Building a Sustainable Global Strategy: A Framework of Core Competence, Product Architecture, Supply Chain Management and IT Strategy


Young Won Park
Faculty of Economics, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Saitama University and Manufacturing Management Research Center, Graduate School of Economics, The University of Tokyo, Japan

Series: Manufacturing Technology Research
BISAC: BUS070050

Understanding the modern complexity of doing business in a globalized market has become an absolute necessity for the survival of a company today. This book is a must have guide to navigate through the sea of overwhelming information and sometimes fuzzy variables in the business world. This book analyzes the success and the failures of prominent firms with track records as global leaders. It also presents the proven strategies for success in today’s completive environment. The case studies in this book act as invaluable tools. This book is a must-have resource for understanding and achieving success in today’s globalized market.

Building a Sustainable Global Strategy addresses the issues that firms are desperately trying to solve. In the forefront, firms are striving to effectively respond to the dynamic global market and the intense competition that exists. Strategies for establishing competitive advantage are presented through in-depth research and case studies. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of the methods for penetrating the emerging markets (China, India and Brazil in particular), as well as their responsiveness to the needs of the local market are also presented.

In addition, satisfying customers’ constantly changing needs drive firms to seek ways to be adaptive and responsive. The author’s field research provided here aids firms in establishing flexible business production and service processes. This book clarifies the complex inter-connection between business activities, thus providing the insight necessary for strategically being adaptive and responsive.

Another strategy presented and examined through case studies is architecture analysis. Through architecture analysis, this book shows how linkage competence keeps firms in a dynamic balance between the seemingly opposing requirements for product attractiveness (i.e., customer competence) and technology level (i.e., technology competence). Also, IT strategy is utilized to examine the dynamic role of product architecture in supply chain management. This book discusses several examples of Korean global firms (i.e., LG, Samsung and Hyundai) and Japanese global firms (i.e., Honda, Toyota, Nissan and Panasonic). The reasons for the success of Japanese firms’ marketing strategies in the Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese markets are expertly analyzed and exposed for the reader’s benefit.

Through extensive interviews and fieldwork studies, this book provides practical examples that draw attention to the successful comprehensive manufacturing strategies of Japanese and Korean manufacturing companies. The proven success of integrating core competence, product architecture, global supply chain management and IT strategy is a key theme presented in this book. Indeed, the wealth of information within these pages is immeasurable. (Imprint: Nova)


Table of Contents

Table of Contents


About the Author

Chapter 1. Research Framework: Core Competences, Product Architecture, SCM Strategy and IT System

Chapter 2. Product Architecture and Catch-up Pattern in the Digital Era

Chapter 3. Implementation of a Product Strategy with Differentiated Standards

Chapter 4. Core Competences and Product Architecture Strategy

Chapter 5. Product Architecture and Supply Chain Management Design in Emerging Markets

