khosrowshahi. 2022.
“Biocompatibility and antibacterial behavior of electrochemically deposited
Hydroxyapatite/ZnO porous nanocomposite on NiTi biomedical alloy.” Ceramics
International 48 (11):16326-16336. doi:
Metikoš-Huković, M., E. Tkalčec, A. Kwokal, and J. Piljac. 2003. “An in vitro study of Ti
and Ti-alloys coated with sol–gel derived hydroxyapatite coatings.” Surface and
Coatings Technology 165 (1):40-50. doi:
Mi, Z Ridzwan, Solehuddin Shuib, AY Hassan, AA Shorki, and MM Ibrahim. 2007.
“Problem of stress shielding and improvement to the hip Implat designs: a review.” J.
Med. Sci 7 (3):460-467.
Mohandesnezhad, Sadaf, Mohamadreza Etminanfar, Soheil Mahdavi, and Mir Saman
Safavi. 2022. “Enhanced bioactivity of 316L stainless steel with deposition of
polypyrrole/hydroxyapatite layered hybrid coating: Orthopedic applications.”
Surfaces and Interfaces 28:101604. doi:
Mohseni, E., E. Zalnezhad, and A. R. Bushroa. 2014. “Comparative investigation on the
adhesion of hydroxyapatite coating on Ti–6Al–4V implant: A review paper.”
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 48:238-257.
Monsalve, M., E. Lopez, H. Ageorges, and F. Vargas. 2015. “Bioactivity and mechanical
properties of bioactive glass coatings fabricated by flame spraying.” Surface and
Coatings Technology 268:142-146. doi:
Morey, George W., and Paul Niggli. 1913. “The Hydrothermal Formation of Silicates, A
Review.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 35 (9):1086-1130. doi: 10.1021/ja02198a600.
Morks, M. F. 2008. “Fabrication and characterization of plasma-sprayed HA / SiO2
coatings for biomedical application.” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of
Biomedical Materials 1 (1):105-111. doi:
Mumith, Aadil, Vee San Cheong, Paul Fromme, Melanie J Coathup, and Gordon W Blunn.
2020. “The effect of strontium and silicon substituted hydroxyapatite electrochemical
coatings on bone ingrowth and osseointegration of selective laser sintered porous
metal implants.” PloS one 15 (1):e0227232. doi:
Nasab, Marjan Bahrami, Mohd Roshdi Hassan, and B Bin Sahari. 2010. “Metallic
biomaterials of knee and hip-a review.” Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs 24 (1):69-82.
Nayar, Suprabha, Ashit Kumar Pramanick, Binay Kumar Sharma, Rahul Kumar Mishra,
Satyendra Kumar Bansal, Amardeep Prajapati, Kaushal Kishor Sahu, Swapan Kr Das,
Lokesh Pathak, and Arvind Sinha. 2006. “Hydroxyapatite coating on stainless steel
pre-coated with bovine serum albumin at ambient conditions.” Colloids and Surfaces
B: Biointerfaces 48 (2):183-187. doi:
Ni, G. X., W. W. Lu, B. Xu, K. Y. Chiu, C. Yang, Z. Y. Li, W. M. Lam, and K. D. K. Luk.
2006. “Interfacial behaviour of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite cement with
cancellous and cortical bone.” Biomaterials 27 (29):5127-5133. doi:
Niinomi, Mitsuo. 2002. “Recent metallic materials for biomedical applications.”
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 33 (3):477.
doi: https://10.1007/s11661-002-0109-2.
Ninomiya, James T., Janine A. Struve, Cary T. Stelloh, Jeffrey M. Toth, and Kevin E.
Crosby. 2001. “Effects of hydroxyapatite participate debris on the production of
cytokines and proteases in human fibroblasts.” Journal of Orthopaedic Research 19
(4):621-628. doi:
Nizami, M. Z. I., B. D. L. Campéon, and Y. Nishina. 2022. “Electrodeposition of
hydroxyapatite and graphene oxide improves the bioactivity of medical grade stainless
steel.” Materials Today Sustainability 19:100193.
