Chapter 1. Future of Biorefineries from a Circular Economy Perspective


Thamarys Scapini1,2, Natalia Klanovicz2,3, Aline Frumi Camargo2,4, Suzana Fátima Bazoti2,5, Matheus Cavali1,6, Charline Bonatto2, Letícia Paliga2, Andressa Warken2, Sérgio Luiz Alves Júnior4,7, Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski1 and Helen Treichel2
¹Federal University of Paraná, Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Curitiba, Brazil
2Laboratory of Microbiology and Bioprocesses, Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Erechim, Brazil
3Research Group in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AdOx), Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
4Federal University of Santa Catarina, Graduate Program in Biotechnology and Biosciences, Florianópolis, Brazil
5Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Florianópolis, Brazil
6Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Florianópolis, Brazil
7Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics, Chapecó, Brazil

Part of the book: The Future of Biorefineries


Over the last decade, the world has been facing climate changes because of the environmental impacts caused by excessive use of fossil fuels, a linear economy, and the consequent depletion of natural resources. For these reasons, international organizations established the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (SDGs), which are guidelines designed to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions through changes in economic development, to reduce environmental pressure by mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and uncontrolled waste generation. Consequently, the second-generation (2G) biorefinery concept (focused on waste biomass as feedstock) has gained researchers’ attention worldwide. Indeed, the potential of underutilized waste as feedstock is an exciting strategy for changing from a traditional economy to a circular one. It enables the diffusion of sustainable development concepts and encourages the creation of new industrial models that consider the social and environmental demands. This chapter discusses the role of biorefineries that uses biomass waste in economics and social progress to meet the SDGs and the circular economy concept. In this context, we have discussed SDGs and government policies, biobased products and their importance to market expansions, and the relationship between the advances in industry 5.0 and biorefineries.

Keywords: bioeconomy, green chemistry, 5th industrial revolution, waste resources, bioproducts


Aguiar, Jéssica de, Thalita Jessika Bondancia, Pedro Ivo C. Claro, Luiz Henrique C.
Mattoso, Cristiane S. Farinas, and José Manoel Marconcini. 2020. “Enzymatic
Deconstruction of Sugarcane Bagasse and Straw to Obtain Cellulose Nanomaterials.”
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 8 (5): 2287–99.
Alzaabi, Mohammed S.M. Alasam, and Toufic Mezher. 2021. “Analyzing Existing UAE
National Water, Energy and Food Nexus Related Strategies.” Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews 144 (July): 111031.
Amaro Bittencourt, Gustavo, Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Kim Valladares Diestra,
Leonardo Wedderhoff Herrmann, Ariane Fátima Murawski de Mello, Zulma
Sarmiento Vásquez, Susan Grace Karp, and Carlos Ricardo Soccol. 2021. “Soybean
Hulls as Carbohydrate Feedstock for Medium to High-Value Biomolecule Production
in Biorefineries: A Review.” Bioresource Technology 339 (May).
Arutselvan, Chithirai, Felix Lewis, G Ramya, Nguyen Thuy, Lan Chi, Arivalagan
Pugazhendhi, and Nooruddin Thajuddin. 2022. “Review on Wastewater Treatment by
Microalgae in Different Cultivation Systems and Its Importance in Biodiesel
Production.” Fuel 324 (April).
Astolfi, Angela Luiza, Alan Rempel, Vítor Augusto Farina Cavanhi, Maycon Alves,
Kricelle Mosquera Deamici, Luciane Maria Colla, and Jorge Alberto Viera Costa.
2020. “Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Spirulina Sp. and Corn
Starch for the Production of Bioethanol and Obtaining Biopeptides with High
Antioxidant Activity.” Bioresource Technology 301 (December 2019).
Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar, Ayon Tarafdar, Vivek Kumar Gaur, K. Amulya, Vivek Narisetty,
Dheeraj Kumar Yadav, Raveendran Sindhu, et al. 2022. “Emerging Trends of
Microbial Technology for the Production of Oligosaccharides from Biowaste and
Their Potential Application as Prebiotic.” International Journal of Food Microbiology
368 (May): 109610.
Baig, Nadeem, Irshad Kammakakam, and Wail Falath. 2021. “Nanomaterials: A Review
of Synthesis Methods, Properties, Recent Progress, and Challenges.” Materials
Advances 2 (6): 1821–71.
Banu, J. Rajesh, G. Ginni, S. Kavitha, R. Yukesh Kannah, S. Adish Kumar, Shashi Kant
Bhatia, and Gopalakrishnan Kumar. 2021. “Integrated Biorefinery Routes of
Biohydrogen: Possible Utilization of Acidogenic Fermentative Effluent.” Bioresource
Technology 319 (January): 124241.
Banu, J. Rajesh, S. Kavitha, R. Yukesh Kannah, Rahul R. Bhosale, and Gopalakrishnan
Kumar. 2020. “Industrial Wastewater to Biohydrogen: Possibilities towards
Successful Biorefinery Route.” Bioresource Technology 298 (February): 122378.
Barreiros, Thaís, André Young, Raquel Cavalcante, and Eduardo Queiroz. 2020. “Impact
of Biodiesel Production on a Soybean Biorefinery.” Renewable Energy 159: 1066–83.
Battista, Federico, Nicola Frison, Paolo Pavan, Cristina Cavinato, Marco Gottardo,
Francesco Fatone, Anna L. Eusebi, et al. 2020. “Food Wastes and Sewage Sludge as
Feedstock for an Urban Biorefinery Producing Biofuels and Added-Value
Bioproducts.” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 95 (2): 328–38.
BBC Research. 2021. “Global Markets and Technologies for Bioplastics.” https://www.
plastics.html#:~:text=Report Highlights,period of 2021 to 2026.
Bhatia, Latika, Ashutosh Sharma, Rakesh K. Bachheti, and Anuj K. Chandel. 2019.
“Lignocellulose Derived Functional Oligosaccharides: Production, Properties, and
Health Benefits.” Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology 49 (8): 744–58.
Bitonto, Luigi di, Stefano Todisco, Vito Gallo, and Carlo Pastore. 2020. “Urban Sewage
Scum and Primary Sludge as Profitable Sources of Biodiesel and Biolubricants of New
Generation.” Bioresource Technology Reports 9 (January).
Bohn, Letícia Renata, Aline Perin Dresch, Matheus Cavali, Ana Carolina Giacomelli
Vargas, Jaíne Flach Führ, Siumar Pedro Tironi, Odinei Fogolari, Guilherme Martinez
Mibielli, Sérgio Luiz Alves Junior, and João Paulo Bender. 2021. “Alkaline
Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover for Bioethanol Production.”