Chapter 6. Integrating Global Supply Chain and Localization Strategy

Chapter 7. Integration of Supply and Demand Chain for Emerging Markets

Chapter 8. Integration of Platform Strategy and Product Architecture

Chapter 9. Architecture Analysis Method for Global firms in Emerging Markets

Chapter 10. Conclusion




Abdelkafi N., Pero, M. and Blecker, T. (2011), NPD-SCM alignment in mass customization, Fogliatto FS. DaSilveira GJC. (eds).Mass customization: engineering and managing global operations: Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing, pp.69-85. Abernathy, W. J. and Clark, K. 1985. Innovation Mapping the winds of creative destruction, Research Policy, Vol.14, pp.3-22.<br>Acquaah, M. (2007), Managerial social capital, strategic orientation, and organizational performance in an emerging economy, Strategic Management Journal,Vol. 28, No. 12, pp.1235-1255.<br>Akaka, M., A., Vargo, S. L. and Lusch, R. F. (2013), The Complexity of context: A service ecosystems approach for International Marketing,Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.1-20.<br>Al-Mudimigh, A. S., Zairi, M. and Ahmed, A.M.M. (2004), Extending the concept of supply chain: the effective management of value chains, International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 87, pp.309–320.<br>Amano, T. (2005), </i></b></u><i>International Specialization in East Asia and Japanese Firms</i></b></u>, Tokyo: Yuhikaku (In Japanese).<br>Anders, G. C., and Usachev, D. A. (2003), Strategic elements of Eastman Kodak’s successful market entry in Russia,</i></b></u><i> Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 45, No. 2, </i></b></u>pp.171-183.<br>Anderson J. and Billou, N. (2007), Serving the world’s poor: Innovation at the base of the economic pyramid,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Business Strategy, </i></b></u>Vol. 28, No. 2, pp.14-21.<br>Anderson, J. and Markides, C. (2007), Strategic innovation at the base of the pyramid,</i></b></u><i> MIT Sloan Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 49, No. 1, pp.83–89.<br>Anderson, J., Markides, C. and Kupp, M. (2010), The Last Frontier: Market Creation in Conflict Zones, deep rural areas and Urban Slums,</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 52</i></b></u><i>, No. 4,</i></b></u> pp.6-28.<br>Araz, C. and Ozkarahan, I. (2007), Supplier evaluation and management system for a strategic sourcing based on a new multicriteria sorting procedure, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 106, pp.585-606.<br>Asakawa, K. (2001), Evolving headquarters-subsidiaries dynamics in international R&D: the case of Japanese multinationals</i></b></u><i>, R&D Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 31, No. 1, pp.1-14. <br>Asakawa, K. (2003), </i></b></u><i>Introduction to Global Management,</i></b></u> Tokyo: Nikkei Press, Japan (in Japanese).<br>Asakawa, K. (2013), </i></b></u><i>Economics Class: Management Workshop</i></b></u>, Nikkei Newspaper (in Japanese).<br>Asakawa, K. and Lehrer, M. (2003), </i></b></u><i>Managing local knowledge assets globally: The role of regional innovation relays, Journal of World Business, Vol.38, No.1,</i></b></u> pp.31-42.<br>Asanuma, B. (1994), </i></b></u><i>Co-ordination between Production and Distribution in a Globalizing Network of Firms: Assessing Flexibility Achieved in the Japanese Automobile Industry</i></b></u>, in Aoki, M., and Dore, R., ed., </i></b></u><i>The Japanese Firm: The Sources of Competitive Strength</i></b></u>, Oxford University Press, New York, USA.<br>Asanuma, B. (2006), </i></b></u><i>Relationships between OEM and Suppliers in Japan, In Fujimoto.</i></b></u> T., Ito, H. and Nishiguchi, T. (eds.) </i></b></u><i>Readings Supplier System: Construction of New Business Relationships,</i></b></u> Yuhikaku, pp.1-39. (In Japanese).<br>Asanuma, B. (1997), </i></b></u><i>Mechanism of innovative adaptation in Japanese company organization, </i></b></u>Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shinposha (in Japanese).<br>Asanuma. B. (1989), Manufacturer-Supplier Relationships in Japan and the Concept of Relation-Specific Skill,</i></b></u><i> Journal of the Japanese and International Economics, </i></b></u>Vol.3, pp. 1-30.<br>Astley, W.G., and Sachdeva, P.S. (1984), Structural sources of intra-organizational power: A theoretical synthesis</i></b></u><i>,</i></b></u> </i></b></u><i>Academy of Management Review,</i></b></u> pp.104-113. <br>Baldwin, C. Y. and Clark, K. B. (2000), </i></b></u><i>Design Rules: The Power of Modularity,</i></b></u> MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, USA.<br>Barney, J. B. (2002), </i></b></u><i>Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage</i></b></u>, Pearson Education, Inc.<br>Baron, R.M., and Kenny, D.A. (1986), The moderator-mediator variable distinction statistical considerations</i></b></u><i>, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, pp.1173-1182. <br>Barratt, M., Choi, T. and Li, M. (2011), Qualitative case studies in operations management: Trends, research outcomes, and future research implications</i></b></u><i>, Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, No. 4, pp.329-342.<br>Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal, S. (1989), </i></b></u><i>Managing Across Borders</i></b></u>, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.<br>Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal, S. (1990), </i></b></u><i>Managing innovation in transnational corporations</i></b></u>, in: C.A. Bartlett, Y. Doz, G.Hedlund (Eds.), </i></b></u><i>Managing the Global Firm</i></b></u>, Routledge, London, pp. 215–255.<br>Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal, S. (1993), Beyond the M-form: Toward a Managerial Theory of the Firm, </i></b></u><i>Strategic Management Journal</i></b></u>, Vol.1, Winter, pp.23-46.<br>Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal, S. (2000), Going Global: Lessons from Late Movers,</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>March-April</i></b></u><i>,</i></b></u> pp.132-142.<br>Belderbos, R. and Sleuwaegen, L. (2005), Competitive drivers and international plant configuration strategies: A product-level test,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 577-593. <br>Bhatnagar, R. and Sohal, A.S. (2005), Supply chain competitiveness: measuring the impact of location factors, uncertainty and manufacturing practices</i></b></u><i>, Technovation, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 443-456. <br>Bidhandi, H. M., Yusuff, R. M., Ahmad, M. M. H. M. and Abu, Bakar M. R. (2009), Development of a new approach for deterministic supply chain network design,</i></b></u><i> European Journal of Operational Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 198, No. 1</i></b></u><i>,</i></b></u> pp. 121-128. <br>Birkinshaw , J. M. and Fry, N. (1998), Subsidiary Initiatives to Develop New Markets, </i></b></u><i>Sloan Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 39, No. 3, pp.51-61. <br>Birkinshaw, J. M. (1996), How multinational subsidiary mandates are gained and lost,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 27, No.3,</i></b></u><i> </i></b></u>pp.467-495. <br>Birkinshaw, J. M. (1997), Entrepreneurship in multinational corporations: The characteristics of subsidiary initiatives,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 18, pp.207-229. <br>Birkinshaw, J. M. and Hood, N. (1998), Multinational subsidiary development: Capability evolution and charter change in foreign-owned subsidiary companies, </i></b></u><i>Academy of Management Review</i></b></u>, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 773-796.<br>Birkinshaw, J. M. and Morrison, A. J. (1995), Configurations of strategy and structure in subsidiaries of multinational corporations,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 26, No. 4, pp.729-753.<br>Birkinshaw, J. M., Hood, N., and Young, S. (2005), Subsidiary entrepreneurship, internal and external competitive forces, and subsidiary performance, </i></b></u><i>International Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 14, pp. 227–248.<br>Birkinshaw, J., Ghoshal, S., Markides, C., Stopford, J. and Yip, G. (editors) (2003), </i></b></u><i>The future of the multinational company</i></b></u>, Chistester (UK): John Wiley.<br>Birkinshaw, J.M. and Ridderstrale, J. (1999), Fighting the corporate immune system: a process study of subsidiary initiatives in multinational corporations, </i></b></u><i>International Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, pp.149-180. <br>Birkinshaw, J.M., and Morrison, A.J. (1995), Configurations of strategy and structure in subsidiaries of multinational corporations,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 26, No. 4, pp.729-753. <br>Bower, J.L. and Christensen, C.M., (1995). Disruptive technologies: Catching the wave,</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 73, pp. 43-53. <br>Braunscheidel, M.J. and Suresh, N.C. (2009), The organizational antecedents of a firm’s supply chain agility for risk mitigation and response, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 119-140. <br>Bremmer, I. (2014), The new rules of globalization,</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>(January/Feburary), pp. 103-107.<br>Bresman, H., Birkinshaw, J. and Nobel, R. (1999), Knowledge transfer in international Acquisitions, </i></b></u><i>Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 30, No. 3, pp.439-462.<br>Brouthers, L. E. and Xu, K. (2002), Product stereotypes, strategy and performance satisfaction: The case of Chinese exporters,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 33, No. 4, pp.657-677.<br>Brown, S. (2013), An Interview with Wickham Skinner, Emeritus Professor at Harvard Business School,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Operations & Production Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 33, No. 1, pp.104-110. <br>Brusoni, S. and Prencipe A. (2001), Managing knowledge in loosely coupled networks: Exploring the links between product and knowledge dynamics, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Management Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 38, No. 7, pp.1019-1035.<br>Buckley, P. J., and Casson, M. (1976), </i></b></u><i>The future of the multinational enterprise</i></b></u>, London: Maclillan.<br>Burgelman, R. A. (1983a), A process model of internal corporate venturing in the diversified major firm,</i></b></u><i> Administrative Science Quarterly</i></b></u>, Vol. 28, pp. 223–244.<br>Burgelman, R. A. (1983b), A model of the interaction of strategic behavior, corporate context and the concept of strategy,</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, pp. 61–70.<br>Caves, R. E. (1971), International corporations: The industrial economics of foreign investment,</i></b></u><i> Economica, </i></b></u>Vol. 38, No.149, pp.1-27.<br>Chari, M. D. and David, P. (2012), Sustaining superior performance in an emerging economy: an empirical test in the Indian context,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 33, No. 2, pp.217-229.<br>Chase, R. B. (1998), </i></b></u><i>Production and Operations Management: Manufacturing and Services</i></b></u>, Irwin/McGraw-Hill.<br>Che, Z. H. (2009), Pricing strategy and reserved capacity plan based on product life cycle and production function on LCD TV manufacturer,</i></b></u><i> Expert Systems with Applications, </i></b></u>Vol. 36, No. 2, pp.2048-2061.<br>Chen, M. and Nudelman, R. (2008), Negotiating a supply contract in China — Case comment: Negotiating a supply contract in China.</i></b></u><i> Thunderbird International Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 50, No. 4, pp.271-281.<br>Chen, Y. J. (2011), Structured methodology for supplier selection and evaluation in a supply chain,</i></b></u><i> Information Sciences, </i></b></u>Vol. 181, No. 9, pp.1651-1670.<br>Chesbrough, H. W. (2004), Managing open innovation: chess and poker,</i></b></u><i> Research Technology Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 47, No. 1, pp.23-26. <br>Chesbrough, H. W. (2007), Why companies should have open business models,</i></b></u><i> MIT Sloan Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 48, No. 2, pp.22-28.<br>Chesbrough, H. W. and Appleyard, M. M. (2007), Open innovation and strategy,</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 57-76.<br>Chesbrough, H. and Prencipe, A. (2008), Networks of innovation and modularity: a dynamic perspective, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Technology Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 414-425.<br>Chesbrough, H.W. and Kusunoki, K. (2001), </i></b></u><i>The modularity trap</i></b></u>, in Nonaka, I. and Teece, D.J. (Eds.) </i></b></u><i>Managing Industrial Knowledge</i></b></u>, Sage Publications, London, pp.202–230.<br>Chiang, T-A. and Trappey, A. J. C. (2007), Development of value chain collaborative model for product lifecycle management and its LCD industry adoption.</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 109, No.1-2, pp.90-104.<br>Christensen, C. M. (1997), </i></b></u><i>The innovator’s dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail</i></b></u>, Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press.<br>Christensen, C. M. (2002), The rules of innovation.