Okazaki, M. 1995. “Crystallographic properties of heterogeneous Mg-containing
fluoridated apatites synthesized with a two-step supply system.” Biomaterials 16
(9):703-707. doi:
Pana, Iulian, Viorel Braic, Alina Vladescu, Raluca Ion, Anca C. Parau, Nicolae C. Zoita,
Mihaela Dinu, Adrian E. Kiss, Anisoara Cimpean, and Mariana Braic. 2022. “SiC and Ag-SiC-Doped
Hydroxyapatite Coatings Grown Using Magnetron Sputtering on
Ti Alloy for Biomedical Application.” Coatings 12 (2). doi: 10.3390/coatings12020195.
Panda, Sikta, Tanmay Bharadwaj, Devendra Verma, Chandan Kumar Biswas, and
Subhankar Paul. 2022. “Influence of strontium and niobium on the physical and
biological performance of hydroxyapatite as a bioactive coating on implant materials.”
Ceramics International. doi:
Penn, R. Lee, and Jillian F. Banfield. 1999. “Morphology development and crystal growth
in nanocrystalline aggregates under hydrothermal conditions: insights from titania.”
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63 (10):1549-1557.
Pezzatini, Silvia, Raffaella Solito, Lucia Morbidelli, Stefania Lamponi, Elisa Boanini,
Adriana Bigi, and Marina Ziche. 2006. “The effect of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals on
microvascular endothelial cell viability and functions.” Journal of Biomedical
Materials Research Part A 76A (3):656-663. doi:
Polsongkram, D., P. Chamninok, S. Pukird, L. Chow, O. Lupan, G. Chai, H. Khallaf, S.
Park, and A. Schulte. 2008. “Effect of synthesis conditions on the growth of ZnO
nanorods via hydrothermal method.” Physica B: Condensed Matter 403 (19):3713-
3717. doi:
Poorraeisi, Morteza, and Abdollah Afshar. 2018. “The study of electrodeposition of
hydroxyapatite-ZrO2-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings on 316 stainless steel.” Surface
and Coatings Technology 339:199-207. doi:
Popa, Mihai V., Jose Maria Calderon Moreno, Monica Popa, Ecaterina Vasilescu, Paula
Drob, Cora Vasilescu, and Silviu I. Drob. 2011. “Electrochemical deposition of
bioactive coatings on Ti and Ti–6Al–4V surfaces.” Surface and Coatings Technology
205 (20):4776-4783. doi:
Praharaj, Rinmayee, Snigdha Mishra, R. D. K. Misra, and Tapash R. Rautray. 2022.
“Biocompatibility and adhesion response of magnesium-hydroxyapatite/strontium titania
(Mg-HAp/ Sr-TiO2) bilayer coating on titanium.” Materials Technology 37
(4):230-239. doi: 10.1080/10667857.2020.1825898.
Prakasam, Mythili, Janis Locs, Kristine Salma-Ancane, Dagnija Loca, Alain Largeteau,
and Liga Berzina-Cimdina. 2015. “Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense
Hydroxyapatite: A Review.” Journal of Functional Biomaterials 6 (4). doi:
Priyadarshini, B., M. Rama, Chetan, and U. Vijayalakshmi. 2019. “Bioactive coating as a
surface modification technique for biocompatible metallic implants: a review.”
Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies 7 (4):397-406.
doi: https://10.1080/21870764.2019.1669861.
Priyadarshini, B., S. Ramya, E. Shinyjoy, L. Kavitha, D. Gopi, and U. Vijayalakshmi. 2021.
“Structural, morphological and biological evaluations of cerium incorporated
hydroxyapatite sol–gel coatings on Ti–6Al–4V for orthopaedic applications.” Journal
of Materials Research and Technology 12:1319-1338.
Qiu, Deliang, Aiping Wang, and Yansheng Yin. 2010. “Characterization and corrosion
behavior of hydroxyapatite/zirconia composite coating on NiTi fabricated by
electrochemical deposition.” Applied Surface Science 257 (5):1774-1778. doi:
Qiu, Deliang, Lejiao Yang, Yansheng Yin, and Aiping Wang. 2011. “Preparation and
characterization of hydroxyapatite/titania composite coating on NiTi alloy by
electrochemical deposition.” Surface and Coatings Technology 205 (10):3280-3284.
Qu, Haibo, and Mei Wei. 2008. “Improvement of bonding strength between biomimetic
apatite coating and substrate.” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B:
Applied Biomaterials 84B (2):436-443. doi:
Rasooli, Ali, Mir Saman Safavi, Farid Babaei, and Alireza Ansarian. 2020.