Research, Society and Development 2021 (2525–3409): 1–13.
Bošnjaković, Mladen, and Nazaruddin Sinaga. 2020. “The Perspective of Large-Scale
Production of Algae Biodiesel.” Applied Sciences (Switzerland) 10 (22): 1–26.
Bruins, Marieke E., and Johan P.M. Sanders. 2012. “Small-Scale Processing of Biomass
for Biorefinery.” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 6 (2): 135–45.
Bukhari, Nurul Adela, Jamaliah Md Jahim, Soh Kheang Loh, Abu Bakar Nasrin, Shuhaida
Harun, and Peer Mohamed Abdul. 2020. “Organic Acid Pretreatment of Oil Palm
Trunk Biomass for Succinic Acid Production.” Waste and Biomass Valorization 11
(10): 5549–59.
Cai, Di, Jieyi Wen, Yan Zhuang, Tianhao Huang, Zhihao Si, Peiyong Qin, and Huidong
Chen. 2022. “Review of Alternative Technologies for Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol
Separation: Principles, State-of-the-Art, and Development Trends.” Separation and
Purification Technology, May, 121244.
Calicioglu, Özgül, and Anne Bogdanski. 2021. “Linking the Bioeconomy to the 2030
Sustainable Development Agenda: Can SDG Indicators Be Used to Monitor Progress
towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy?” New Biotechnology 61 (March): 40–49.
Castro-Aguirre, E., F. Iñiguez-Franco, H. Samsudin, X. Fang, and R. Auras. 2016.
“Poly(Lactic Acid)—Mass Production, Processing, Industrial Applications, and End
of Life.” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 107 (December): 333–66.
Cavali, Matheus, Auriane Bueno, Ana P. Fagundes, Wagner L. Priamo, Denise Bilibio,
Guilherme M. Mibielli, João H.C. Wancura, João P. Bender, and J. Vladimir Oliveira.
2020. “Liquid Lipase-Mediated Production of Biodiesel from Agroindustrial Waste.”
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 30 (November).
Cavali, Matheus, Nelson Libardi Junior, Rodrigo De Almeida Mohedano, Paulo Belli Filho,
Rejane Helena, Armando Borges, and De Castilhos Junior. 2022. “Biochar and
Hydrochar in the Context of Anaerobic Digestion for a Circular Approach:
An Overview.” Science of the Total Environment 822: 153614.
Cavali, Matheus, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Débora Tavares, Luis Alberto Zevallos Torres,
Valcineide Oliveira de Andrade Tanobe, Arion Zandoná Filho, and Adenise Lorenci
Woiciechowski. 2021. “Valorization of Lignin from Pine (Pinus Spp.) Residual
Sawdust: Antioxidant Activity and Application in the Green Synthesis of Silver
Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Purpose.” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, no.
Chen, Guo-Qiang. 2009. “A Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Based Bio- and
Materials Industry.” Chemical Society Reviews 38 (8): 2434.
Cheng, Dongle, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Soon Woong Chang, Dinh Duc Nguyen,
Xuan Thanh Bui, Wei Wei, Bingjie Ni, Sunita Varjani, and Ngoc Bich Hoang. 2022.
“Enhanced Photo-Fermentative Biohydrogen Production from Biowastes: An
Overview.” Bioresource Technology 357 (August): 127341.
Cherubini, Francesco. 2010. “The Biorefinery Concept: Using Biomass Instead of Oil for
Producing Energy and Chemicals.” Energy Conversion and Management 51 (7):
Chia, Shir Reen, Kit Wayne Chew, Pau Loke Show, Yee Jiun Yap, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Tau
Chuan Ling, and Jo Shu Chang. 2018. “Analysis of Economic and Environmental
Aspects of Microalgae Biorefinery for Biofuels Production: A Review.”
Biotechnology Journal 13 (6): 1–10.
Choe, Bomin, Shinje Lee, Hyunjun Lee, Jinwon Lee, Hankwon Lim, and Wangyun Won.
2021. “Integrated Strategy for Coproducing Bioethanol and Adipic Acid from
Lignocellulosic Biomass.” Journal of Cleaner Production 311 (June).
Ciriminna, Rosaria, Francesco Meneguzzo, Riccardo Delisi, and Mario Pagliaro. 2017.
“Citric Acid: Emerging Applications of Key Biotechnology Industrial Product.”
Chemistry Central Journal 11 (1): 22.
Conteratto, Caroline, Felipe Dalzotto Artuzo, Omar Inácio Benedetti Santos, and Edson
Talamini. 2021. “Biorefinery: A Comprehensive Concept for the Sociotechnical
Transition toward Bioeconomy.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 151
(November): 111527.
Crutchik, Dafne, Oscar Franchi, Luis Caminos, David Jeison, Marisol Belmonte, Alba
Pedrouso, Angeles Val del Rio, Anuska Mosquera-Corral, and José Luis Campos.
2020. “Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) Production: A Feasible Economic Option for
the Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants?” Water
12 (4): 1118.
D’Amato, D., and J. Korhonen. 2021. “Integrating the Green Economy, Circular Economy
and Bioeconomy in a Strategic Sustainability Framework.” Ecological Economics 188
(October): 107143.
Daful, Asfaw Gezae, and Johann F. Görgens. 2017. “Techno-Economic Analysis and
Environmental Impact Assessment of Lignocellulosic Lactic Acid Production.”
Chemical Engineering Science 162 (April): 53–65.
Deuber, Raquel de Souza, Daniel Santos Fernandes, Jéssica Marcon Bressanin, Jamison
Watson, Mateus Ferreira Chagas, Antonio Bonomi, Leonardo Vasconcelos
Fregolente, and Marcos Djun Barbosa Watanabe. 2021. “Techno-Economic
Assessment of HTL Integration to the Brazilian Sugarcane Industry: An Evaluation of
Different Scenarios.” Industrial Crops and Products 173 (March).
Dezam, A.P.G., V.M. Vasconcellos, P.T. Lacava, and C.S. Farinas. 2017. “Microbial
Production of Organic Acids by Endophytic Fungi.” Biocatalysis and Agricultural
Biotechnology 11 (July): 282–87.
Duan, Yumin, Ayon Tarafdar, Vinay Kumar, Prabakaran Ganeshan, Karthik Rajendran,
Balendu Shekhar Giri, Ricardo Gómez-García, et al. 2022. “Sustainable Biorefinery
Approaches towards Circular Economy for Conversion of Biowaste to Value Added
Materials and Future Perspectives.” Fuel 325 (October): 124846.
