Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers: Occupational Exposure Risks and Minimization Strategies
Miriam A. Summerfield (Editor)
Series: Nanotechnology Science and Technology
Results from recent animal studies indicate that carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) may pose a respiratory hazard. CNTs and CNFs are tiny, cylindrical, large aspect ratio, manufactured forms of carbon. There is no single type of carbon nanotube or nanofiber; one type can differ from another in shape, size, chemical composition (from residual metal catalysts or functionalization of the CNT and CNF) and other physical and chemical characteristics. Such variations in composition and size have added to the complexity of understanding their hazard potential.
Occupational exposure to CNTs and CNFs can occur not only in the process of manufacturing them, but also at the point of incorporating these materials into other products and applications. This book reviews the animal and other toxicological data relevant to assessing the potential non-malignant adverse respiratory effects of CNT and CNF; provides a quantitative risk assessment based on animal dose-response data; proposes a recommended exposure limit (REL) of elemental carbon as a respirable mass 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) concentration; and describes strategies for controlling workplace exposures and implementing a medical surveillance program. (Imprint: Nova)