“Electrodeposited Ni–Fe–Cr2O3 nanocomposite coatings: A survey of influences of
Cr2O3 nanoparticles loadings in the electrolyte.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds
822:153725. doi:
Rasooli, Ali, Mir Saman Safavi, and Mehdi Kasbkar Hokmabad. 2018. “Cr2O3
nanoparticles: A promising candidate to improve the mechanical properties and
corrosion resistance of Ni-Co alloy coatings.” Ceramics International 44 (6):6466-
6473. doi:
Rath, Purna C., Laxmidhar Besra, Bimal P. Singh, and Sarama Bhattacharjee. 2012.
“Titania/hydroxyapatite bi-layer coating on Ti metal by electrophoretic deposition:
Characterization and corrosion studies.” Ceramics International 38 (4):3209-3216.
Ratha, Itishree, Pradyot Datta, Nimu Chand Reger, Himanka Das, Vamsi Krishna Balla, K.
Bavya Devi, Mangal Roy, Samit Kumar Nandi, and Biswanath Kundu. 2022. “In vivo
osteogenesis of plasma sprayed ternary-ion doped hydroxyapatite coatings on
Ti6Al4V for orthopaedic applications.” Ceramics International 48 (8):11475-11488.
Rau, J. V., I. Antoniac, M. Filipescu, C. Cotrut, M. Fosca, L. C. Nistor, R. Birjega, and M.
Dinescu. 2018. “Hydroxyapatite coatings on Mg-Ca alloy prepared by Pulsed Laser
Deposition: Properties and corrosion resistance in Simulated Body Fluid.” Ceramics
International 44 (14):16678-16687. doi:
Rauch, J., G. Bolelli, A. Killinger, R. Gadow, V. Cannillo, and L. Lusvarghi. 2009.
“Advances in High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS).” Surface and
Coatings Technology 203 (15):2131-2138.
Reginster, J. Y., O. Bruyère, A. Sawicki, A. Roces-Varela, P. Fardellone, A. Roberts, and
J. P. Devogelaer. 2009. “Long-term treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with
strontium ranelate: Results at 8 years.” Bone 45 (6):1059-1064. doi:
Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mostafa, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, Hossein Moradifard, Ali
Keyvanfar, Arezou Shafaghat, Tolou Shokuhfar, and Sudin Izman. 2016.
“Hydroxyapatite–Titania nanotube composite as a coating layer on Co–Cr-based
implants: Mechanical and electrochemical optimization.” Ceramics International 42
(6):6942-6954. doi:
Ročňáková, I., K. Slámečka, E. B. Montufar, M. Remešová, L. Dyčková, A. Břínek, D.
Jech, K. Dvořák, L. Čelko, and J. Kaiser. 2018. “Deposition of hydroxyapatite and
tricalcium phosphate coatings by suspension plasma spraying: Effects of torch speed.”
Journal of the European Ceramic Society 38 (16):5489-5496. doi:
Rojaee, Ramin, Mohammadhossein Fathi, and Keyvan Raeissi. 2013. “Controlling the
degradation rate of AZ91 magnesium alloy via sol–gel derived nanostructured
hydroxyapatite coating.” Materials Science and Engineering: C 33 (7):3817-3825.
Rojaee, Ramin, Mohammadhossein Fathi, Keyvan Raeissi, and Ali Sharifnabi. 2014.
“Biodegradation assessment of nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite coatings on
biomedical grade magnesium alloy.” Ceramics International 40 (9, Part B):15149-
15158. doi:
Roshan, Sh, H. Eivaz Mohammadloo, A. A. Sarabi, and M. Afshari. 2022. “Biocompatible
hybrid chitosan/hydroxyapatite coating applied on the AZ31 Mg alloy substrate: In vitro corrosion,
surface and structure studies.” Materials Today Communications
30:103153. doi:
Roy, Mangal, B. Vamsi Krishna, Amit Bandyopadhyay, and Susmita Bose. 2008. “Laser
processing of bioactive tricalcium phosphate coating on titanium for load-bearing
implants.” Acta Biomaterialia 4 (2):324-333. doi:
Saadati, Ahmad, Hamid Hesarikia, Mohammad Reza Nourani, and Ramezan Ali Taheri.