Dzulkarnain, Eka Latiffah Nadia, Jemilatu Omuwa Audu, Wan Rosmiza Zana Wan
Dagang, and Mohd Firdaus Abdul-Wahab. 2022. “Microbiomes of Biohydrogen
Production from Dark Fermentation of Industrial Wastes: Current Trends, Advanced
Tools and Future Outlook.” Bioresources and Bioprocessing 9 (1).
El-Qelish, Mohamed, Gamal K. Hassan, Sebastian Leaper, Paolo Dessì, and Ahmed Abdel Karim. 2022.
“Membrane-Based Technologies for Biohydrogen Production: A
Review.” Journal of Environmental Management 316 (August): 115239. https://doi.
Eng Sánchez, Felipe, Lucas Tadeu Fuess, Guilherme Soares Cavalcante, Maria Ângela
Talarico Adorno, and Marcelo Zaiat. 2021. “Value-Added Soluble Metabolite
Production from Sugarcane Vinasse within the Carboxylate Platform: An Application
of the Anaerobic Biorefinery beyond Biogas Production.” Fuel 286 (February):
European Bioplastic. 2021. “Bioplastics Market Data 2021.” https://docs.european
European Environment Agency. 2018. The Circular Economy and the Bioeconomy :
Partners in Sustainability. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Fact.MR. 2021. “Organic Acids Market – Global Insights 2021-2031.” https://www.factmr.
FAO. 2011. “Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate.”
———. 2017a. “Food and Agriculture: Driving Action across the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development.”
———. 2017b. “The Future of Food and Agriculture- Trends and Challenges.”
Ferreira-Filipe, Diogo A., Ana Paço, Armando C. Duarte, Teresa Rocha-Santos, and Ana
L. Patrício Silva. 2021. “Are Biobased Plastics Green Alternatives?—A Critical
Review.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18
(15): 7729.
Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO. 2020. OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2020-
2029. OECD Publishing Paris, /Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, Rome.
Formann, Steffi, Alena Hahn, Leandro Janke, Walter Stinner, Heike Sträuber, Washington
Logroño, and Marcell Nikolausz. 2020. “Beyond Sugar and Ethanol Production:
Value Generation Opportunities Through Sugarcane Residues.” Frontiers in Energy
GBS. 2020. “Global Bioeconomy Summit Conference 2020.”
Gerrior, Daniel, Khashayar Delsoz Bahri, Azadeh Kermanshahi-pour, Mathew J.
Eckelman, and Satinder Kaur Brar. 2022. “Life Cycle Assessment and Techno Economic Analysis of a Novel Closed Loop Corn Ethanol Biorefinery.” Sustainable
Production and Consumption 30: 359–76.
Ghomi, Erfan Rezvani, Fatemeh Khosravi, Ali Saedi Saedi Ardahaei, Yunqian Dai, Rasoul
Esmaeely Neisiany, Firoozeh Foroughi, Min Wu, Oisik Das, and Seeram
Ramakrishna. 2021. “The Life Cycle Assessment for Polylactic Acid (PLA) to Make
It a Low-Carbon Material.” Polymers 13 (11): 1854.
GMI. 2022. “Nanomaterials Market Size, Industry Analysis Report, Regional Outlook,
Application Development Potential, Price Trend, Competitive Market Share &
Forecast, 2022 – 2028.”
Guilayn, F., M. Rouez, M. Crest, D. Patureau, and J. Jimenez. 2020. Valorization of
Digestates from Urban or Centralized Biogas Plants: A Critical Review. Reviews in
Environmental Science and Biotechnology. Vol. 19.
Gwalwanshi, Manoj, Rajesh Kumar, and Manish Kumar Chauhan. 2022. “A Review on
Butanol Properties, Production and Its Application in Internal Combustion Engines.”
Materials Today: Proceedings, April.
Hassan, Shady S., Gwilym A. Williams, and Amit K. Jaiswal. 2019. “Moving towards the
Second Generation of Lignocellulosic Biorefineries in the EU: Drivers, Challenges,
and Opportunities.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 101 (March): 590–
Hou, Li, Ling Liu, Hongfei Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lan Zhang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Gao, and
Depei Wang. 2018. “Functional Analysis of the Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase
Gene (Aox1) from Aspergillus Niger CGMCC 10142 and Its Effects on Citric Acid
Production.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 102 (18): 7981–95.
Igbokwe, Victor C., Flora N. Ezugworie, Chukwudi O. Onwosi, Godwin O. Aliyu, and
Chinonye J. Obi. 2022. “Biochemical Biorefinery: A Low-Cost and Non-Waste
Concept for Promoting Sustainable Circular Bioeconomy.” Journal of Environmental
Management 305 (March): 114333.
International Energy Agency. 2020. “Outlook for Biogas and Biomethane – Prospects for
Organic Growth.” International Energy Agency (IEA) – Bioenergy.
———. 2022. “Hydrogen – Analysis.”
Ioannidou, Sofia Maria, Katiana Filippi, Ioannis K. Kookos, Apostolis Koutinas, and
Dimitrios Ladakis. 2022. “Techno-Economic Evaluation and Life Cycle Assessment
of a Biorefinery Using Winery Waste Streams for the Production of Succinic Acid and
Value-Added Co-Products.” Bioresource Technology 348 (March): 126295.
Iqbal, Khushboo, Abhishek Saxena, Priyanshi Pande, Archana Tiwari, Naveen Chandra
Joshi, Ajit Varma, and Arti Mishra. 2022. “Microalgae-Bacterial Granular
Consortium: Striding towards Sustainable Production of Biohydrogen Coupled with
Wastewater Treatment.” Bioresource Technology 354 (June): 127203.
Jain, Sarika, David Newman, Ange Nzihou, Harmen Dekker, Pharoah Le Feuvre, Hannah
Richter, Frederic Gobe, Charlotte Morton, and Rebecca Thompson. 2019. “Global
Potential of Biogas.” World Biogas Association.
Joglekar, Saurabh N., Pranav D. Pathak, Sachin A. Mandavgane, and Bhaskar D. Kulkarni.
2019. “Process of Fruit Peel Waste Biorefinery: A Case Study of Citrus Waste
Biorefinery, Its Environmental Impacts and Recommendations.” Environmental
Science and Pollution Research 26 (34): 34713–22.