</i></b></u><i> Technology Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 105 (June), pp.33-38.<br>Christensen, C. M. (2006), The ongoing process of building a theory of disruption,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Product Innovation Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No., 1, pp.39-55.<br>Christensen, C. M., Verlinden, M. and Westerman, G. (2002), </i></b></u><i>Disruption, Disintegration and the Dissipation of Differentiability, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 11, No. 5</i></b></u>, pp.955-993.<br>Christensen, C. and Raynor, M. (2003), </i></b></u><i>The Innovator’s Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth</i></b></u>, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.<br>Christensen, C.M. and Bower, J.L., (1996), Customer power, strategic investment, and the failure of leading firms,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol.17, pp.197-218.<br>Clark, K. B. and Fujimoto, T. (1991), </i></b></u><i>Product Development Performance: Strategy, Organization, Management in the World Auto Industry</i></b></u>, MA: Harvard Business School Press, Boston, USA.<br>Clark, K. B. (1985), The Interaction of Design Hierarchies and Market Concepts in Technological Evolution,</i></b></u><i> Research Policy, </i></b></u>Vol.14, pp.235-251. <br>Coase, R. (1937), </i></b></u><i>The nature of the firm, Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 4, pp.380-405.<br>Cohen, W. M. and Levinthal, D. (1990), Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation,</i></b></u><i> Administrative Science Quarterly, </i></b></u>Vol. 35, pp. 128–152.<br>Crook, R. T. and Combs, J. G. (2007), Sources and consequences of bargaining power in supply chains,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, pp. 546–555.<br>Danneels, E. (2002), The Dynamics of Product Innovation and Firm Competences,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, pp.1095-1121. <br>Das, A., Narasimhan, R. and Talluri, S. (2006), Supplier integration—finding an optimal configuration,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 563-582. <br>David, A. P. (1985), Clio and Economics of QWERTY,</i></b></u><i> American Economic Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 75, pp.332-337.<br>Delgado, M., Porter, M. E. and Stern, S. (2010), </i></b></u><i>Clusters and entrepreneurship, </i></b></u>Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.495-518.<br>Demeter, K., Gelei, A. and Jenei, I., (2006), The effect of strategy on supply chain configuration and management practices on the basis of two supply chains in the Hungarian automotive industry,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol.104, pp.555–570.<br>Devaraj, S., Krajewski, L. and Wei, J. C. (2007), Impact of e Business technologies on operational performance: the role of production information integration in the supply chain, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 25, No. 6</i></b></u>, pp. 1199-1216. <br>Doll, W., Hong, P. and Nahm, A. (2010), Antecedents and outcomes of manufacturability in integrated product development’,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Operations and Production Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 30, No. 8, pp. 821-852. <br>Dongyang Economy Daily (2011), </i></b></u><i>Hyundai sets about taking Chinese market in earnest </i></b></u>(April 15, 2011).<br>Dougherty, D. (1995), Managing Your Core Incompetencies for Corporate Venturing, </i></b></u><i>Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, No. 3, pp.113-135. <br>Dougherty, D. and Heller, T. (1994), The Illegitimacy of Successful Product Innovations in Established Firms,</i></b></u><i> Organization Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, pp.200-218. <br>Doz, Y. L., Bartlett, C. A., and Prahalad, C. K. (1981), </i></b></u><i>Global competitive pressures and host country demands: managing tension in MNCs, California Management Review, Vol. 23, No. 3</i></b></u>, pp. 63–74.<br>Doz, Y.L. and Hamel, G. (1998), </i></b></u><i>Alliance Advantage: The Art of Creating Value through Partnering</i></b></u>, Boston, MA: Havard Business School Press.<br>Doz, Y.L., Santos, J. and Williamson, P. (2001), </i></b></u><i>From global to metanational – How companies win in the knowledge economy</i></b></u>, Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.<br>Duncan, R.B. (1976), </i></b></u><i>The ambidextrous organization: designing dual structures for innovation</i></b></u>, In Kilmann, R.H., Pondy, L.R. and Slevin, D.P. (eds), </i></b></u><i>The Management of Organization Design</i></b></u>, New York: Elsevier North-Holland, pp.167–188.<br>Dunning, J. H. (1979), Explaining changing patterns of international production: In defense of the eclectic theory,</i></b></u><i> Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics</i></b></u>, (November), pp. 259–269.<br>Dunning, J. H., (1989), Multinational enterprises and the growth of services : Some conceptual and theoretical issues,</i></b></u><i> The Service Industries Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No.1, pp.5-39.<br>Dutton, J. E., and Ashford, S. J. (1993), Selling issues to top management,</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 18, pp. 397-428. <br>Dyer, J. H., Singh, H. (1998), The relational view: cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage,</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 660–679.<br>Dyer, Jeffrey H., Nobeoka, Kentaro. (2000), Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: the Toyota case</i></b></u><i>, Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 345 – 367.<br>Dörrenbächer, C., and Gammelgaard, J. (2006), Subsidiary role development: The effect of micro-political headquarters–subsidiary negotiations on the product, market and value-added scope of foreign-owned subsidiaries,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 12, No. 3, pp.266-283. <br>Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989), Building theories from case study research.</i></b></u><i> The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No.4</i></b></u>, pp.532-550.<br>Eisenhardt, K.M. (2000), Paradox, spirals, ambivalence: the new language of change and pluralism (introduction to special topic forum),</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 703–705.<br>El Sawy, O. A., Malhotra, A., Gosain, S. J. and Young, K. M. (1999), Intensive Value Innovation In The Electronic Economy: Insights From Marshall Industries</i></b></u><i>, MIS Quarterly, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 305-335.<br>Evans, P. (1999), </i></b></u><i>HRM on the edge: a duality perspective, Organization, </i></b></u>Vol. 6, No. 2, pp.325–338.<br>Feitzinger, E., & Lee, H. L. (1997), Mass customization at Hewlett-Packard: The power of postponement. </i></b></u><i>Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 116-123.<br>Ferner, A. (2000), The Underpinnings of ‘Bureaucratic’ Control Systems: HRM in European Multinationals, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Management Studies,</i></b></u> Vol. 37, No. 4, pp.521-539. <br>Fine, C. H. (1998), </i></b></u><i>Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage</i></b></u>, Reading, MA: Perseus Books Boston, USA. <br>Fine, C. H., & Whitney, D. E. (1996), </i></b></u><i>Is the make-buy decision process a core competence?</i></b></u> MIT Sloan School of Management Working Papers Series with number #140-96; Working Paper (Sloan School of Management), No. 3875-96.<br>Fine, C. H., Vardan, R., Pethick, R., & El-Hout, J. (2002), Rapid-response capability in value-chain design. </i></b></u><i>Sloan Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 43, No. 2, pp.69-75.<br>Flynn, B.B., Huo, B. and Zhao, X. (2010), The impact of supply chain integration on performance: a contingency and configuration approach,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 58-71. <br>Forsgren M., Holm, U., and Johanson. J. (2005), </i></b></u><i>Managing the embedded multinational.: A business network view</i></b></u>, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham. <br>Forsgren, M. Pedersen, T., and Foss, N.J. (1999), Accounting for the strength of MNC subsidiaries: the case of foreign-owned firms in Denmark, </i></b></u><i>International Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, pp.181-196. <br>Foss, K., and Foss, N. (2005), Resources and transaction costs: How property rights economics furthers the resource-based view,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 26, No. 6, pp.541-553. <br>Foss, N. J., and Pedersen, T. (2002), Transferring knowledge in MNCs: The role of sources of subsidiary knowledge and organizational context,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, pp.1-19.<br>Foster, R. N. (1986), </i></b></u><i>Timing Technological Transitions</i></b></u>, in Tushman, M. L. and Moore, W. L. (eds.) </i></b></u><i>Readings in the Management of Innovation</i></b></u>. New York, NY, Haper Business, pp.215-227.<br>Foster, R. N. and Kaplan, S. (2001), </i></b></u><i>Creative Destruction: Why Companies That Are Built to Last Underperform the Market and How to Successfully Transform Them</i></b></u>, Mckinsey and Co., Inc.<br>Frohlich, M.T. and Westbrook, R. (2001), Arcs of integration: an international study of supply chain strategies,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 185-200. <br>Frost, T., Birkinshaw, J. and Ensign, P. (2002), Centers of excellence in multinational corporations, </i></b></u><i>Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 11, pp.997-1018.<br>Fujimoto, T. (1997), </i></b></u><i>The Evolution of a Manufacturing System</i></b></u>, Yuhikaku, Tokyo, Japan (In Japanese).<br>Fujimoto, T. (2001), </i></b></u><i>Business Architecture: Strategic Design of Products, Organizations, and Processes</i></b></u>, Yuhikaku, Tokyo, Japan, (ed.) Takeishi, A., & Aoshima, Y. (In Japanese). <br>Fujimoto, T. (2003), Noryoku Kochiku Kyoso (</i></b></u><i>Capability-building Competition</i></b></u>), Chukousinsyo (in Japanese), English Translation: </i></b></u><i>Competing to Be Really Good</i></b></u> (translated by Miller, Brian), International House of Japan, Tokyo, Japan. <br>Fujimoto, T. (2006a), </i></b></u><i>Architecture-based Comparative Advantage in Japan and Asia</i></b></u>, Tokyo Univ., </i></b></u><i>MMRC Discussion Paper, No. 94</i></b></u>, pp.1-8 (In Japanese). <br>Fujimoto, T. (2006b), </i></b></u><i>Product Architecture and Product Development Capabilities in Automobile</i></b></u>, Tokyo Univ., </i></b></u><i>MMRC Discussion Paper, No.74</i></b></u>, pp.1-12 (In Japanese).<br>Fujimoto, T. (2007), </i></b></u><i>Complexity of artifacts and correspondence by manufacturers – design of control system and integration of mechanical, electric and software Aspects, </i></b></u>MMRC Discussion Paper.<br>Fujimoto, T. and Nobeoka, K. (2006), Power of continuance in competitive power analysis: Product development and evolution of organisational capability, </i></b></u><i>Organaizational Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 39, No. 4, pp.43-55 (In Japanese)<br>Fujimoto, T. and Park, Y. W. (2012), Complexity and Control: Benchmarking of Automobiles and Electronic Products,</i></b></u><i> Benchmarking: An International Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, Nos.4-5, pp. 502-516.<br></i></b></u>Fujimoto, T., Lee, S., & Ōuy</i></b></u>áng, T. (2005), </i></b></u><i>Product Development of Chinese Firms: From the Viewpoint of Dynamic, Comparative and Process Anlysis</i></b></u>, Fujimoto, T, & Shintaku, J. (eds.) </i></b></u><i>Architecture-based Analysis of Chinese Manufacturing Industries</i></b></u>, Toyokeizai, Tokyo, Japan, pp.247-292 (In Japanese). <br>Furman, J. L., Porter, M. E. and Stern, S. (2002), The determinants of national innovative capacity.</i></b></u><i> Research Policy, </i></b></u>Vol. 31, No. 6, pp.899-933.<br>Fynes, B., Voss, C., de Bu´ rca, S. (2005), The impact of supply chain relationship quality on quality performance.</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 96, pp.339–354.<br>Galunic, D. C., and Eisenhardt, K. M. (1996), The evolution of intra-corporate domains: Divisional charter losses in high-technology, multidivisional corporations, </i></b></u><i>Organization Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 7, pp.255-282. <br>Gertner, R., & Knez, M. J. (2000), </i></b></u><i>Vertical integration: Make or buy decisions</i></b></u>. In T. Dickson (Ed.), </i></b></u><i>Mastering strategy</i></b></u> (pp.146-151). Harlow, UK.: Pearson Education Limited.<br>Ghoshal, S. and Bartlett, C.A. (1990</i></b></u><i>), The Multinational corporation as an interorganizational network, The Academy of Management Review,</i></b></u> Vol. 15, No.4, pp.603-625.<br>Ghoshal, S., Korine, H., and Szulanski, G. (1994), Inter-unit communication in multinational corporations, Management Science, Vol. 40, pp. 96-110. <br>Ghoshal, S., and Nohria, N. (1989), Internal differentiation within multinational corporations,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.323-337. <br>Ghoshal, S., and Westney, D. E. (1993), </i></b></u><i>Organization theory and the multinational corporation</i></b></u>. Basingstoke: Macmillan. <br>Gifford, B., Kestler, A., Anand, S. (2010), Building local legitimacy into corporate social responsibility: Gold mining firms in developing nations.