Cancer: Bone Metastases, CNS Metastases and Pathological Fractures

Breanne Lechner (Editor)
Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Ronald Chow (Editor)
Infinitas Research Group, London, Ontario, Canada

Natalie Pulenzas (Editor)
Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Marko Popovic (Editor)
Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Na Zhang (Editor)
Professor of Radiation Oncology at Liaoning Province Cancer Hospital in China

Xiaojing Zhang, MD, PhD (Editor)
Department of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Dalian Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Edward Chow, PhD (Editor)
Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada

Joav Merrick, MD, MMedSci, DMSc, (Editor)
Medical Director, Health Services, Division for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Jerusalem, Israel
Division of Adolescent Medicine, KY Children’s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel
Division of Pediatrics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Centers, Mt Scopus Campus, Jerusalem, Israel
School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Series: Health and Human Development
BISAC: MED062000

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Breanne Lechner, MD(C) is a clinical research assistant in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program at the Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada and also a medical student at the University of Toronto. She was the recipient of the J Frank Brookfield Scholarship from the University of Waterloo in 2012 for excellence in biology.

With effective systemic therapy and comprehensive supportive care, patients with metastases can live longer. Breast cancer patients with only or predominantly bone metastases have a median survival of 2.3 years following diagnosis, while metastatic prostate cancer patients have a median survival time of 11.3 months. With recent advances in research, the overall survivorship of metastatic patients has increased. The improved quality of care for metastatic cancer patients has resulted in longer survivorship.

Living longer can lead to a higher chance of development for skeletal-related events (SREs), which are defined as either spinal cord compression, hypercalcemia, pathological fractures or a need for palliative radiation therapy or surgery for bone pain. To try to reduce pathological fractures, it is important to detect impending fractures earlier and to administer prophylactic surgery as needed. Longer survivorship also allows time for the development of brain metastases. Recent advances incorporating stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have been favored over conventional whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in the preservation of neurocognitive functions and survival benefit in patients less than 50 years of age. Multidisciplinary clinics for brain metastases are again desirable with the joint input of the radiation oncologists and neurosurgeons.
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1
Survival Improvement in Patients with Metastases
(Ronald Chow, Marko Popovic, Milica Milakovic, Edward Chow, and Joav Merrick, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and others)

Section One: Bone Metastases

Chapter 2
Re-Irradiation for Painful Bone Metastases: Evidence-Based Approach
(Nicholas Chiu, Leonard Chiu, Marko Popovic, Carlo DeAngelis, Stephen Lutz, Na Zhang, Gustavo Nader Marta, Lucas Castro Mendez, Breanne Lechner, Natalie Pulenzas, Milica Milakovic, Ronald Chow and Edward Chow, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and others)

Chapter 3
The Role of Percutaneous Vertebral and Pelvic Augmentation in the Palliation of Painful Bone Metastases
(Sagi Kaduri, and Elizabeth David, Interventional Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 4
Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non Spine Bone Metastases: A Review of the Literature
(Gillian Bedard, Rachel McDonald, Ian Poon, Darby Erler, Hany Soliman, Patrick Cheung, Hans Chung, William Chu, Andrew Loblaw, Edward Chow, and Arjun Sahgal, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 5
Particle Disease versus Bone Metastases
(Nicholas Lao, Michael Poon, Marko Popovic, Cheryl Yip, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 6
Radio-Frequency Ablation Assisted Cementoplasty of a Lytic Acetabular Lesion
(Leigha Rowbottom, Elizabeth David, Rachel McDonald, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and others)

Chapter 7
Identifying and Monitoring Benign Pelvic Bone Lesions using Radiographic Imaging
(Paul M Cheon, Linda Probyn, Nemica Thavarajah, Erin Wong, Catherine Lang, Stephanie Cheon, and Edward Chow, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 8
Bone Metastases in a Patient with Several Primary Cancer Origins
(Xixi Wu, Nick Lao, Xiaojing Zhang, Erin Wong, Marko Popovic, Natalie Pulenzas, Sherlyn Vuong, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and others)

Chapter 9
Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Distal Femur
(Xixi Wu, Marko Popovic, Edward Chow, and Xiaojing Zhang, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and others)

Chapter 10
Solitary Bone Metastatic Lesion to the Cuboid in Endometrial Cancer
(Aaron Woo, Breanne Lechner, Linda Probyn, Natalie Pulenzas, Terence Fu, Hany Soliman, C Shun Wong, Tracy Shum, Edward Chow, Ida Ackerman, and Eric Leung, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and others)

Chapter 11
Bone Metastasis to the Mandible in Rectal Cancer
(Aaron Woo, Breanne Lechner, Linda Probyn, Natalie Pulenzas, Terence Fu, Hany Soliman, Tracy Shum, Edward Chow, and C Shun Wong, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and others)

Section Two: Pathological Fractures and Bone Disease

Chapter 12
Post Radiation Remineralization for High Risk Impending Fractures
(Anthony Furfari, Paul Cheon, Linda Probyn, Rachel McDonald, Nicholas Lao, Erin Wong, Nemica Thavarajah, Natalie Pulenzas, Leigha Rowbottom, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 13
Pathological Fracture from Metastatic Bone Disease of an Unknown Primary Cancer
(Cheryl Yip, Marko Popovic, Nicholas Lao, Natalie Pulenzas, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 14
Sclerotic Humeral Metastasis at Risk of Fracture
(Nicholas Lao, Linda Probyn, Rachel McDonald, Leigha Rowbottom, Marko Popovic, Natalie Pulenzas, Sherlyn Vuong, and Edward Chow, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 15
Incidence of Subtrochanteric Femur Fracture during Radiation Therapy
(Sherlyn Vuong, Natalie Pulenzas, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Section Three: Central Nervous System Metastases

Chapter 16
Targeted Therapies and Radiotherapy in Treatment of Brain Metastases
(Derek S Tsang, and May N Tsao, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 17
Palliative Radiotherapy for Brain and Bone Metastases from a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
(Cheryl Yip, Nicholas Lao, Marko Popovic, Natalie Pulenzas, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 18
Pancreatic Cancer with Rare Leptomeningeal Disease
(Eva Bain, Paul Cheon, Erin Wong, Rachel McDonald, Nicholas Lao, Natalie Pulenzas, Leigha Rowbottom, Nemica Thavarajah, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 19
Brain Metastases as a First Presentation of Lung Cancer
(Madeleine Lao, Nicholas Lao, Arnav Agarwal, Natalie Pulenzas, Marko Popovic, Sherlyn Vuong, Rachel McDonald, Leigha Rowbottom, and Edward Chow, Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Section Four: Acknowledgments

Chapter 20
About the Editors

Chapter 21
About the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program at the Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada

Chapter 22
About the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Israel

Chapter 23
About the Book Series “Health and Human Development”

Section Five: Index

Index

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