Kahar, Prihardi, Nova Rachmadona, Radityo Pangestu, Rendi Palar, Deddy Triyono
Nugroho Adi, Ario Betha Juanssilfero, Yopi, Immanuel Manurung, Shinji Hama, and
Chiaki Ogino. 2022. “An Integrated Biorefinery Strategy for the Utilization of Palm Oil Wastes.” Bioresource Technology 344 (January): 126266.
Katakojwala, Ranaprathap, and S. Venkata Mohan. 2022. “Multi-Product Biorefinery with
Sugarcane Bagasse: Process Development for Nanocellulose, Lignin and Biohydrogen
Production and Lifecycle Analysis.” Chemical Engineering Journal 446 (October):
Keyhanpour, Mohammad Javad, Seyed Habib Musavi Jahromi, and Hossein Ebrahimi.
2021. “System Dynamics Model of Sustainable Water Resources Management Using
the Nexus Water-Food-Energy Approach.” Ain Shams Engineering Journal 12 (2):
Khan, Bahram, Muhammad Bilal Khan Niazi, Ghufrana Samin, and Zaib Jahan. 2017.
“Thermoplastic Starch: A Possible Biodegradable Food Packaging Material-A
Review.” Journal of Food Process Engineering 40 (3): e12447.
Khatami, Kasra, Mariel Perez-Zabaleta, Isaac Owusu-Agyeman, and Zeynep Cetecioglu.
2021. “Waste to Bioplastics: How Close Are We to Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkano ates Production?” Waste Management 119 (January): 374–88.
Koch, Daniel, Marco Paul, Stefan Beisl, Anton Friedl, and Bettina Mihalyi. 2020. “Life
Cycle Assessment of a Lignin Nanoparticle Biorefinery: Decision Support for Its
Process Development.” Journal of Cleaner Production 245 (February): 118760.
Kuenz, Anja, and Susan Krull. 2018. “Biotechnological Production of Itaconic Acid—
Things You Have to Know.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 102 (9): 3901–
Ladakis, Dimitrios, Eleni Stylianou, Sofia-Maria Ioannidou, Apostolis Koutinas, and
Chrysanthi Pateraki. 2022. “Biorefinery Development, Techno-Economic Evaluation
and Environmental Impact Analysis for the Conversion of the Organic Fraction of
Municipal Solid Waste into Succinic Acid and Value-Added Fractions.” Bioresource
Technology 354 (June): 127172.
Larnaudie, Valeria, Mario Daniel Ferrari, and Claudia Lareo. 2021. “Life Cycle
Assessment of Ethanol Produced in a Biorefinery from Liquid Hot Water Pretreated
Switchgrass.” Renewable Energy 176: 606–16.
Le, Tan M., Uyen P.N. Tran, Yen H.P. Duong, Quan D. Nguyen, Viet T. Tran, Phong T.
Mai, and Phung K. Le. 2022. “Sustainable Bioethanol and Value-Added Chemicals
Production from Paddy Residues at Pilot Scale.” Clean Technologies and
Environmental Policy 24 (1): 185–97.
Lena, Gabriella Di, Jose Sanchez Del Pulgar, Massimo Lucarini, Alessandra Durazzo, Petra
Ondrejíčková, Florin Oancea, Rodica Mihaela Frincu, et al. 2021. “Valorization
Potentials of Rapeseed Meal in a Biorefinery Perspective: Focus on Nutritional and
Bioactive Components.” Molecules 26 (22).
Lestari, Dianika, Ednah Zvinavashe, and Johan P.M. Sanders. 2015. “Economic Valuation
of Potential Products from Jatropha Seed in Five Selected Countries: Zimbabwe,
Tanzania, Mali, Indonesia, and The Netherlands.” Biomass and Bioenergy 74 (March):
Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior, Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowski, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni
Medeiros, Júlio César de Carvalho, Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Susan
Grace Karp, Luis Alberto Zevallos Torres, et al. 2021. “Valorization of Solid and
Liquid Wastes from Palm Oil Industry.” In Waste Biorefinery: Value Addition through
Resource Utilization, edited by Thallada Bhaskar, Ashok Pandey, Sunita Varjani, and
Eldon R. Rene, 235–65. Elsevier.
Lhamo, Pema, Shishir Kumar Behera, and Biswanath Mahanty. 2021. “Process
Optimization, Metabolic Engineering Interventions and Commercialization of
Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production – A State‐of‐the Art Review.”
Biotechnology Journal 16 (9): 2100136.
Liu, Fang, Xiang Guo, Yuan Wang, Guanyi Chen, and Li’an Hou. 2021. “Process
Simulation and Economic and Environmental Evaluation of a Corncob-Based
Biorefinery System.” Journal of Cleaner Production 329 (December): 129707.
Liu, Jingyun, Senqing Fan, Ke Bai, and Zeyi Xiao. 2021. “Combining Acetone-Butanol Ethanol Production and Methyl Orange Decolorization in Wastewater by
Fermentation with Solid Food Waste as Substrate.” Renewable Energy 179
(December): 2246–55.
Liu, Li, Yancui Wang, Na Wang, Xiaomiao Chen, Baoguo Li, Jiping Shi, and Xiang Li.
2021. “Process Optimization of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation Integrated
with Pervaporation for Enhanced Butanol Production.” Biochemical Engineering
Journal 173 (September): 108070.
Liu, Xiaoyan, Fenfen Zhu, Rongyan Zhang, Luyao Zhao, and Juanjuan Qi. 2021. “Recent
Progress on Biodiesel Production from Municipal Sewage Sludge.” Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews 135 (August 2020).
Liu, Yang, Yizheng Lyu, Jinping Tian, Jialing Zhao, Ning Ye, Yongming Zhang, and Lujun
Chen. 2021. “Review of Waste Biorefinery Development towards a Circular
Economy: From the Perspective of a Life Cycle Assessment.” Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews 139 (April): 110716.
Lu, Yudan, Xiaomei Zheng, Yu Wang, Lihui Zhang, Lixian Wang, Yu Lei, Tongcun
Zhang, Ping Zheng, and Jibin Sun. 2022. “Evaluation of Aspergillus Niger Six
Constitutive Strong Promoters by Fluorescent-Auxotrophic Selection Coupled with
Flow Cytometry: A Case for Citric Acid Production.” Journal of Fungi 8 (6): 568.
Maddikunta, Praveen Kumar Reddy, Quoc-Viet Pham, Prabadevi B, N Deepa, Kapal Dev,
Thippa Reddy Gadekallu, Rukhsana Ruby, and Madhusanka Liyanage. 2022.