</i></b></u><i> Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 304-311.<br>Gladwell, M. (2000), </i></b></u><i>The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference</i></b></u>, Publisher: Little, Brown & Company, Boston, USA. <br>Gouvea, R. (2004), Doing business in Brazil: A strategic approach</i></b></u><i>. Thunderbird International Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.165-189.<br>Gouvea, R., & Kassicieh, S. (2012), Bridging the innovation divide: The Brazilian experience. </i></b></u><i>Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 54, No. 3</i></b></u>, pp.275-289.<br>Govindarajan, V. and Kopalle, P.K. (2006), Disruptiveness of innovations: Measurement and an assessment of reliability and validity,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 27, pp.189-199.<br>Govindarajan, V. and Ramamurti, R. (2011), Reverse Innovation, Emerging Markets, and Global Strategy, </i></b></u><i>Global Strategy Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 1, Nos.3-4, pp.191-205.<br>Graetz, F. and Smith, A. C. T. (2008), The role of dualities in arbitrating continuity and change in forms of organizing,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Management Reviews, </i></b></u>Vol. 10, No. 3, pp.265-280.<br>Gunasekaran, A., Lai, K., Edwin Cheng, T. C., (2008</i></b></u><i>), </i></b></u>Responsive supply chain: A competitive strategy in a networked economy,</i></b></u><i> Omega, </i></b></u>Vol. 36, No. 4, pp.549-564.<br>Halley, Alain and Nollet, Jean </i></b></u>(</i></b></u>2002), The Supply Chain: The Weak Link for Some Preferred Suppliers?</i></b></u><i>, Journal of Supply Chain Management,</i></b></u>Vol.38, Issue.3(Summer), pp. 39-47.<br>Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. (1990), The Core Competence of the Corporation,</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 68, No. 3, pp.79-91. <br>Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C.K. (1994), </i></b></u><i>Competing for the Future</i></b></u>, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, USA. <br>Hammond, A.and Prahalad, C. K. (2004), Selling to the poor,</i></b></u><i> Foreign Policy, </i></b></u>Vol. 142, pp.30-37.<br>Handfield, Robert B., Pagell, Mark D. (1995), An analysis of the diffusion of flexible manufacturing systems</i></b></u><i>. International Journal of Production Economics,</i></b></u> Vol. 39, No. 3, pp.243-253.<br>Hang, C.C., Chen, J. and Subramian, A. M. (2010), Developing disruptive products for emerging economies: Lessons from Asian cases</i></b></u><i>, Research-Technology Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 53, No. 4, pp.21-26.<br>Harland, C.M., Caldwell, N.D., Powell, P., Zheng, J. (2007), Barriers to supply chain information integration: SMEs adrift of eLands</i></b></u><i>. Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, No. 6, pp.1234-1254<br>Hart, S. L. and Milstein, M. B. (1999), Global sustainability and the creative destruction of industries,</i></b></u><i> Sloan Management Review</i></b></u>, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp.23-33.<br>Hart, S.L. and Christensen, C.M. (2002), The great leap: Driving innovation from the base of the pyramid, </i></b></u><i>MIT Sloan Management Review</i></b></u>, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 51-56.<br>Harzing, A. W. (2000), Cross national industrial mail surveys: why do response rates differ between countries,</i></b></u><i> Industrial Marketing Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, pp.243-254. <br>Harzing, A.W. K. (1999), </i></b></u><i>Managing the Multinational</i></b></u>, Edward Elgar: Northampton, MA. <br>Hasegawa, S., (1998), </i></b></u><i>Theory of Multi-National Corporations Internalization and Strategic Alliance</i></b></u>, Tokyo: Donmungwan (In Japanese).<br>Hasegawa, S., (2002), </i></b></u><i>Theory of International Business</i></b></u>. Yoshihara, H.(ed.). </i></b></u><i>Introduction to International Business Studies</i></b></u>. Tokyo: Yuhikaku, pp.62-80. (In Japanese)<br>Hedlund, G. (1986), The Hypermodern MNC – A Heterarchy?,</i></b></u><i> Human Resource Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, No.1, pp.9-35.<br>Hedlund, G. (1994), A Model of Knowledge Management and the N-Form Corporation,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 15, pp.73-90.<br>Hedlund, G. (1996), The Intensity and Extensity of Knowledge: Implications for Possible Futures of the Global Firm</i></b></u><i>, CEMS Business Review, Vo1.1</i></b></u>, pp.111-126.<br>Hedlund, G. and Rolander, D. (1990), </i></b></u><i>Action in Heterarchies: New Approaches to Managing the MNC</i></b></u>. In Bartlett, C.A., Doz, Y. and Hedlund, G. (Eds.), </i></b></u><i>Managing the Global Firm</i></b></u>. Routledge.<br>Heeks, R. (2012), Emerging Markets: IT Innovation for the Bottom of the Pyramid, </i></b></u><i>Communications of The ACM, </i></b></u>December, Vol.55, No.12, pp.24-27.<br>Helfat, C.E., & Raubitschek, R. S. (2000), Product Sequencing: Co-evolution of Knowledge, Capabilities and Products,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, Special Issue, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, Nos. 10-11, pp.961-979. <br>Helling, T. (2009), </i></b></u><i>Barriers at the Bottom of the Pyramid</i></b></u>, Urban Canopy Working Papers.<br>Henderson, R. (1993), Underinvestment and Incompetence as Responses to Radical Innovation: Evidence from the Photolithographic Alignment Equipment Industry, </i></b></u><i>The Rand Journal of Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 24, No. 2, pp.248-270. <br>Henderson, R. and Clark, K. B. (1990), Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms, </i></b></u><i>Administrative Science Quarterly, </i></b></u>Vol. 35, pp.9-30. <br>Henderson</i></b></u>,</i></b></u>R. and Cockburn, I. (1994), Measuring Competence? Exploring Firm Effects in Pharmaceutical Research, </i></b></u><i>Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 15, pp.63-84. <br>Hillman, A.J. and Wan, W.P. (2005), The determinants of MNE subsidiaries’ political strategies: Evidence of institutional duality,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 322–340.<br>Hirota, S., Kubo, K., Miyajima, H., Hong, P., and Park, Y. W. (2010), Corporate mission, corporate policies and business outcomes: Evidence from Japan,</i></b></u><i> Management Decision, </i></b></u>Vol. 48, No. 7, pp. 1134-1153.<br>Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D. and Hoskinsson, R. E. (2001), </i></b></u><i>Strategic management: competitiveness and globalization</i></b></u>, Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.<br>Hoek, R. I. and Weken, H. A. M. (1998), The Impact of Modular Production on the Dynamics of Supply Chains,</i></b></u><i> The International Journal of Logistics Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 35-50.<br>Hoetker, G. (2006), Do modular products lead to modular organizations?</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 27, pp.501–518.<br>Holm, U., and Pedersen, T. (eds.) (2000), </i></b></u><i>The emergence and impact of MNC centers of excellence</i></b></u>, London: Macmillan. <br>Holweg, M., & Helo, P. (2014). Defining value chain architectures: Linking strategic value creation to operational supply chain design.</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economic, </i></b></u>Vol. 147, No. B, pp.230-238.<br>Hong, P and Hwang, W. (2011), Operational capabilities and performance toward global supply chain: an overview of Korean manufacturing and service firms,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.183-197.<br>Hong, P and Kwon, H. (2012), Strategic Procurement: A Review,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Procurement Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 452-469.<br>Hong, P and Vonderembse, M (2011), Emerging Global Logistics: A Case of Korea Express, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 2, pp.141-149. <br>Hong, P, Dobrzykowski, D and Vonderembse, M (2010a), Integration of supply chain IT and lean practices for mass customization: benchmarking of product and service focused manufacturers,</i></b></u><i> Benchmarking: An International Journal, </i></b></u>Vol 17, No. 4, pp. 561-592. <br>Hong, P, Tran, O., and Park, K. (2010b), Electronic commerce applications for supply chain integration and competitive capabilities: An empirical study,</i></b></u><i> Benchmarking: An International Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 539-560.<br>Hong, P, and Kim, S. (2012), Business network excellence for competitive advantage: Case of Korean firms,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Business Excellence, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 6-20. <br>Hong, P. and Park, Y.W. (2014), </i></b></u><i>Building Network Capabilities in Turbulent Competitive Environments: Business Success Stories from the BRICs</i></b></u>, CRC Press. <br>Hong, P. and Vonderembse, M. (2011), Global logistics strategies and experiences: The case of Korea Express. </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 2, pp.141-149.<br>Hong, P., Doll, W, Revilla., Elena and Nahm, A. (2011), Knowledge sharing and strategic fit in integrated product development: An Empirical Study,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 132, No. 2, pp. 186-196. <br>Hong, P., Doll, W., Nahm, A. (2004b), Project Target Clarity in an Uncertain Project Environment Uncertainty of Project,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Operations and Production Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 24, No. 12, pp.1269-1291.<br>Hong, P., Doll, W., Nahm, A. and Li, Xiao (2004a), Knowledge Sharing in Integrated Product Development,</i></b></u><i> European Journal of Innovation Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.102-112. <br>Hong, P., Hong, S. W., Roh, J., Park, K. (2012a), Evolving Benchmarking Practices: A Review for Research Perspectives,</i></b></u><i> Benchmarking: An International Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, Nos. 4/5, pp. 444-462.<br>Hong, P., Huang, C., and Li, B (2012b), Crisis Management for SMEs: An Illustration,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Business Excellence, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 535-553.<br>Hong, P., Kwon, H., and Roh, J. (2009), Implementation of Strategic Green Orientation: An Empirical Study of Manufacturing Firms,</i></b></u><i> European Journal of Innovation Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 512-532.<br>Hong, P., Roh, J. and Hwang, W. (2006), Global supply chain strategy: A Chinese market perspective. </i></b></u><i>Journal of Enterprise Information Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, No. 3, pp.320-333.<br>Hong, P., Park, Y., Choi, S. (2013), Effective Innovation Strategy of Korean SMEs for Emerging Markets: A Supply Chain Management Perspective,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Logistics and SCM Systems</i></b></u>, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 11-20.<br>Hong, P., Rawski, Greg., and Roh, J (2012c), Order Winning Product Strategy, Sustainability Practices and Outcomes: Case for Manufacturing Firms, </i></b></u><i>Benchmarking: An International Journal,</i></b></u> Vol. 19, Nos. 4/5, pp. 634-648.<br>Hong, P., Vonderembse, M., Doll, W., Nahm, A. (2005), Role Changes of Design Engineers in Integrated Product Development,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 63-79.<br>Hong, P., and Jeong, J. (2006), Supply chain management practices of Small and Medium Enterprises: From Business Growth Perspective,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Enterprise Information Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 292-302. <br>Hong, P., and Roh, J. (2009), Internationalization, Product Development and Performance Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Ten Countries,</i></b></u><i> Research in International Business and Finance, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 2, June, pp. 169-180.<br>Hong, P., and Roh, J. (2009), Internationalization, Product Development and Performance Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Ten Countries,</i></b></u><i> Research in International Business and Finance, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 2, June, pp. 169-180.<br>Howard, M. (2011), </i></b></u><i>Will frugal innovation challenge the west?</i></b></u>, Market Leader, Quarter 3, p.3.<br>Hult, G. T. M., Ketchen, D., Nichols, E. (2002), An examination of cultural competitiveness and order fulfillment cycle time within supply chains,</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 45, No.3, pp.577–586.<br>Hymer, S. (1960), </i></b></u><i>The International Operations of National Firms : A Study of Direct Foreign Investment</i></b></u>, doctoral dissertation. MIT Press (pub.In 1976).<br>Immelt, J.R., Govindarajan, V. and Trimble, C. (2009), </i></b></u><i>How GE is disrupting itself, Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 87, No. 10, pp.56-65.<br>Jarillo, J.C., and Martinez, J.I. (1990) Different roles for subsidiaries: The case of multinational corporations in Spain,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 11, No. 7</i></b></u>, pp.501-512.