2020. “Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite coating on biodegradable Mg–
4Zn–4Sn–0.6Ca–0.5Mn alloy.” Surface Engineering 36 (9):908-918. doi:
Sadat-Shojai, Mehdi, Mohammad-Taghi Khorasani, Ehsan Dinpanah-Khoshdargi, and
Ahmad Jamshidi. 2013. “Synthesis methods for nanosized hydroxyapatite with diverse
structures.” Acta Biomaterialia 9 (8):7591-7621. doi:
Safavi, M. S., A. Rasooli, and F. A. Sorkhabi. 2020. “Electrodeposition of Ni-P/Ni-Co Al2O3
duplex nanocomposite coatings: towards improved mechanical and corrosion
properties.” Transactions of the IMF 98 (6):320-327. doi: 10.1080/00202967.2020.1802106.
Safavi, Mir Saman, Farid Babaei, Alireza Ansarian, and Iraj Ahadzadeh. 2019.
“Incorporation of Y2O3 nanoparticles and glycerol as an appropriate approach for
corrosion resistance improvement of Ni-Fe alloy coatings.” Ceramics International 45
(8):10951-10960. doi:
Safavi, Mir Saman, and Ali Rasooli. 2019a. “Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings with
uniformly dispersed Ni3Ti intermetallics: Effects of current density and post heat
treatment.” Surface and Coatings Technology 372:252-259.
Safavi, Mir Saman, and Ali Rasooli. 2019b. “Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings with
uniformly dispersed Ni3Ti intermetallics: effects of TiO2 nanoparticles
concentration.” Surface Engineering 35 (12):1070-1080.
doi: 10.1080/02670844.2018.1564475.
Santos, M., C. Santos, and M. J. Carmezim. 2019. “Production of bioactive hydroxyapatite
coating by coblast process for orthopedic implants.” 2019 IEEE 6th Portuguese
Meeting on Bioengineering (ENBENG), 22-23 Feb. 2019.
Sari, Mona, Chotimah, Ika D. Ana, and Yusril Yusuf. 2022. “Cell Viability Assay and
Surface Morphology Analysis of Carbonated Hydroxyapatite/Honeycomb/Titanium
Alloy Coatings for Bone Implant Applications.” Bioengineering 9 (7).
doi: 10.3390/bioengineering9070325.
Schrooten, J., and J. A. Helsen. 2000. “Adhesion of bioactive glass coating to Ti6Al4V oral
implant.” Biomaterials 21 (14):1461-1469.
Sekiguchi, T., S. Miyashita, K. Obara, T. Shishido, and N. Sakagami. 2000. “Hydrothermal
growth of ZnO single crystals and their optical characterization.” Journal of Crystal
Growth 214-215:72-76. doi:
Seyedraoufi, Z. S., and S. Mirdamadi. 2014. “Effects of pulse electrodeposition parameters
and alkali treatment on the properties of nano hydroxyapatite coating on porous Mg–
Zn scaffold for bone tissue engineering application.” Materials Chemistry and Physics
148 (3):519-527. doi:
Seyedraoufi, Z. S., and Sh Mirdamadi. 2015. “In vitro biodegradability and
biocompatibility of porous Mg-Zn scaffolds coated with nano hydroxyapatite via pulse
electrodeposition.” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 25 (12):4018-
4027. doi:
Shadanbaz, Shaylin, and George J. Dias. 2012. “Calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium
alloys for biomedical applications: A review.” Acta Biomaterialia 8 (1):20-30. doi:
Shirdar, Mostafa Rezazadeh, and Mohammad Mahdi Taheri. 2017. “Surface Morphology
and Corrosion Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Co-Cr Implant: Effect of Sintering
Conditions.” JOM 69 (12):2831-2837. doi: https://10.1007/s11837-017-2598-x.
Sillekens, W. H., and D. Bormann. 2012. “13 – Biomedical applications of magnesium
alloys.” In Advances in Wrought Magnesium Alloys, edited by Colleen Bettles and
Matthew Barnett, 427-454. Woodhead Publishing.
Simchen, Frank, Maximilian Sieber, Alexander Kopp, and Thomas Lampke. 2020.
“Introduction to Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation—An Overview of the Process and
Applications.” Coatings 10 (7). doi: 10.3390/coatings10070628.
Singh, Balraj, Gurpreet Singh, and Buta Singh Sidhu. 2018. “Analysis of Corrosion
Behavior and Surface Properties of Plasma-Sprayed HA/Ta Coating on CoCr Alloy.”