“Industry 5.0: A Survey on Enabling Technologies and Potential Applications.”
Journal of Industrial Information Integration 26 (March): 100257.
Magalhães Júnior, Antonio Irineudo, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Marcela Candido Camara,
Denisse Tatiana Molina Aulestia, Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, and Júlio
Cesar de Carvalho. 2021. “Challenges in the Production of Second-Generation
Organic Acids (Potential Monomers for Application in Biopolymers).” Biomass and
Bioenergy 149 (June): 106092.
Mahmud, Nazira, and Kurt A. Rosentrater. 2019. “Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) of
Different Pretreatment and Product Separation Technologies for Butanol
Bioprocessing from Oil Palm Frond.” Energies 13 (1): 155.
Malik, Sana, Ayesha Shahid, Michael J. Betenbaugh, Chen Guang Liu, and Muhammad
Aamer Mehmood. 2022. “A Novel Wastewater-Derived Cascading Algal Biorefinery
Route for Complete Valorization of the Biomass to Biodiesel and Value-Added
Bioproducts.” Energy Conversion and Management 256 (February).
Manaf, Intan Shafinaz Abd, Nurul Hajar Embong, Siti Norhafiza Mohd Khazaai, Mohd
Hasbi Ab Rahim, Mashitah M. Yusoff, Keat Teong Lee, and Gaanty Pragas Maniam.
2019. “A Review for Key Challenges of the Development of Biodiesel Industry.”
Energy Conversion and Management 185 (April): 508–17.
Markerts and Markets. 2017. “Organic Acids Market – Global Forecast to 2022.”
58.html#:~:text=%5B174 Pages%5D The global organic,5.5%25 during the forecast
Market Data Forecast. 2022. “Biodiesel Market Size, Share & Trends – 2022 to 2027.”
Biodiesel Market – By Feedstock Type (Vegetable Oils, Animal Fats, Brown Grease/
Trap Grease), Application (Fuel, Power Generation) & By Region (North America,
Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa) – Global Industry
Analysis, Size, Sh. 2022.
Market Data Forest. 2021. “Global Xylooligosaccharides Market Research Reports 2022.”
Mastropetros, Savvas Giannis, Konstantinos Pispas, Dimitris Zagklis, Sameh S. Ali, and
Michael Kornaros. 2022. “Biopolymers Production from Microalgae and
Cyanobacteria Cultivated in Wastewater: Recent Advances.” Biotechnology Advances
60 (November): 107999.
Medina, Jesus David Coral, Fabio Bolaños Alomia, Antonio Irineudo Magalhaes, Julio
Cesar de Carvalho, Adenise Lorenci Woiciechowsky, and Carlos Ricardo Soccol.
2021. “Simulation of Different Biorefinery Configuration Including Environmental,
Technical and Economic Assay Using Sugarcane Bagasse.” Journal of Cleaner
Production 316 (September): 128162.
Meegoda, Jay N., Brian Li, Kush Patel, and Lily B. Wang. 2018. “A Review of the
Processes, Parameters, and Optimization of Anaerobic Digestion.” International
Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
Meramo-Hurtado, Samir I., Ángel González-Delgado, Lars Rehmann, Edgar Quinones Bolanos, and Mehrab Mehvar. 2021. “Comparative Analysis of Biorefinery Designs
Based on Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation under Exergetic, Techno Economic, and Sensitivity Analyses towards a Sustainability Perspective.” Journal of
Cleaner Production 298 (May): 126761.
Merzari, Fabio, Michela Langone, Gianni Andreottola, and Luca Fiori. 2019. Methane
Production from Process Water of Sewage Sludge Hydrothermal Carbonization. A
Review. Valorising Sludge through Hydrothermal Carbonization. Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 49.
Mibielli, Guilherme Martinez, Ana Paula Fagundes, Letícia Renata Bohn, Matheus Cavali,
Auriane Bueno, João Paulo Bender, and José Vladimir Oliveira. 2020. “Enzymatic
Production of Methyl Esters from Low-Cost Feedstocks.” Biocatalysis and
Agricultural Biotechnology 24 (February).
Milessi, Thais S., Felipe A.S. Corradini, João V.M. Marçal, Thaís O. Baldez, Willian Kopp,
Roberto C. Giordano, and Raquel L.C. Giordano. 2021. “Xylooligosaccha-rides
Production Chain in Sugarcane Biorefineries: From the Selection of Pretreatment
Conditions to the Evaluation of Nutritional Properties.” Industrial Crops and Products
172 (November): 114056.
Miranda, Nahieh Toscano, Ingrid Lopes Motta, Rubens Maciel Filho, and Maria Regina
Wolf Maciel. 2021. “Sugarcane Bagasse Pyrolysis: A Review of Operating Conditions
and Products Properties.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 149 (July).
Mohammadi, Mitra, Mohd Ali Hassan, Lai-Yee Phang, Yoshihito Shirai, Hasfalina Che
Man, and Hidayah Ariffin. 2012. “Intracellular Polyhydroxyalkanoates Recovery by
Cleaner Halogen-Free Methods towards Zero Emission in the Palm Oil Mill.” Journal
of Cleaner Production 37 (December): 353–60.
Morales, Merten, Meriç Ataman, Sara Badr, Sven Linster, Ioannis Kourlimpinis, Stavros
Papadokonstantakis, Vassily Hatzimanikatis, and Konrad Hungerbühler. 2016.
“Sustainability Assessment of Succinic Acid Production Technologies from Biomass
Using Metabolic Engineering.” Energy & Environmental Science 9 (9): 2794–2805.
Nahavandi, Saeid. 2019. “Industry 5.0—A Human-Centric Solution.” Sustainability 11
(16): 4371.
Nandakumar, Ardra, Jo-Ann Chuah, and Kumar Sudesh. 2021. “Bioplastics: A Boon or
Bane?” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 147 (September): 111237.
Narancic, Tanja, Federico Cerrone, Niall Beagan, and Kevin E. O’Connor. 2020. “Recent
Advances in Bioplastics: Application and Biodegradation.” Polymers 12 (4): 920.
Nayl, A A, A. I. Abd-Elhamid, Ashraf A. Aly, and Stefan Brase. 2022. “Recent Progress
in the Applications of Silica-Based Nanoparticles.” RSC Advances 12 (22): 13706–26.
Nazarko, Joanicjusz, Ewa Chodakowska, and Łukasz Nazarko. 2022. “Evaluating the
Transition of the European Union Member States towards a Circular Economy.”