<br>Javidan, M. (1998), Core competence: What does it mean in practice?,</i></b></u><i> Long Range Planning, Vol. 31, No. 1</i></b></u>, pp.60-71.<br>Jin, C. (2007), </i></b></u><i>Capability of Chinese Manufacturing Industries</i></b></u>, Shinzansha Press: Tokyo (In Japanese).<br>Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J. E. (1977), The internationalization process of the firm: a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments</i></b></u><i>, Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 23-32.<br>Joo, D.Y., Sue, D.H. and Cho, H.S. (2003), “</i></b></u><i>World share change of electronic industry and Korean choice.”</i></b></u> Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade. (In Korean)<br>Kacou, E. (2011). </i></b></u><i>Entrepreneurial solutions for prosperity in BoP markets</i></b></u>. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.<br>Kadokura, T. (2006), </i></b></u><i>The Great Illustration: Ability of India Economy</i></b></u>, Nikkei Press, Tokyo, Japan (In Japanese). <br>Kandachar, P. and Halme, M. (2007), An exploratory journey towards the research and practice of the “base of the pyramid”,</i></b></u><i> Greener Management International, </i></b></u>Vol. 51, pp.3–17.<br>Kang, M., Wu, X., Hong, P., and Park. Y. (2012), Aligning organizational control practices toward competitive outsourcing performance,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Business Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 65, No. 8, pp.1195-1201<br>Kang. M, Wu, Xiaobo, and Hong, P. (2009), Strategic Outsourcing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages: Case studies of Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) in China,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3</i></b></u>, pp. 240-256.<br>Karsak, E. Ertugrul., Kuzgunkaya, Onur. (2002), A fuzzy multiple objective programming approach for the selection of a flexible manufacturing system,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 79, No. 2, pp.101-111.<br>Katz, M. L. and Shapiro, C. (1985), Network Externalities, Competition and Compatibility, </i></b></u><i>American Economic Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 75, No.3, pp. 424-440.<br>Keegan, W. (1989), </i></b></u><i>Global marketing management</i></b></u>, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.<br>Khanna, T. and Palepu, K. G. (2006), </i></b></u><i>Emerging giants: building world-class companies in developing countries, Harvard Business Review, Oct</i></b></u>, pp. 60-69.<br>Khanna, T., Palepu, K. G. and Sinha, J. (2005), </i></b></u><i>Strategies that fit emerging markets, Harvard Business Review, Jun</i></b></u>, pp.63-76.<br>Kirkbride, P. and Ward, K. (2001), </i></b></u><i>Globalization: the internal dynamic, Chichester</i></b></u>: John Wiley e Sons.<br>Kirsch, R. J., Laird, K. R. and Evans, T. G. (2000), The entry of international CPA firms into emerging markets: motivational factors and growth strategies,</i></b></u><i> The International Journal of Accounting, </i></b></u>Vol. 35, No. 1, pp.99-119.<br>Kisruck, G.M., Sutter, C.J., Lount JR., R.B. and Smith, B.R. (2013), Mitigating principal-agent problems in base-of-the-pyramid markets: an identify spillover perspective.</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Journal</i></b></u>, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 659-682. <br>Kogan, K. and Tapiero, C. S. (2009), Optimal co-investment in supply chain infrastructure, </i></b></u><i>European Journal of Operational Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 192, pp.265-276.<br>Kogut, B. and Bowman, E. H. (1995), </i></b></u><i>Modularity and Permeability As Principles Of Design, </i></b></u>in</i></b></u><i> Redesigning the Firm</i></b></u>, edited by Bowman, E. and Kogut, B. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp.243-260.<br>Kogut, B. and Zander, U. (1992), Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology</i></b></u><i>, Organization Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 3, pp.383-397.<br>Kogut, B. and Zander, U. (1993), Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation,</i></b></u><i> Journal of. International Business Studies, Vol. 24, No.4</i></b></u>, pp.625-645.<br>Korhonen, P., Huttunen, K., Elorant, E. (1998), Demand Chain Management in a global enterprise-information management view,</i></b></u><i> Production Planning, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 6, p.526.<br>Krajewski, L., Wei, Jerry C., Tang, L. (2005), Responding to schedule changes in build-to-order supply chains,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 5, pp.452-469.<br>Kuada, J. and Sorensen, O. J. (2000), </i></b></u><i>Internationalization of companies from developing countries</i></b></u>, Nova York: Haworth Press.<br>Kuemmerle, W. (1999), The Drivers of Foreign Direct Investment into Research and Development: An Empirical Investigation</i></b></u><i>, Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 30, No. 1, pp.1-24. <br>Kumar, N. and Puranam, P. (2011), </i></b></u><i>India Inside: The Emerging Innovation Challenge to the West</i></b></u>, Harvard Business Review Press. <br>Kumar, N. and Puranam, P. (2012), Frugal Engineering: An Emerging Innovation Paradigm, </i></b></u><i>IVEY Business Journal</i></b></u>, March-April, pp.1-3.<br>Kusunoki, K. and Chesbrough, H. W. (2001), </i></b></u><i>Dynamic shift of product architecture: trap of virtual organisation, In Business architecture</i></b></u>, Fujimoto, T., Takeishi, A., and Aoshima, Y. (eds.), Tokyo: Yuhikaku, pp.263-285.<br>Lambert, D. M., Cooper, M. C. (2000), Issues in Market Flexible Customizing System,</i></b></u><i> Industrial Marketing Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, pp.65-83.<br>Leavy, B. and Govindarajan, V. (2011), Innovation coach to the developed and developing world,</i></b></u><i> Strategy and Leadership, </i></b></u>Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 4-12.<br>Lee, J. H. and Kimz, C. O. (2008), </i></b></u><i>Multi-agent systems applications in manufacturing systems and supply chain management: a review paper. International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 46, No. 1</i></b></u>, pp.233-265.<br>Lee, P., Lin, H., Chen, H. and Shyr, Y. (2011), Dynamic capabilities exploitation of market and hierarchy governance structures: An empirical comparison of Taiwan and South Korea</i></b></u><i>, Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 46, No. 3, pp.359-370.<br>Lee, S., Beamish, P. W., Lee, H. and Park, J. (2009), Strategic choice during economic crisis: Domestic market position, organizational capabilities and export flexibility. </i></b></u><i>Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 1-15.<br>Lee, S., Xiang, J. Y. and Kim, J. K. (2011), Information technology and productivity: Empirical evidence from the Chinese electronics industry, </i></b></u><i>Information & Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 48, Nos. 2-3, pp.79-87.<br>Lehrer, M. and Asakawa, K. (2004), Pushing scientists into the market place: Promoting science entrepreneurship,</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 46, No. 3, pp.55-76.<br>Lehrer, M. and Asakawa, K. (2004), Pushing scientists into the market place: Promoting science entrepreneurship,</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 46, No. 3, pp.55-76.<br>Leonard-Barton, D. (1992), Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities: A Paradox in Managing New Product Development,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 13, No. 1, pp.111-125. <br>Levitt, B. and March, J. G. (1988), Organizational learning,</i></b></u><i> Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 14</i></b></u>, pp. 319–340.<br>Li, S., Scullion, H. (2010), Developing the local competence of expatriate managers for emerging markets: A knowledge-based approach.</i></b></u><i> Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 45, No. 2, pp.190-196.<br>Li, X., Wang, Q. (2007), Coordination mechanisms of supply chain systems,</i></b></u><i> European Journal of Operational Research</i></b></u>, Vol. 179, pp.1–16.<br>Liao, Y., Hong, P., and Rao, S. (2010), Supply management, supply flexibility and performance outcomes: An empirical investigation of manufacturing Firms. </i></b></u><i>Journal of Supply Chain Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 6-22. <br>Liao, Ying., Hong, P., and Rao, S. (2010), Supply management, supply flexibility and performance outcomes: an empirical investigation of manufacturing firms, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Supply Chain Management</i></b></u>, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 6-22. <br>Liker, J. K., Choi, Y. I. (2004), Building Deep Supplier Relationships</i></b></u><i>, Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 82, No.12, pp.104-113. <br>Lin, J. Y. and Treichel. V. (2012), </i></b></u><i>The unexpected global financial crisis: researching its root cause</i></b></u>. The World Bank.<br>Lin, Y., Zhou, L. and Shi, Y. (2009), 3C framework for modular supply networks in the Chinese automotive industry.</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Logistics Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.322-341. <br>Lincoln, James R., Ahmadjian, Christina L., Mason, Eliot. (1998), Organizational learning and purchase-supply relations in Japan: Hitachi, Matsushita, and Toyota compared,</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 40, No.3, pp.241-264. <br>Ling, Y., Floyd, S. W., and Baldridge, D. C. (2005), Toward a model of issue-selling by subsidiary managers in multinational organizations,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies</i></b></u>, Vol. 36, pp.637-654. <br>Lippman, S. A. and Rumelt, R. P. (1992), Demand Uncertainty, Capital Specificity, and Industry Evolution,</i></b></u><i> Industrial and Corporate Change, </i></b></u>Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 235-262.<br>Liu, Y., Li, Y. and Xue, J. (2011), Ownership, strategic orientation and internationalization in emerging markets.</i></b></u><i> Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 46, No. 3, pp.381-393.<br>Llorens, F. Javier., Molina, Luis M., Verdu, Antonio J. (2005), Flexibility of manufacturing systems, strategic change and performance,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics</i></b></u>, Vol. 98, No. 3, pp.273-289.<br>London, T., R. Anupindi, and S. Sheth. (2010), Creating mutual value: Lessons learned from ventures serving base of the pyramid producers,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Business Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 63, No. 6, pp.582–594.<br>London, T., and S. Hart. (2004), Reinventing strategies for emerging markets: Beyond the transnational model,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 35, No. 5, pp.350-370.<br>Lusch, R. F. (2011), Reframing Supply Chain Management: A Service-Dominant Logic Perspective, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Supply Chain Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 47, No. 1, pp.14-18.<br>Mahajan, V. and Banga, K. (2005), </i></b></u><i>The 86% solution: How to succeed in the biggest market opportunity of the next 50 years</i></b></u>, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.<br>Mahmood, I. P., Zhu, H. and Zajac, E. J. (2011), Where can capabilities come from? network ties and capability acquisition in business groups.</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 32, No. 8, pp.820-848. <br>Manning, S., Ricart, J.E., Rosatti Rique, M.S. and Lewin, A.Y. (2010</i></b></u><i>), </i></b></u>From Blind Spots to Hotspots: How Knowledge Services Clusters Develop and Attract Foreign Investment,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Management, </i></b></u>Vol.16, No. 4, pp.369-382.<br>March, J. G. (1991), Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning,</i></b></u><i> Organization Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 2, pp.71-87. <br>March, J.G., and Simon, H.A. (1958), </i></b></u><i>Organizations</i></b></u>, New York: Wiley. <br>Markides, C. (2006), Disruptive Innovation: In Need of Better Theory,</i></b></u><i> The Journal of Product Innovation Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 1, pp.19-25.<br>Marukawa, T., Yasumoto, M. Imai, K. and Shiu, J. (2006), “A comparison of mobile handset industries between Japan and China” (Japanese), </i></b></u><i>Akamon Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 8, pp. 542-572.<br>Masuyama, S. (2002), </i></b></u><i>Asian multinational enterprise</i></b></u>, Yoshihara, H. (eds.) </i></b></u><i>Invitation to international business theory</i></b></u>. Yuhikaku, pp.279-299. (In Japanese)<br>McIvor, R. T., & Humphreys, P. K. (2000), A Case-based Reasoning Approach to the Make or Buy Decision. </i></b></u><i>Integrated Manufacturing Systems, </i></b></u>Vol. 11, No. 5, pp.295-310.<br>Meixell, M. J. and Gargeya, V. B. (2005), Global supply chain design: A literature review and critique.</i></b></u><i> Transportation Research, </i></b></u>Part E, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp.531-550. <br>Meyer, K. E. (2004), Perspectives on multinationals enterprises in emerging economies,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies</i></b></u>, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 259-277.