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 27 (8):1401-1413. doi: 10.1007/s11666-018-0786-z.
Singh, Balraj, Gurpreet Singh, and Buta Singh Sidhu. 2019. “Investigation of the in vitro
corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of niobium (Nb)-reinforced hydroxyapatite
(HA) coating on CoCr alloy for medical implants.” Journal of Materials Research 34
(10):1678-1691. doi: https://10.1557/jmr.2019.94.
Singh, Balraj, Gurpreet Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu, and Nitish Bhatia. 2019. “In-vitro
assessment of HA-Nb coating on Mg alloy ZK60 for biomedical applications.”
Materials Chemistry and Physics 231:138-149. doi:
Singh, Gurbhinder, Surendra Singh, and Satya Prakash. 2010. “Role of post heat treatment
of plasma sprayed pure and Al2O3-TiO2 reinforced hydroxyapatite coating on the
microstructure and mechanical properties.” Journal of Minerals & Materials
Characterization & Engineering 9 (12):1059-1069.
Singh, Gurbhinder, Surendra Singh, and Satya Prakash. 2011. “Surface characterization of
plasma sprayed pure and reinforced hydroxyapatite coating on Ti6Al4V alloy.”
Surface and Coatings Technology 205 (20):4814-4820. doi:
Singh, Sandeep, Gurpreet Singh, and Niraj Bala. 2019. “Corrosion behavior and
characterization of HA/Fe3O4/CS composite coatings on AZ91 Mg alloy by
electrophoretic deposition.” Materials Chemistry and Physics 237:121884. doi:
Song, Y. W., D. Y. Shan, and E. H. Han. 2008. “Electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite
coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for biomaterial application.” Materials Letters 62
(17):3276-3279. doi:
Sridhar, T. M. 2010. “Nanobioceramic coatings for biomedical applications.” Materials
Technology 25 (3-4):184-195. doi: https://10.1179/175355510X12723642365449.
Stigter, M., K. de Groot, and P. Layrolle. 2002. “Incorporation of tobramycin into
biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating on titanium.” Biomaterials 23 (20):4143-4153.
Stoch, A., W. Jastrze¸bski, E. Długoń, W. Lejda, B. Trybalska, G. J. Stoch, and A.
Adamczyk. 2005. “Sol–gel derived hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium and its alloy
Ti6Al4V.” Journal of Molecular Structure 744-747:633-640.
Suchanek, Wojciech, and Masahiro Yoshimura. 1998. “Processing and properties of
hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials for use as hard tissue replacement implants.”
Journal of Materials Research 13 (1):94-117. doi: https://10.1557/JMR.1998.0015.
Sun, Guangfei, Jun Ma, and Shengmin Zhang. 2014. “Electrophoretic deposition of zinc
substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.” Materials Science and Engineering: C 39:67-72.
Sun, Limin, Christopher C. Berndt, and Karlis A. Gross. 2002. “Hydroxyapatite/polymer
composite flame-sprayed coatings for orthopedic applications.” Journal of
Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 13 (9):977-990.
doi: https://10.1163/156856202760319135.
Surmenev, Roman A., and Maria A. Surmeneva. 2019. “A critical review of decades of
research on calcium phosphate–based coatings: How far are we from their widespread
clinical application?” Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering 10:35-44. doi:
Surmenev, Roman A., Maria A. Surmeneva, and Anna A. Ivanova. 2014. “Significance of
calcium phosphate coatings for the enhancement of new bone osteogenesis – A
review.” Acta Biomaterialia 10 (2):557-579. doi:
Suwanprateeb, Jintamai, Waraporn Suvannapruk, Watchara Chokevivat, Siripong
Kiertkrittikhoon, Nara Jaruwangsanti, and Prakit Tienboon. 2018. “Bioactivity of a
sol–gel-derived hydroxyapatite coating on titanium implants in vitro and in vivo.”
Asian Biomedicine 12 (1):35-44. doi: https://10.1515/abm-2018-0029.
Taha, M., F. Chai, N. Blanchemain, M. Goube, B. Martel, and H. F. Hildebrand. 2013.