Energies 15 (11): 3924.
Neyt, Nicole C., and Darren L. Riley. 2021. “Application of Reactor Engineering Concepts
in Continuous Flow Chemistry: A Review.” Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 6:
Nitkiewicz, Tomasz, Magdalena Wojnarowska, Mariusz Sołtysik, Adam Kaczmarski,
Tomasz Witko, Carlo Ingrao, and Maciej Guzik. 2020. “How Sustainable Are
Biopolymers? Findings from a Life Cycle Assessment of Polyhydroxyalkanoate
Production from Rapeseed-Oil Derivatives.” Science of the Total Environment 749.
Odetoye, T. E., J. O. Agu, and E. O. Ajala. 2021. “Biodiesel Production from Poultry
Wastes: Waste Chicken Fat and Eggshell.” Journal of Environmental Chemical
Engineering 9 (4): 105654.
Oh, Hurok, Young-Jung Wee, Jong-Sun Yun, Seung Ho Han, Sangwon Jung, and Hwa Won Ryu. 2005. “Lactic Acid Production from Agricultural Resources as Cheap Raw
Materials.” Bioresource Technology 96 (13): 1492–98.
Okano, Kenji, Shinji Hama, Maki Kihara, Hideo Noda, Tsutomu Tanaka, and Akihiko
Kondo. 2017. “Production of Optically Pure D-Lactic Acid from Brown Rice Using
Metabolically Engineered Lactobacillus Plantarum.” Applied Microbiology and
Biotechnology 101 (5): 1869–75.
Onday, Ozgur. 2019. “Japan’s Society 5.0: Going Beyond Industry 4.0.” Business and
Economics Journal 10 (2): 1000389.
ONU. 2015. “United Nations Organization. The Millennium Development Goals Report.”
Österberg, Monika, Mika H. Sipponen, Bruno D. Mattos, and Orlando J. Rojas. 2020.
“Spherical Lignin Particles: A Review on Their Sustainability and Applications.”
Green Chemistry 22 (9): 2712–33.
Paladino, Ombretta, and Matteo Neviani. 2022. “Sustainable Biodiesel Production by
Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil and Recycling of Wastewater Rich in
Glycerol as a Feed to Microalgae.” Sustainability 14 (1).
Panagiotopoulos, I. A., S. Pasias, R. R. Bakker, T. de Vrije, N. Papayannakos, P. A.M.
Claassen, and E. G. Koukios. 2013. “Biodiesel and Biohydrogen Production from
Cotton-Seed Cake in a Biorefinery Concept.” Bioresource Technology 136 (May): 78–
Pinales-Márquez, César D., Rosa M. Rodríguez-Jasso, Rafael G. Araújo, Araceli Loredo Treviño, Debora Nabarlatz, Beatriz Gullón, and Héctor A. Ruiz. 2021. “Circular
Bioeconomy and Integrated Biorefinery in the Production of Xylooligosaccharides
from Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review.” Industrial Crops and Products 162:
Pingkuo, Liu, and Han Xue. 2022. “Comparative Analysis on Similarities and Differences
of Hydrogen Energy Development in the World’s Top 4 Largest Economies: A Novel
Framework.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 47 (16): 9485–9503.
Pinto, Ariane S.S., Andrew M. Elias, Felipe F. Furlan, Marcelo P.A. Ribeiro, Roberto C.
Giordano, and Cristiane S. Farinas. 2022. “Strategies to Reduce the Negative Impact
of Inhibitors in Biorefineries: A Combined Techno-Economic and Life Cycle
Assessment.” Journal of Cleaner Production 345 (April): 131020.
Polat, Leyla, and Alptekin Erkollar. 2021. “Industry 4.0 vs. Society 5.0.” In Digital
Conversion on the Way to Industry 4.0, 333–45.
Praptyana, I. R., and Budiyono. 2022. “Biohydrogen Production from Wood Dust
Mahogany (Swietenia Mahagony) by Dark Fermentation Using Enterobacter
Aerogenes: Effect of Ozone Pretreatment Time and PH.” Materials Today:
Proceedings, March.
Preethi, J. Rajesh Banu, Gopalakrishnakumar, Vinay Kumar Tyagi, Amit Kumar Bajhaiya,
Poornachandar Gugulothu, and M. Gunasekaran. 2022. “Biohydrogen Production
from Waste Activated Sludge through Thermochemical Mechanical Pretreatment.”
Bioresource Technology 358 (August): 127301.
Primmer, Nick. 2021. “Biogas: Pathways to 2030 – Report – World Biogas Association.”
Qiao, Hui, Mingyang Han, Shuiping Ouyang, Zhaojuan Zheng, and Jia Ouyang. 2022. “An
Integrated Lignocellulose Biorefinery Process: Two-Step Sequential Treatment with
Formic Acid for Efficiently Producing Ethanol and Furfural from Corn Cobs.”
Renewable Energy 191 (May): 775–84.
Reena, Rooben, Raveendran Sindhu, Palanisamy Athiyaman Balakumaran, Ashok Pandey,
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, and Parameswaran Binod. 2022. “Insight into Citric Acid:
A Versatile Organic Acid.” Fuel 327 (November): 125181.
Research and Markets. 2021. “Biogas Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By
Source (Municipal, Agricultural), By Application (Vehicle Fuel, Electricity), By
Region (North America, Europe, APAC, CSA), and Segment Forecasts, 2021-2028.”
Research, Precedence. 2022. “Ethanol Market – Global Market Size, Share, Trends
Analysis, Segment Forecasts, Regional Outlook 2021 – 2030.”
Reshmy, R., Eapen Philip, Aravind Madhavan, Ranjna Sirohi, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi,
Parameswaran Binod, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Narisetty Vivek, Vinod Kumar, and
Raveendran Sindhu. 2022. “Lignocellulose in Future Biorefineries: Strategies for
Cost-Effective Production of Biomaterials and Bioenergy.” Bioresource Technology
344 (January): 126241.
Rodrigues, Caroline Varella, Maurílio Gustavo Nespeca, Isabel Kimiko Sakamoto, José
Eduardo de Oliveira, Maria Bernadete Amâncio Varesche, and Sandra Imaculada
Maintinguer. 2019. “Bioconversion of Crude Glycerol from Waste Cooking Oils into
Hydrogen by Sub-Tropical Mixed and Pure Cultures.” International Journal of
Hydrogen Energy 44 (1): 144–54.