<br>Miller, W. L., & Morris, L. (1999), </i></b></u><i>Fourth Generation R&D: Managing Knowledge, Technology, and Innovation</i></b></u>, Wiley, New York, USA. <br>Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J. A. (1985), Of Strategies, Deliberate And Emergent, </i></b></u><i>Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 6, No.3, pp. 257-272.<br>Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., and Lampel, J. (1998), </i></b></u><i>Strategic Safari</i></b></u>, FreePress.<br>Mintzberg, H., Waters, J. A. (1985), Of Strategies, Deliberate and Emergent,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 6, pp. 257-272.<br>Moore, K. (2001), A Strategy for Subsidiaries: Centres of Excellences to Build Subsidiary Specific Advantages,</i></b></u><i> Management International Review, </i></b></u>July 1.<br>Moore, K. and Birkinshaw, J.M. (1998), Managing knowledge in global service firms: Centres of Excellence,</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Executive, </i></b></u>Vol. 12, No. 4, pp.81-92. <br>Morone, J. (1993), </i></b></u><i>Wining in High Tech Markets</i></b></u>, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, USA. <br>Mudambi, R. (1999), MNE internal capital markets and subsidiary strategic independence, </i></b></u><i>International Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, pp.197-211. <br>Mudambi, R., and Navarra (2004), Is knowledge power? Knowledge flows, subsidiary power and rent-seeking within MNCs,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 35, No. 5, pp.385-406. <br>Mudambi, S. M. and Schuff, D. (2010), What Makes A Helpful Online Review? A Study of Customer Reviews On Amazon.Com,</i></b></u><i> MIS Quarterly, </i></b></u>Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 185-200.<br>Murtha, T. P., Lenway, S. A. and Hart, J.A. (2001), </i></b></u><i>Managing New Industry Creation: Global Knowledge Formation and Entrepreneurship in High Technology</i></b></u>, Stanford: Stanford University Press.<br>Mölders, F., and Volz, U. (2011), </i></b></u><i>Trade creation and the status of FTAs: empirical evidence from East Asia, Review of World Economics, Vol. 147, No.3</i></b></u>, pp.429 – 456.<br>Narayanan, V. G., Raman, A., (2004), Aligning Incentives in Supply Chains,</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 82, No. 11, pp.94-102.<br>Navarro, A., Losada, F., Ruzo, E., Díez, J. A. (2010), Implications of perceived competitive advantages, adaptation of marketing tactics and export commitment on export performance. </i></b></u><i>Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>45, No. 1, pp.49-58.<br>Nelson, R. R. and Winter, S. G. (1982), </i></b></u><i>An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change</i></b></u>. Belknap Press, Cambridge, UK.<br>Nobel, R. and Birkinshaw, J. (1998), Innovation in Multinational Corporations: Control and Communication Patterns in International R&D Operations, </i></b></u><i>Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, No. 5, pp.479-496.<br>Nobeoka, T. (2006), </i></b></u><i>Introduction to MOT</i></b></u>, Nihon Keizai Shinbunsya. (In Japanese)<br>Noda, T., and Bower, J.L. (1996), Strategy making as iterated processes of resource allocation, </i></b></u><i>Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 17, No. 7, pp.159-192. <br>Nohria, N., and Ghoshal, S. (1994), Differentiated fit and shared valued: alternatives for managing headquarters-subsidiary relations,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 15, No. 6, pp.491-502.<br>Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995), </i></b></u><i>The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation</i></b></u>, Oxford University Press, New York, USA. <br>Nugent, J. B. and Yhee, S. (2002), Small and Medium Enterprises in Korea: Achievements, Constraints and Policy Issues,</i></b></u><i> Small Business Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 18, Nos. 1/3, pp.85-119.<br>O’Donnell, S. W. (2000), Managing foreign subsidiaries: Agents of headquarters, or an interdependent network?,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, pp.525-548. <br>Oh, K., Cruickshank, D. and Anderson, A. R. (2009), The adoption of e-trade innovations by Korean small and medium sized firms.</i></b></u><i> Technovation, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.110-121. <br>Oki, K. (2009), Building Capabilities of Overseas Subsidiaries in the context of International Functional Specialization: A Case Study of Japanese HDD Makers,</i></b></u><i> International Business Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 1 No. 1, pp.19-34.(In Japanese)<br>Oki, K., Shintaku, J., Park, Y. W., & Amano, T. (2010), Monozukuri of Brazil Amazon: History of Manaus: Industrial City and Challenges of Japanese Firms. </i></b></u><i>Akamon Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 11, pp.825-848 (In Japanese).<br>Ornelas, E. (2005), Endogenous free trade agreements and the multilateral trading system.</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 67, No. 2, pp.471-497. <br>Ovanessoff, A. and Purdy, M. (2011), Global competition 2021: Key capabilities for emerging opportunities.</i></b></u><i> Strategy & Leadership, </i></b></u>Vol. 39, No. 5, pp.46-55.<br>Park, D. and Krishnan, H. A. (2001), Understanding supplier selection practices: Differences between U.S and Korean executives, </i></b></u><i>Thunderbird International Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 43, No. 2, pp.243 – 256.<br>Park, Y. W, Shintaku, J., Tomita, J., Hong, P. and Moon, G. W. (2008), </i></b></u><i>‘Modularity of Flat Panel Display TV and Operation Management Practices: A Case Study of LG Electronics,’</i></b></u> The 3rd World Conference on Production and Operations Management, Aug 5-7, pp.200-215.<br>Park, Y. W. (2009), </i></b></u><i>Core Competence and IT Strategy</i></b></u>, Waseda University Press, Tokyo, Japan (In Japanese). <br>Park, Y. W. (2010), Product/ Process Architecture in Liquid Crystal Display Industry and Production Location Strategy: Case Studies of Korean LCD Firms,</i></b></u><i> WIAS Research Bulletin</i></b></u>, Vol. 2, pp.45-60 (In Japanese). <br>Park, Y. W. (2012), Product architecture and Emerging Market Strategy: Competitive Studies of Japanese and Korean Firms,</i></b></u><i> WIAS Research Bulletin, </i></b></u>No.4, pp. 17-30 (in Japanese).<br>Park, Y. W., & Hong, P. (2012), </i></b></u><i>Building network capabilities in turbulent competitive environments: Practices of global firms from Korea and Japan</i></b></u>. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Company). <br>Park, Y. W., Abe, T. and Okuma, S. (2011), Core competence and Architecture strategy: Framework for Product Strategy Analysis,</i></b></u><i> MMRC Discussion Paper, </i></b></u>No. 376, pp. 1-42 (in Japanese).<br>Park, Y. W., Amano, T., and Moon, G. (2012a), Benchmarking open and cluster innovation: case of Korea,</i></b></u><i> Benchmarking: An International Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 19, No. 4/5, pp. 517-531. <br>Park, Y. W., Fujimoto, T. and Hong, P. (2012c), Product architecture, organisational capabilities and IT Integration for competitive Advantage,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Information Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 32. No. 5, pp. 479-488. <br>Park, Y. W., Fujimoto, T., Hong, P. and Abe, T. (2010), </i></b></u><i>Integrated Manufacturing and IT strategy for Futuristic PLM: A Conceptual Framework from Japanese Firms, International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management</i></b></u>, in </i></b></u><i>Papers presented at PLM’10 [CD-ROM]</i></b></u>, Bremen, Germany: PLM, July 2010.<br>Park, Y. W., Hong, P. and Park, Y. S. (2012b), Product architecture and integrated manufacturing information system: a comparative study of Japanese and Korean firms,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Business Excellence, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No.5, pp. 485-501.<br>Park, Y. W., Oh, J. and Fujimoto, T. (2012), Global Expansion and Supply Chain Integration: Case Study of Korean Firms,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Procurement Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 470-485.<br>Park, Y. W., Shintaku, J., Tomita, J., Hong, P. and Moon, G. W. (2008), </i></b></u><i>Modularity of Flat Panel Display TV and Operation Management Practices: A Case Study of LG Electronics</i></b></u>, The 3rd World Conference on Production and Operations Management, Aug 5-7, pp.200-215. <br>Park, Y.W, Hong, P., Park, Youngsoo (2012a), Product Architecture and Integrated Manufacturing System: A Comparative Study of Japanese and Korean firms, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Business Excellence, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 485-501.<br>Park, Y.W. (2011a), Korean Electronic Industry in Growth: Global Growth Process and Localization Strategy of Brazil,</i></b></u><i> JOI, </i></b></u>Special Issue, 23-28 (In Japanese). <br>Park, Y.W. (2011b), Emerging markets strategy of Korean companies, “Management strategy of Korean companies and FTA policy of South Korea,” Chapter 3,</i></b></u><i> Japan Machinery Center for Trade and Investment Report</i></b></u>, pp.84-132 (In Japanese).<br>Park, Y.W. and Hong, P. (2012), </i></b></u><i>Building Network Capabilities in Turbulent Competitive Environments: Practices of Global Firms from Korea and Japan</i></b></u>, CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Company). ISBN: 978-1-4398-5068-8<br>Park, Y.W., & Amano, T. (2011), Localization Strategy of the Korean Companies in India: The Comparison with the Japanese Companies, </i></b></u><i>Hitotsubashi Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 59, No. 3 (WIN) , pp.6-21 (In Japanese). <br>Park, Y.W. and Hong, P. (2014), The Role of IT for Global Firms in Emerging Markets, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Business Information Systems, Special Issue. </i></b></u><br>Park, Y.W., Fujimoto, T. and Hong, P (2012a), Product Architecture, Organizational Capabilities and IT Integration for Competitive Advantage,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Information Management</i></b></u>, Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 479-488. <br>Park, Y.W., Fujimoto, Takahiro and Hong, P (2012b), Product Architecture, Organizational Capabilities and IT Integration For Competitive Advantage,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Information Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 479-488.<br>Park, Y.W., Hong, P, and Hwang, W. (2011), Building supply chain capabilities: a case study of Korean Hyundai-Kia Motor Company,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Logistics and Systems Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 2, pp.238–250.<br>Park, Y.W., Hong, P., & Moon, G. (2012b), </i></b></u><i>Implementation of Product Strategy with Differentiated Standards, International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 57, No. 1/2/3</i></b></u>, pp.166-184. <br>Park, Y.W., Ogawa, K., Tatsumoto, H., and Hong, P., (2009), The impact of product architecture on supply chain integration: a case study of Nokia and Texas Instruments, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Services and Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 787-798.<br>Park, Y.W., Oh, J., Fujimoto, T. (2012b), Global expansion and supply chain integration: case study of Korean firms,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Procurement Management, </i></b></u>Vol.5, No.4, pp.470-485.<br>Park, Y.W., Shintaku, J. and Hong, P. (2012d), Effective supply chain configurations in the business context of China,</i></b></u><i> MMRC Discussion Study, No. 385</i></b></u>, pp.1-19.<br>Park, Y.W., and Hong, P, and Roh, J. (2013), Supply chain lessons from the 2011 natural disasters in Japan, </i></b></u><i>Business Horizons, </i></b></u>Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 75-85. <br>Park. Y. W. (2009) , [A 33th Story of Monozukuri’s Journey in Asia] Korean firms’ localization strategy in Indian market: From local accommodation marketing to premium market pioneering,</i></b></u><i> Akamon Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, No. 4 (April), pp. 181-211(In Japanese).<br>Penrose, E. T. (1959), </i></b></u><i>The Theory of the Growth of the Firm</i></b></u>, Basil Blackwell and Mott, Oxford, UK. <br>Perrons, R. K., Richards, M. G. and Platts, K. (2004), The Effect of Industry Clockspeed on Make-Buy Decisions in the Face of Radical Technologies: An Empirical Test, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Innovation Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, No. 4, pp.431-454.<br>Perrons, R. K., Richards, M. G. and Platts, K. (2005), What the hare can teach the tortoise about make-buy strategies for radical innovations?</i></b></u><i> Management Decision, Vol. 43, No. 5</i></b></u>, pp.670-690.<br>Peters, T. and Waterman, R. (1982), </i></b></u><i>In Search of Excellence</i></b></u>, HarperCollins, New York.