“Validating the poly-cyclodextrins based local drug delivery system on plasma
sprayed hydroxyapatite coated orthopedic implant with toluidine blue O.” Materials
Science and Engineering: C 33 (5):2639-2647. doi:
Tahmasbi Rad, Armin, Mehran Solati-Hashjin, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, and Shahab
Faghihi. 2014. “Improved bio-physical performance of hydroxyapatite coatings
obtained by electrophoretic deposition at dynamic voltage.” Ceramics International
40 (8, Part B):12681-12691. doi:
Tao, Yuan, Genshui Ke, Yan Xie, Yigang Chen, Siqi Shi, and Haibo Guo. 2015. “Adhesion
strength and nucleation thermodynamics of four metals (Al, Cu, Ti, Zr) on AlN
substrates.” Applied Surface Science 357:8-13.
Teng, Shu-Hua, Eun-Jung Lee, Chee-Sung Park, Won-Young Choi, Du-Sik Shin, and
Hyoun-Ee Kim. 2008. “Bioactive nanocomposite coatings of collagen/
hydroxyapatite on titanium substrates.” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in
Medicine 19 (6):2453-2461. doi: 10.1007/s10856-008-3370-0.
Tian, Meng, Shu Cai, Lei Ling, You Zuo, Zhongyan Wang, Pengbo Liu, Xiaogang Bao,
and Guohua Xu. 2022. “Superhydrophilic hydroxyapatite/hydroxypropyltrimethyl
ammonium chloride chitosan composite coating for enhancing the antibacterial and
corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy.” Progress in Organic Coatings 165:106745.
Tsutsumi, Harumi, Mitsuo Niinomi, Masaaki Nakai, Tatsuya Gozawa, Toshikazu Akahori,
Kazumi Saito, Rong Tu, and Takashi Goto. 2010. “Fabrication of hydroxyapatite film
on Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6 Zr using a MOCVD technique.”
Materials transactions 51 (12):2277-2283.
Ullah, Ihsan, Muhammad Ali Siddiqui, Hui Liu, Sharafadeen Kunle Kolawole, Ji Zhang,
Shuyuan Zhang, Ling Ren, and Ke Yang. 2020. “Mechanical, Biological, and
Antibacterial Characteristics of Plasma-Sprayed (Sr,Zn) Substituted Hydroxyapatite
Coating.” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 6 (3):1355-1366. doi:
Vahabzadeh, Sahar, Mangal Roy, Amit Bandyopadhyay, and Susmita Bose. 2015. “Phase
stability and biological property evaluation of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings
for orthopedic and dental applications.” Acta Biomaterialia 17:47-55. doi:
Vasilescu, C., P. Drob, E. Vasilescu, I. Demetrescu, D. Ionita, M. Prodana, and S. I. Drob.
2011. “Characterisation and corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited
hydroxyapatite and bovine serum albumin/hydroxyapatite films on Ti–6Al–4V–1Zr
alloy surface.” Corrosion Science 53 (3):992-999.
Vencl, Aleksandar, Saioa Arostegui, Gregory Favaro, Fatima Zivic, Mihailo Mrdak,
Slobodan Mitrović, and Vladimir Popovic. 2011. “Evaluation of adhesion/cohesion
bond strength of the thick plasma spray coatings by scratch testing on coatings cross sections.”
Tribology International 44 (11):1281-1288. doi:
Viswanath, B., and N. Ravishankar. 2008. “Controlled synthesis of plate-shaped
hydroxyapatite and implications for the morphology of the apatite phase in bone.”
Biomaterials 29 (36):4855-4863. doi:
Vu, Ashley A., Samuel Ford Robertson, Dongxu Ke, Amit Bandyopadhyay, and Susmita
Bose. 2019. “Mechanical and biological properties of ZnO, SiO2, and Ag2O doped
plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating for orthopaedic and dental applications.” Acta
Biomaterialia 92:325-335. doi:
Wang, H. X., S. K. Guan, X. Wang, C. X. Ren, and L. G. Wang. 2010. “In vitro degradation
and mechanical integrity of Mg–Zn–Ca alloy coated with Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite
by the pulse electrodeposition process.” Acta Biomaterialia 6 (5):1743-1748. doi:
Wang, Hao, Noam Eliaz, Zhou Xiang, Hu-Ping Hsu, Myron Spector, and Linn W. Hobbs.