Rosenboom, Jan-Georg, Robert Langer, and Giovanni Traverso. 2022. “Bioplastics for a
Circular Economy.” Nature Reviews Materials 7 (2): 117–37.
Saadatinavaz, Fateme, Keikhosro Karimi, and Joeri F.M. Denayer. 2021. “Hydrothermal
Pretreatment: An Efficient Process for Improvement of Biobutanol, Biohydrogen, and
Biogas Production from Orange Waste via a Biorefinery Approach.” Bioresource
Technology 341 (December): 125834.
Sadhukhan, Jhuma, Elias Martinez-Hernandez, Richard J. Murphy, Denny K.S. Ng, Mimi
H. Hassim, Kok Siew Ng, Wan Yoke Kin, Ida Fahani Md Jaye, Melissa Y. Leung Pah
Hang, and Viknesh Andiappan. 2018. “Role of Bioenergy, Biorefinery and
Bioeconomy in Sustainable Development: Strategic Pathways for Malaysia.”
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (January): 1966–87.
Sanchez, A., I. Valdez-Vazquez, A. Soto, S. Sánchez, and D. Tavarez. 2017.
“Lignocellulosic N-Butanol Co-Production in an Advanced Biorefinery Using Mixed
Cultures.” Biomass and Bioenergy 102 (July): 1–12.
Santos, João Vitor dos, Laís Gomes Fregolente, Marcio Justi Laranja, Altair Benedito
Moreira, Odair Pastor Ferreira, and Márcia Cristina Bisinoti. 2021. “Hydrothermal
Carbonization of Sugarcane Industry By-Products and Process Water Reuse:
Structural, Morphological, and Fuel Properties of Hydrochars.” Biomass Conversion
and Biorefinery.
Sayar, Nihat Alpagu, Dilek Kazan, Orkun Pinar, Berna Sarıyar Akbulut, and Ahmet Alp
Sayar. 2018. “Retro-Techno-Economic Evaluation of Acetic Acid Production Using
Cotton Stalk as Feedstock.” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 20
(4): 2077–88.
Scapini, Thamarys, Maicon S.N. dos Santos, Charline Bonatto, João H.C. Wancura, Jéssica
Mulinari, Aline F. Camargo, Natalia Klanovicz, et al. 2021. “Hydrothermal
Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Hemicellulose Recovery.” Bioresource
Technology, September, 126033.
Schneider, Willian Daniel Hahn, Aldo José Pinheiro Dillon, and Marli Camassola. 2021.
“Lignin Nanoparticles Enter the Scene: A Promising Versatile Green Tool for
Multiple Applications.” Biotechnology Advances 47 (March): 107685. https://doi.
Schultz, Emerson Léo, Daniela Tatiane De Souza, Mônica Caramez, and Triches Damaso.
2014. “The Glycerol Biorefinery : A Purpose for Brazilian Biodiesel Production.”
Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 1 (7): 1–9.
Selvaraj, Paul Sebastian, Kalaiselvi Periasamy, Kathirvel Suganya, Kavitha Ramadass,
Selvamurugan Muthusamy, Poornima Ramesh, Richard Bush, Salom Gnana Thanga
Vincent, and Thava Palanisami. 2020. “Novel Resources Recovery from Anaerobic
Digestates: Current Trends and Future Perspectives.” Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology 0 (0): 1–85.
Sharma, Shweta, Paras Kumar Jha, and Amit Panwar. 2021. “Production of Bioethanol
from Wheat Straw via Optimization of Co-Culture Conditions of Bacillus
Licheniformis and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.” Discover Energy 1 (1).
Sheppard, Phil, Guillermo Garcia-Garcia, Athanasios Angelis-Dimakis, Grant M.
Campbell, and Shahin Rahimifard. 2019. “Synergies in the Co-Location of Food
Manufacturing and Biorefining.” Food and Bioproducts Processing 117 (September):
Sherpa, Knawang Chhunji, Debajyoti Kundu, Subhodeep Banerjee, Makarand Madhao
Ghangrekar, and Rintu Banerjee. 2022. “An Integrated Biorefinery Approach for
Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Tops.” Journal of Cleaner Production 352
(August 2021): 131451.
Silva, Paulo Roberto da, and Eliana M. Alhadeff. 2022. “Biodiesel from Beef Tallow : A
Technological Patent Mapping.” Brazilian Journal of Development 8 (5): 38061–75.
Silveira, Mariana S., Cláudia P. M. L. Fontes, Alexandre A. Guilherme, Fabiano A. N.
Fernandes, and Sueli Rodrigues. 2012. “Cashew Apple Juice as Substrate for Lactic
Acid Production.” Food and Bioprocess Technology 5 (3): 947–53.
Singh, Rudra Pratap, H. V. Gangadharappa, and K. Mruthunjaya. 2017. “Phospholipids:
Unique Carriers for Drug Delivery Systems.” Journal of Drug Delivery Science and
Technology 39 (June): 166–79.
Solarte-Toro, Juan Camilo, and Carlos Ariel Cardona Alzate. 2021. “Biorefineries as the
Base for Accomplishing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the
Transition to Bioeconomy: Technical Aspects, Challenges and Perspectives.”
Bioresource Technology 340 (November): 125626.
Solomou, Konstantina, Mohammad Alyassin, Athanasios Angelis-Dimakis, and Grant M.
Campbell. 2022. “Arabinoxylans: A New Class of Food Ingredients Arising from
Synergies with Biorefining, and Illustrating the Nature of Biorefinery Engineering.”
Food and Bioproducts Processing 132 (March): 83–98.
Soltaninejad, Ali, Mohammadhadi Jazini, and Keikhosro Karimi. 2022. “Biorefinery for
Efficient Xanthan Gum, Ethanol, and Biogas Production from Potato Crop Residues.”
Biomass and Bioenergy 158 (January): 106354.
Squinca, Paula, Stanley Bilatto, Alberto C. Badino, and Cristiane S. Farinas. 2020.
“Nanocellulose Production in Future Biorefineries: An Integrated Approach Using
Tailor-Made Enzymes.” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 8 (5): 2277–86.
———. 2022. “The Use of Enzymes to Isolate Cellulose Nanomaterials: A Systematic Map
Review.” Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications 3 (June): 100212.
Steinke, Gleiciéli, Matheus Cavali, João H C Wancura, Jacir Dal, and Magro Wagner. 2021.
“Lipase and Phospholipase Combination for Biodiesel Production from Crude
Soybean Oil.” Bioenergy Research 15 (0123456789).
