Cellular Interactions of Probiotic Bacteria with Intestinal and Immune Cells

Sarah Moore and Kasipathy Kailasapathy
Western Sydney University, Australia

Series: Bacteriology Research Developments
BISAC: SCI006000

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Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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This book contains novel research and laboratory techniques to study the immune cell molecular behaviour and responses to soluble factors produced by probiotic bacteria and intestinal/probiotic co-cultures that will contribute to advanced scientific knowledge and the commercial development of probiotics. Such understanding will allow scientists to identify new probiotic strains with enhanced immunomodulatory effects, ascertain minimal probiotic dose requirements, distinguish the type of immunological response to probiotics and identify potential probiotic soluble factors that induce immunological reactions.

This book includes recent techniques involved in the use of adaptive immune cells with intracellular expressed fluorescent proteins acting as bio-indicators of responses to soluble factors produced by probiotic strains and intestinal/probiotic co-cultures. Research techniques on the immune cell response to the microencapsulated probiotics is described as a downstream indicator to determine changes in the behaviour of the confined probiotics. Changes in probiotic bacterial-activities from the microencapsulated environment have rarely been reported and are evaluated in this book using the transfected porcine progenitor immune cells as a downstream indicator. To date, no studies have reported any form of immunological responses (innate or adaptive) to microencapsulated probiotic bacteria. These results are compared to the responses of immune cells treated with non-microencapsulated probiotic bacteria.

This book also contains advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques to obtain real-time information from viable cells. Fluorescent proteins have been widely used as bio-indicators of cellular responses. The porcine progenitor immune cells can be transfected with the fluorescent proteins, phMGFP and pCIneo-DsRed2. Changes in fluorescence and diffusive properties of these fluorescent proteins in response to the probiotic bacterial-produced soluble factors can be imaged by LSCM and FCS, and analysed using the RICS program. These changes can be compared to the immune cellular responses to pathogen-produced soluble factors (Streptococcus pyogenes). The intracellular responses of the immune cells to the probiotics and pathogen are compared to determine if the probiotic strains exhibited similar effects on immune cellular responses.

This book is ideally suited for researchers in food and pharmaceutical industries as well as universities; postgraduate students in microbiology and immunology will also find this book to be useful. This book is suitable as a classroom textbook for advanced microbiology, bacteriology and immunology, and it is highly recommended for university and research institution libraries around the world. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Growth of Probiotic Bacteria in Mammalian Cell Culture Conditions and Confocal Microscopy - Analysis of Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria

Chapter 3. Development of a Fluorescent Immune Cell Model

Chapter 4. Free and Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria- Effects on Immune Cell Proliferation

Chapter 5. Intestinal Cell Co-cultures with Free and Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria - Effects on Immune Cell Proliferation

Chapter 6. Free and Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria- Effects on Cytokine and CD Marker Gene Expression by Immune Cells

Chapter 7. Immune Intracellular Fluorescent Protein Diffusion Responses to Free and Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria

Chapter 8. General Discussion and Future Directions

References

Acknowledgements

About the Authors

Index

“Professor Kailasapathy is one of the foremost and outstanding experts in the microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria and their incorporation into foods and feeds. This book presents valuable information on the effect of microencapsulation on the functionality of probiotic bacteria on immune cells of the gastro-intestinal system. In particular it sheds light on the mechanisms by which probiotics exert their beneficial effects on the porcine immune system. It is therefore recommended reading for students and scientists involved in improving animal welfare through probiotics.” - Dr Claude P. Champagne, Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC

"Professor Kailasapathy is a world leading expert researcher in probiotics and microencapsulation and this contribution testify his knowledge in this field. The entire book is satisfactorily presented in text, tables and figures. This will be of immense use to researchers and scholars working in the area of probiotics and health. It will also give some insight to the industry who wish to exploits probiotics for human health." - J. B. Prajapati, Professor of Dairy Microbiology, Principal & Dean, Faculty of Dairy Science, Anand Agricultural University, India

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This book is ideally suited for researchers in food and pharmaceutical industries and universities as well as for postgraduate students in microbiology and immunology. This book is a suitable research and teaching text book for advanced microbiology, bacteriology and immunology and is highly recommended for university and research institution libraries around the world.

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