2006. “Early bone apposition in vivo on plasma-sprayed and electrochemically
deposited hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium alloy.” Biomaterials 27 (23):4192-
4203. doi:
Wang, Lu-Ning, and Jing-Li Luo. 2011. “Preparation of hydroxyapatite coating on
CoCrMo implant using an effective electrochemically-assisted deposition
pretreatment.” Materials Characterization 62 (11):1076-1086.
Wang, Xuexin, Shu Cai, Tielong Liu, Mengguo Ren, Kai Huang, Ruiyue Zhang, and Huan
Zhao. 2014. “Fabrication and corrosion resistance of calcium phosphate glass-ceramic
coated Mg alloy via a PEG assisted sol–gel method.” Ceramics International 40
(2):3389-3398. doi:
Wen, Cuilian, Xiaozhang Zhan, Xiaogui Huang, Feng Xu, Lijin Luo, and Chengsen Xia.
2017. “Characterization and corrosion properties of hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide
bio-composite coating on magnesium alloy by one-step micro-arc oxidation method.”
Surface and Coatings Technology 317:125-133.
Witte, Frank, Frank Feyerabend, Petra Maier, Jens Fischer, Michael Störmer, Carsten
Blawert, Wolfgang Dietzel, and Norbert Hort. 2007. “Biodegradable magnesium–
hydroxyapatite metal matrix composites.” Biomaterials 28 (13):2163-2174. doi:
Xie, Jianhui, and Ben Li Luan. 2008. “Formation of hydroxyapatite coating using novel
chemo-biomimetic method.” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 19
(10):3211-3220. doi: https://10.1007/s10856-008-3451-0.
Xiong, Jianyu, Yuncang Li, Peter D. Hodgson, and Cui’e Wen. 2010. “Nanohydroxyapatite
coating on a titanium–niobium alloy by a hydrothermal process.” Acta Biomaterialia
6 (4):1584-1590. doi:
Xu, Y., H. Li, J. Wu, Q. Yang, D. Jiang, and B. Qiao. 2018. “Polydopamine-induced
hydroxyapatite coating facilitates hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 implant osteogenesis:
an in vitro and in vivo evaluation.” Int J Nanomedicine 13:8179-8193.
doi: 10.2147/ijn.S181137.
Yang, Y. C., and Edward Chang. 2001. “Influence of residual stress on bonding strength
and fracture of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–6Al–4V substrate.”
Biomaterials 22 (13):1827-1836. doi:
Yang, Y. C., and B. Y. Chou. 2007. “Bonding strength investigation of plasma-sprayed HA
coatings on alumina substrate with porcelain intermediate layer.” Materials Chemistry
and Physics 104 (2):312-319. doi:
Yang, Yung-Chin, Chien-Chung Chen, Jhong-Bo Wang, Yen-Ching Wang, and Feng-Huei
Lin. 2017. “Flame sprayed zinc doped hydroxyapatite coating with antibacterial and
biocompatible properties.” Ceramics International 43:S829-S835.
Yang, Yunzhi, Joo L. Ong, and Jiemo Tian. 2003. “Deposition of highly adhesive ZrO2
coating on Ti and CoCrMo implant materials using plasma spraying.” Biomaterials 24
(4):619-627. doi:
Yao, Hai-Long, Xiao-Zhen Hu, Xiao-Bo Bai, Hong-Tao Wang, Qing-Yu Chen,
and Gang Chang Ji. 2018. “Comparative study of HA/TiO2 and HA/ZrO2 composite coatings
deposited by high-velocity suspension flame spray (HVSFS).” Surface and Coatings
Technology 351:177-187. doi:
Yao, Hai-Long, Hong-Tao Wang, Xiao-Bo Bai, Gang-Chang Ji, and Qing-Yu Chen. 2018.
“Improvement in mechanical properties of nano-structured HA/TiO2 multilayer
coatings deposited by high velocity suspension flame spraying (HVSFS).” Surface and
Coatings Technology 342:94-104. doi:
Yin, XinHua, Liang Yan, Ding Jun Hao, Shichang Liu, Ming Yang, BaoRong He, and
ZhongKai Liu. 2020. “Calcium alginate template-mineral substituted hydroxyapatite
hydrogel coated titanium implant for tibia bone regeneration.” International Journal
of Pharmaceutics 582:119303. doi:


Table of Contents


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!

See some of our Authors and Editors