Tanzil, Abid H., Xiao Zhang, Michael Wolcott, Kristin Brandt, Claudio Stöckle, Ganti
Murthy, and Manuel Garcia-Perez. 2021. “Evaluation of Dry Corn Ethanol Bio Refinery
Concepts for the Production of Sustainable Aviation Fuel.” Biomass and
Bioenergy 146 (August 2019).
Teh, Khai Chyi, Jully Tan, and Irene Mei Leng Chew. 2021. “An Integrated Lignocellulosic
Biorefinery Design for Nanomaterial and Biochemical Production Using Oil Palm
Biomass.” Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 23 (10): 2955–73.
Toldra-Reig, Fidel, Leticia Mora, and Fidel Toldra. 2020. “Trends in Biodiesel Production
from Animal Fat Waste.” Applied Science 10 (3644): 1–17.
Ubando, Aristotle T., Charles B. Felix, and Wei-Hsin Chen. 2020. “Biorefineries in
Circular Bioeconomy: A Comprehensive Review.” Bioresource Technology 299
(March): 122585.
United Nations. 2015. “Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Upton, Daniel J., Simon J. McQueen-Mason, and A. Jamie Wood. 2020. “In Silico
Evolution of Aspergillus Niger Organic Acid Production Suggests Strategies for
Switching Acid Output.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 13 (1): 27.
Vea, Eldbjørg Blikra, Serena Fabbri, Sebastian Spierling, and Mikołaj Owsianiak. 2021.
“Inclusion of Multiple Climate Tipping as a New Impact Category in Life Cycle
Assessment of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-Based Plastics.” Science of The Total
Environment 788 (September): 147544.
Velvizhi, G., K. Balakumar, Nagaraj P. Shetti, Ejaz Ahmad, Kamal Kishore Pant, and
Tejraj M. Aminabhavi. 2022. “Integrated Biorefinery Processes for Conversion of
Lignocellulosic Biomass to Value Added Materials: Paving a Path towards Circular
Economy.” Bioresource Technology 343 (January): 126151.
Wang, Xiao Li, Jin Jie Zhou, Ya Qin Sun, and Zhi Long Xiu. 2019. “Bioconversion of Raw
Glycerol from Waste Cooking-Oil-Based Biodiesel Production to 1,3-Propanediol and
Lactate by a Microbial Consortium.” Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
7 (FEB): 1–13.
Werpy, T, and G Petersen. 2004. “Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass: Volume I —
Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas.”
Golden, CO (United States).
World Bioenergy Association. 2020. “Global Bioenergy Statistics 2020.”
World Bioenergy Association.
Xia, Fei, Huan Liu, Jie Lu, Yanna Lv, Shangru Zhai, Qingda An, Yi Cheng, and Haisong
Wang. 2019. “An Integrated Biorefinery Process to Produce Butanol and Pulp from
Corn Straw.” Industrial Crops and Products 140 (November): 111648.
Xu, Jikun, Bingchuan Liu, Longsheng Wu, Jingping Hu, Huijie Hou, and Jiakuan Yang.
2019. “A Waste-Minimized Biorefinery Scenario for the Hierarchical Conversion of
Agricultural Straw into Prebiotic Xylooligosaccharides, Fermentable Sugars and
Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.” Industrial Crops and Products 129 (March): 269–80.
Xu, Li Da, Yang Lu, and Ling Li. 2021. “Embedding Blockchain Technology Into IoT for
Security: A Survey.” IEEE Internet of Things Journal 8 (13): 10452–73.
Xu, Xun, Yuqian Lu, Birgit Vogel-Heuser, and Lihui Wang. 2021. “Industry 4.0 and
Industry 5.0—Inception, Conception and Perception.” Journal of Manufacturing
Systems 61 (October): 530–35.
Yarali, Abdulrahman. 2021. “Applications of Artificial Intelligence, ML, and DL.” In
Intelligent Connectivity, 279–97. New Jersey: Wiley.
Yien Ong, Yien, Wen Siang Tan, Mohamad Rosfarizan, Eng Seng Chan, and Beng Ti Tey.
2012. “Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Red
Dragon Fruit Juices.” Journal of Food Science 77 (10): M560–64.
Younas, Muhammad, Sumeer Shafique, Ainy Hafeez, Fahad Javed, and Fahad Rehman.
2022. “An Overview of Hydrogen Production: Current Status, Potential, and
Challenges.” Fuel 316 (May): 123317.
Yu, Osbert, and Kwang Ho Kim. 2020. “Lignin to Materials: A Focused Review on Recent
Novel Lignin Applications.” Applied Sciences (Switzerland) 10 (13).
Zeng, An-Ping. 2019. “New Bioproduction Systems for Chemicals and Fuels: Needs and
New Development.” Biotechnology Advances 37 (4): 508–18.
Zhang, Changwei, Zhihao Si, Lihe Zhang, Guozhen Li, Jieyi Wen, Changsheng Su, Yilu
Wu, Xu Zhang, Di Cai, and Peiyong Qin. 2022. “Reusing the Acetone-Butanol Ethanol
Separated Broth as the Lignocellulose Pretreatment Liquor for Fresh Corn
Stalk Biorefinery.” Renewable Energy 191 (May): 807–18.
Zhang, Hongsen, Gang Liu, Jian Zhang, and Jie Bao. 2016. “Fermentative Production of
High Titer Gluconic and Xylonic Acids from Corn Stover Feedstock by
Gluconobacter Oxydans and Techno-Economic Analysis.” Bioresource Technology
219 (November): 123–31.
Zhang, Wei, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, Wafa Dastyar, Christopher P. Saint, Ming Zhao,
and Michael D. Short. 2018. “Value-Added Products Derived from Waste Activated
Sludge: A Biorefinery Perspective.” Water (Switzerland) 10 (5): 1–20.
Zhu, J. Y., Umesh P. Agarwal, Peter N. Ciesielski, Michael E. Himmel, Runan Gao, Yulin
Deng, Maria Morits, and Monika Österberg. 2021. “Towards Sustainable Production
and Utilization of Plant-Biomass-Based Nanomaterials: A Review and Analysis of
Recent Developments.” Biotechnology for Biofuels 14 (1): 114.
Zhu, Jiubin, Wenlu Song, Xue Chen, and Shaoni Sun. 2022. “Integrated Process to Produce
Biohydrogen from Wheat Straw by Enzymatic Saccharification and Dark
Fermentation.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, May.


Publish with Nova Science Publishers

We publish over 800 titles annually by leading researchers from around the world. Submit a Book Proposal Now!