Chapter 1. Fungal Diseases and COVID-19

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Ellie Rose Mattoon1, Radames JB Corderoand Arturo Casadevall2
1Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland, USA
2Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, USA

Part of the book: The Book of Fungal Pathogens 

Abstract

The physiological factors of COVID-19 infection and the environmental factors of treatment have predisposed a larger patient population to fungal infections. In this review, we provide an overview of the three most frequently documented fungal infections associated with COVID-19: aspergillosis, mucormycosis, and candidemia. For all three secondary infections, we review the literature making efforts to determine the incidence of infection, physiological or environmental causes of co-infection with COVID-19, and the mortality of infection both with and without COVID-19. These infections vary in their etiology in association with COVID-19 infection, in addition to their recommended treatments and mortality. Ultimately, we demonstrate the importance of early diagnosis of secondary infections and the proper identification of fungal pathogens for treatment purposes, while also highlighting research gaps in this new field.

Keywords: COVID-19, secondary fungal infections, COVID-19 associated pulmonary
aspergillosis (CAPA), COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), COVID-19 associated candidemia (CAC)


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