<br>Pfeffer, J., and Moore, W.L. (1980), Power in university budgeting: A replication and extension, </i></b></u><i>Administrative Science Quarterly, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 637-653. <br>Pfeffer, J., and Salancik, G.B. (1977), Who gets power and how they hold on to it: A strategic-contingency model of power, </i></b></u><i>Organizational Dynamics, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 3, pp.3-21. <br>Pfeffer, J., and Salancik, G.R. (1978), </i></b></u><i>The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective</i></b></u>, Harper and Row: New York <br>Pil, F. K. and Cohen, S. (2006), Modularity and Complexity: Implications for Imitation, Innovation, and Sustained Competitive Advantage,</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 31, No.4, pp. 995-1011. <br>Pinch, T. J. and Bijker, W. E. (1987), </i></b></u><i>The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts: Or How the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other</i></b></u>, in Bijker, W. E. Hughes, T. P. and Pinch, T. J. (eds.) </i></b></u><i>The Social Construction of Technological Systems</i></b></u>. MIT Press, pp.17-50.<br>Pine </i></b></u>Ⅱ</i></b></u>, J. B. (1993), </i></b></u><i>Mass Customization</i></b></u>, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School.<br>Pisano, G. P. and Teece, D. J. (2007), How to capture value from innovation: Shaping intellectual property and industry architecture.</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 278-296.<br>Podsakoff, P.M., and Organ, D.W. (1986), Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Management</i></b></u>, Vol. 12, pp.69-82. <br>Porter, M. (1987), From competitive advantage to corporate strategy,</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review</i></b></u>, May/June, pp.43–59.<br>Porter, M. (1990), </i></b></u><i>The Competitive Advantage of Nations</i></b></u>, Free Press, New York.<br>Porter, M. E. (2000), Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy,</i></b></u><i> Economic Development Quarterly, </i></b></u>Vol. 14, No. 1, pp.15-34.<br>Porter, M. E. and Kranger, M. R. (2011), Creating shared value.</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 89, No. 1/2, pp. 62-77. <br>Porter, M.E. (1990), </i></b></u><i>The Competitive Advantage of Nations</i></b></u>, Free Press, New York.<br>Porter, Michael and Takahiro, Taekeuchi (2002), </i></b></u><i>Japanese Competitive Strategy</i></b></u>, Diamond Press (In Japanese). <br>Prahalad, C. K. (2005), </i></b></u><i>The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: eradicating poverty through profits</i></b></u>, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Warthon School Publishing.<br>Prahalad, C. K. (2009), </i></b></u><i>The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicatingpoverty through profits (5th ed.)</i></b></u>. Upper Saddle River, NJ: WhartonSchool Publishing.<br>Prahalad, C., and A. Hammond. (2002), Serving the world’s poor, profitably, </i></b></u><i>Harvard Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 80, No. 9, pp.48–59.<br>Prahalad, C., and S. Hart. (2002), The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid,</i></b></u><i> Strategy + Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 26, pp.54–67.<br>Prahalad, C.K. and Doz, Y. L. (1987), </i></b></u><i>The Multinational Mission: Balancing Local Demand and Global Vision</i></b></u>, New York: Free Press ; London : Collier Macmillan.<br>Prahalad, C.K.and Hamel, G. (1990), The Core Competence of the Corporation,</i></b></u><i> Harvard Business Review</i></b></u>, May–June, pp.79-91.<br>Prahalad. C. K., and Doz, Y. L. (1981), An approach to strategic control in MNCs,</i></b></u><i> Sloan Management Review</i></b></u>, Summer, pp.5-13. <br>Quinn, L. and Dalton, M. (2009), Leading for Sustainability: Implementing the Tasks of Leadership,</i></b></u><i> Corporate Governance, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.21-38. <br>Radjou, N. and Prabhu, J. (2013), Frugal Innovation: A new business paradigm,</i></b></u><i> INSEAD Knowledge</i></b></u>, January 10, pp.1-3.<br>Ramachandran, J., Pant, A. and Pani, S. K. (2012), Building the BoP Producer Ecosystem: The EvolvingEngagement of Fabindia with Indian Handloom Artisans” </i></b></u><i>Journal Production InnovationManagement, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.33–51.<br>Ramamurti, R. and Singh, J.V. (eds.) (2009), </i></b></u><i>Emerging Multinationals in Emerging Markets</i></b></u>, New York: Cambridge University Press.<br>Rangan, V. K., Quelch, J. A., Herrero, G. and Barton, B. (2007), </i></b></u><i>Businesssolutions for the global poor: Creating social and economic value</i></b></u>, SanFrancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.<br>Rauniar, Rupak, Doll, W, Rawski, Greg, Hong, P. (2008), </i></b></u><i>The Role of Heavyweight Product Manager in New Product Development, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 28, No. 2</i></b></u>, pp. 130-154.<br>Rauniar, Rupak, Rawski, Greg., Doll, W. and Hong, P (2008</i></b></u><i>), Shared Knowledge and Product Design Glitches in Integrated Product Development, International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 114, No. 2, pp.723-736.<br>Ricart, J. E., Enright, M.J., Ghemawat, P., Hart, S.L. and Khanna, T. (2004), New frontiers in international strategy,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 35, No. 3, pp.175-200.<br>Ritter, T. (1999), The networking company – Antecedents for coping with relationships and networks effectively,</i></b></u><i> Industrial Marketing Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 28, No.5, pp. 467-479.<br>Ritter, T. and Gemunden, H. G. (2003), Network competence: Its impact on innovation success and its antecedents,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Business Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 56, No. 9, pp. 745-755.<br>Ro, Y., Liker, J. K. and Fixon, S. (2007), Modularity as a strategy for supply chain coordination: the case of U.S.</i></b></u><i> IEEE Transations Engineering Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 172-189.<br>Rogers, E. (1983), </i></b></u><i>Diffusion of Innovations</i></b></u>, NY: Free Press, New York, USA. <br>Roh, J, Hong, P, and Park, Y. (2008), Organizational Culture and Supply Chain Strategy: A Framework for Effective Information Flows,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Enterprise Information Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.361-376. <br>Roh, J., Hong, P. and Min, H. (2014), Implementation of Responsive Supply Chain Strategy: Case of Manufacturing Firms,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 147, No. 2/Part B, pp.198-210. <br>Roh, J., Min, H. and Hong, P (2011), A Co-ordination Theory Approach to Restructuring the Supply Chain: An Empirical Study from the Focal Company Perspective, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Production Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 49, No. 15, pp.4517-4541. <br>Rosenzweig, E.D., Roth, A. V. and Dean Jr., J. W. (2003), The Influence of an Integration Strategy on Competitive Capabilities and Business Performance: An Exploratory Study of Consumer Products Manufacturers, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, pp.437-456. <br>Rosenzweig, P.M., & Singh, J.V. (1991), Organizational Environments and the Multinational Enterprise, </i></b></u><i>Academy of Management Review</i></b></u>, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.340-361. <br>Roth, K., and Morrison, A.J. (1992), Implementing global strategy: Characteristics of global subsidiary mandates,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 4, pp.715-735. <br>Roth, K., and Nigh, D. (1992), The effectiveness of headquarters-subsidiary relationships: the role of coordination, control and conflict,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Business Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, No. 4, pp.277-301. <br>Roubini. N. and Mihm, S (2010), Crisis Economics: A Crash Course in the Future of Finance. New York: The Penguin <br>Rugman, A. M., and Verbeke, A. (2001), Subsidiary-specific advantages in multinational enterprises,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 22, pp.237-250.<br>Rumelt, R. (1984), </i></b></u><i>Towards a Strategic Theory of the Firm, In Lamb, R. B. (ed.) Competitive Strategic Management</i></b></u>, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 556-570. <br>Rupali, K. (2013), Role of Innovation in Emerging Markets,</i></b></u><i> Advances In Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 6, No.9, Sep, pp.11-13.<br>Sahin, F., and Robinson, E. P., (2002), Flow coordination and information sharing in supply chains: Review, implications, and directions for future research,</i></b></u><i> Decision Sciences, </i></b></u>Vol. 33, No. 4, pp.505–535.<br>Sakchutchawan, S., Hong, P. C., Callaway, S. K. and Kunnathur, A. (2011), Innovation and Competitive Advantage: Model and Implementation for Global Logistics,</i></b></u><i> International Business Research, </i></b></u>Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.10-21.<br>Sako, M. and Helper, S. (1998), Determinants of trust in supplier relations: evidence from the automotive industry in Japan and in the United States?, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Economic Behaviour and organization, </i></b></u>Vol. 34, No. 3, pp.387-417.<br>Salvador, F. and Forza, C. and Rungtusanatham, M. (2002), Modularity, product variety, production volume, and component sourcing: theorizing beyond generic prescriptions. </i></b></u><i>Journal of Operation Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 20, No. 5, pp.549-575.<br>Sanchez, R. and Mahoney, J. T. (1996), Modularity, flexibility, and knowledge management in product and organisation Design,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 17, Special Issue Winter, pp. 63-76.<br>Scannel, T. V., Vickery, S. K., Dröge, C. L. (2000), Upstream Market Flexible Customizing System and competitive performance in the automotive supply industry, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Business Logistics, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, No. 1, pp.23–48.<br>Schonberger, R.J. (2007), Japanese production management: an evolution—with mixed results</i></b></u><i>, Journal of Operations Management</i></b></u>, Vol. 25, pp. 403-419.<br>Schumpeter, J. A. (1934), </i></b></u><i>The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle</i></b></u>, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.<br>Seo, D.H, Lee K.S., and Kim, J.K. (2004), </i></b></u><i>The impacts of globalization and effective response strategy of Korean electronic industry</i></b></u>, Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade (In Korean).<br>Seo, Y., Shintaku, J., Park, Y. W., Lee, T. and Oki, K. (2012), Success and challenges of Japanese firms through the automobile and motorcycle in Brazil</i></b></u><i>, Akamon Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 11, No. 8, pp.405-424 (In Japanese).<br>Shapiro, C. and Hal, V. (1999), “The Art of Standards Wars.”</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 41, No. 2. pp. 8-32.<br>Sharma, S. (2000), Managerial interpretations and organizational context as predictors of corporate choice of environmental strategy,</i></b></u><i> Academy of Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 43, pp. 681-697. <br>Shibata, T., Yano, M., & Kodama, F. (2005), </i></b></u><i>Empirical analysis of evolution of product architecture: Fanuc numerical controllers from 1962 to 1997. Research Policy, Vol. 34, No. 1</i></b></u>, pp.13-31.<br>Shimada, T. (2005), </i></b></u><i>Mega Market India</i></b></u>, Daimond Press, Tokyo, Japan (In Japanese). <br>Shimizu, T., Park, Y.W. and Hong, P. (2013), Supply Chain Risk Management and Organizational Decision Making: A Case Study of Japanese Major Automotive Firm,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Services Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 15, No. 3. pp. 293-312.<br>Shimizu, T., Park, Y.W., Hong, P. (2012), </i></b></u><i>Project Manager for Risk Management: Case for Japan, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4/5</i></b></u>, pp. 532-547.<br>Shintaku, J. (2006), </i></b></u><i>Positioning Japanese Firms in East Asian Manufacturing Network Formation</i></b></u>, Tokyo Univ., </i></b></u><i>MMRC Discussion Paper, No.92 </i></b></u>(In Japanese).<br>Shintaku, J., Ogawa, K. and Yoshimoto, T. (2006), Architecture-based Approaches to International Standardization and Evolution of Business Models, </i></b></u><i>MMRC Discussion Paper</i></b></u>, No. 96 (In Japanese).<br>Shintaku, J., Tatsumoto, H., Yoshimoto, T., Tomita, J. and Park, Y. (2008), Architecture based analysis on international technology transfer and international division of labor,</i></b></u><i> Hitotsubashi Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 56 No. 2, pp.42-61 (In Japanese).<br>Shiraki, M. (2002), </i></b></u><i>International Human Resources Management</i></b></u>, Yoshihara, H., (eds.), </i></b></u><i>Introduction to International Business Studies</i></b></u>, Yuhikaku, pp.140-164 (In Japanese).<br>Shumpeter, J. A. (1942), </i></b></u><i>Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy</i></b></u>. New York, NY, Haper & Row.<br>Simanis, E., and S. Hart. (2008), </i></b></u><i>The base of the pyramid protocol: Toward next generation BoP strategy (2nd ed.)</i></b></u>. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.<br>Sinha, R. (2013), Reverse Innovation: A Gift from Developing Economyto Developed Economy,</i></b></u><i> Business Perspectives and Research</i></b></u>, July-December, pp.69-78.<br>Sioji, H., Nakata, T. Toyama, E., Seo, Y., Lee, T., Shon, H., Akabane, J. Noro, Y. and Inoue, R. (2012), </i></b></u><i>Growth Strategy of Huyndai Motor Company</i></b></u>, Nikkan Jidosha Shimbun (In Japanese).<br>Sirkin, H. L., Hemerling, J. W. and Bhattacharya, A. K. (2008), </i></b></u><i>Globality: Competing with everyone from everywhere for everything</i></b></u>. London: Headline.<br>Smith, A. (1776), </i></b></u><i>An inquiry into the nature and cause of wealth of nations</i></b></u>. London: Routledge.<br>Snow, C., Miles, R. and Coleman, H. (1992), Managing 21st Century Network Organization, </i></b></u><i>Organization Dynamics, </i></b></u>Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.5-20. <br>Spers, R.G., and Wright, J. T. C. (2013), An Analysis of the critical strategic dimensions for internalization of Brazilian firms in global base-of-pyramid (BOP) markets, </i></b></u><i>Brazilian Business Review, </i></b></u>Vol.10, No.2, p. 25 – 48.<br>Sridharan, S. and Viswanathan, M. (2008), Marketing in subsistence marketplaces: Consumption and entrepreneurship in a South Indian context,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Consumer Marketing, </i></b></u>Vol. 25, No. 7, pp.455–462.<br>Stalk, G., Evans, P., and Shulman, L.E. (1992), Competing on Capabilities: The New Rules of Corporate Strategy, </i></b></u><i>Harvard Business Review</i></b></u>, March-April, pp.57-69.<br>Stevenson, H. H., and Jarillo, J. C. (1990), A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Joumal, Vol. 11</i></b></u> (Summer Special Issue), pp. 17-27. <br>Strutton, D. (2009), Horseshoes, global supply chains, and an emerging Chinese threat: Creating remedies one idea at a time.</i></b></u><i> Business Horizons, </i></b></u>Vol. 52, No. 1, pp.31-43.<br>Stuart, T.E., Hoang. H., and Hybels, R.C. (1999), Inter-organizational Endorsements and the Performance of Entrepreneurial Ventures,</i></b></u><i> Administrative Science Quarterly, </i></b></u>Vol. 44, No. 2, pp.315-349. <br>Sturgeon, T. (2002), Modular production networks: a new American model of industrial organization</i></b></u><i>, Industrial and Corporate Changes</i></b></u>, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp.451-496.<br>Sun, S., Peng, M., Ren, B. and Yan, D. (2012), A comparative ownership advantage framework for cross-border M&As: The rise of Chinese and Indian MNEs.</i></b></u><i> Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 47, No. 1, pp.4-16.<br>Sánchez, P., Ricart, J. and Rodriguez, M. (2005), Influential factors in becoming socially embedded in low-income markets,</i></b></u><i> Greener Management International,</i></b></u> Vol. 51, pp.19–38.<br>Taggart, J.H. (1997), Autonomy and procedural justices: a framework for evaluation of subsidiary strategy,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.51-76. <br>Talke, K., Salomo, S., Wieringa, J. E.and Luts, A. (2009), What about designnewness? Investigating the relevance of a neglected dimension ofproduct innovativeness, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Product Innovation Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 26, No. 6, pp.601–615.<br>Tan, K.C. (2001), A framework of Market Flexible Customizing System literature. </i></b></u><i>European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 7, pp. 39–48.<br>Teece, D. (1986), Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy,</i></b></u><i> Research Policy, </i></b></u>Vol. 15, pp.285-305. <br>Teece, D. J. (2007), Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management</i></b></u><i>, Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 18, No. 7, pp.509-533. <br>Teece, D. J. (1998), Capturing Value from Knowledge Assets: The New Economy, Markets for Know-How, and Intangible Assets.”</i></b></u><i> California Management Review</i></b></u>, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 55-79.<br>Teece, D. J. and Pisano, G. (1994), The Dynamic Capabilities of Enterprises: An Introduction, </i></b></u><i>Industrial and Corporate Change, </i></b></u>Vol. 3, No. 3, pp.537-556. <br>Teece, D. J., Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. (1990), </i></b></u><i>Enterprise Capabilities, Resources and the Concept of Strategy, Consortium on Competitiveness and Cooperation, Working Paper CCC 90-8, </i></b></u>Institute of Management, Innovation and Organization, University of California, Berkeley, CA. <br>Teece, D. J., Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. (1997), Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management, </i></b></u><i>Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Vol. 18, No. 7, pp.509-533. <br>Thomke, S. and Fujimoto, T. (2000), The Effect of Front-Loading Problem Solving on Product Development Performance,</i></b></u><i> The Journal of Product Innovation Management, </i></b></u>Vol.17, No.2, pp.128-142.<br>Tomino, T., Hong, P and Park, Y.W. (2011), An Effective Integration of Manufacturing and Marketing System for Long Production Cycle: A Case Study of Toyota Motor Company,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Logistics and Systems Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 2, pp.204-217.<br>Tomino, T., Park, Y.W., Hong, P. (2012), Strategic procurement through built to order system: An Analysis of Japanese auto-manufacturers,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Procurement Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 413-429.<br>Tomino, T., Park, Y.W., Hong, P., and Roh, J. (2009), Market Flexible Customizing System (MFCS) of Japanese vehicle manufacturers: An Analysis of Toyota, Nissan and Mitsubishi,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 118, No. 2, pp. 375-386.<br>Tomita, J., Park, Y.W. and Hong, P (2011), Supply Chain Management of Glass Industry: From a viewpoint of Product Architecture,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Services Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 390-403.<br>Tseng, Mei-Chiun. (2004), Strategic choice of flexible manufacturing technologies, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 91, No. 3</i></b></u>, pp.223-227.<br>Tushman, M. L and O Reilly, C. A. III. (1996), Ambidextrous organizations: Managing evolutionary and revolutionary change,</i></b></u><i> California Management Review, </i></b></u>Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 8-30.<br>Tushman, M. L. and Rosenkopf, L. (1992), </i></b></u><i>On the Organiazational Determinants of Technological Change: Toward a Sociology of Technological Evolution, in Staw, B.M. and Cummings, L.L. (eds.) Reseach in Organizational Behavior</i></b></u>. Greenwich, CT., JAI Press, </i></b></u><i>Vol. 14</i></b></u>, pp.311-347.<br>Tushman, M. L. and Anderson, P. (1986), Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments, </i></b></u><i>Administrative Science Quarterly</i></b></u>, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp.439-465.<br>Tversky, A., and Kahneman, D. (1974), Judgment under uncertainty</i></b></u><i>. Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 185, pp. 1124 – 1131. <br>Tyson, L. D’ Andrea. (1992), Who’s Bashing Whom?.</i></b></u><i> Institute for International Economics.</i></b></u><br>Udagawa, M. and Abe, E. (1995), Morikawa, H. and Yonekura S. (eds.) </i></b></u><i>History of Japanese Management 5</i></b></u><i>:</i></b></u><i>Beyond High Growth</i></b></u>, Iwanami Books, pp.241-295. (In Japanese)<br>Ülkü, S. and Schmidt, G. M. (2011), Matching Product Architecture and Supply Chain Configuration,</i></b></u><i> Production and Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 20, No. 1, pp.16-31.<br>Ulrich, K. (1995), The Role of Product Architecture in the Manufacturing Firm</i></b></u><i>, Research Policy, </i></b></u>Vol. 24, pp.419-440. <br>Ulrich, K. and Eppinger, S. D. (1995), </i></b></u><i>Product Design and Development</i></b></u>, McGraw-Hill.<br>Utterback, J., & Suarez, F. (1993), Innovation, Competition, and Market Structure, </i></b></u><i>Research Policy</i></b></u>, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp.1-21. <br>Vernon, R. (1966), International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle, </i></b></u><i>Quarterly Journal of Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 80, No. 2, pp.190-207.<br>Vickery, S. K., Jayaram, J., Droge, C., Calantone, R. (2003), The effects of an integrative supply chain strategy on customer service and financial performance: an analysis of direct versus indirect relationships,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Operations Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 21, pp.523–539.<br>Viswanathan, M. and Rosa, J. (2007), </i></b></u><i>Product and market development for subsistence marketplaces: Consumption and entrepreneurship beyond literacy and resource barriers. In Product and market development for subsistence marketplaces: Consumption and entrepreneurship beyond literacy and resource barriers</i></b></u>, (ed.) Cheng, J. and Hitt, M., New York: Elsevier, pp.1–17.<br>Viswanathan, M., A. Seth, R. Gau, and A. Chaturvedi. (2009), Ingraining product-relevant social good into business processes in subsistence marketplaces: The sustainable market orientation, </i></b></u><i>Journal of Macromarketing, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, No. 4, pp.406–425.<br>Viswanathan, M.and Sridharan, S. (2012), Product Development for the BoP: Insights on Concept andPrototype Development from University-Based StudentProjects in India,</i></b></u><i> Journal Production InnovationManagement, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.52–69.<br>Vonderembse, M. A., Uppal, M., Huang, S. H. and Dismukes, J. P. (2006), Designing supply chains: towards theory development,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 100, No. 2, pp.223-38.<br>Voss, C., Tsikriktsis, N., & Frohlich, M. (2002), Case Research in Operations Management,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Operations and Production Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 22, No. 2, pp.195-219. <br>Vyas, N., Shelburn, W., and Rogers, D. (1995), An analysis of strategic alliances: forms, functions, and framework,</i></b></u><i> Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Summer, </i></b></u>Vol. 10, No. 3, p.47. <br>Wakabayashi, N. (2009), </i></b></u><i>Network Organization: New Organization Image From Social Network Theory</i></b></u>. Yuhikaku (In Japanese).<br>Walsh, S. and Linton, J. D. (2002), The measurement of technical competencies,</i></b></u><i> Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol.13, No.1</i></b></u>, pp. 63-86.<br>Weick, K. E., Sutcliffe, K. M. and Obstfeld, D. (2005), Organizing and the process of sense making.” </i></b></u><i>Organization Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 16, pp.409-421.<br>Wenerfelt, B. (1984), A Resource-based Theory of the Firm,</i></b></u><i> Strategic Management Journal, </i></b></u>Apr-Jun, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp.171-180.<br>White, R. E., Prybutok, V. (2001), The relationship between JIT practices and type of production system,</i></b></u><i> Omega, </i></b></u>Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.113-124.<br>Williamson, Elizabeth A., Harrison, David K., Jordan, Mike. (2004), Information systems development within supply chain management,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Information Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 24, No. 5, pp.375-385.<br>Wolf, Jr. Charles. (1988), </i></b></u><i>Market or Governments-Choosing between imperfect alternatives. </i></b></u>The Rand Corporation.<br>Wong, C., Law, K. S. (1999), Managing localization of human resources in the PRC: a practical model,</i></b></u><i> Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 34, No. 1, pp.26-40.<br>van Hoek, R. I. and Weken, H. A. M. (1998), The impact of modular production on the dynamics of supply chains,</i></b></u><i> The International Journal of Logistics Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 9, No. 2, pp.35-50.<br>Yang, M., Hong, P., Modi, Sachin. (2011), Impact of Lean Manufacturing and Environmental Management on Business Performance: An International Study of Manufacturing Firms,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Production Economics, </i></b></u>Vol. 129, No. 2, pp. 251-261.<br>Yassine, A. A., & Wissmann, L. A. (2007), The Implications of Product Architecture on the Firm, </i></b></u><i>Systems Engineering, </i></b></u>Vol. 10, No. 2, pp.118-137.<br>Yilmaz, C. and Ergun, E. (2008), Organizational culture and firm effectiveness: An examination of relative effects of culture traits and the balanced culture hypothesis in an emerging economy,</i></b></u><i> Journal of World Business, </i></b></u>Vol. 43, No. 3, pp.290-306.<br>von Hippel, E. (1986), Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts,</i></b></u><i> Management Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 32, No.7, pp.791-805.<br>Yoo, D., Rao, S., and Hong, P. (2006), A Comparative Study on Cultural Differences and Quality Practices – Korea, USA, China, India, Mexico, and Taiwan,</i></b></u><i> International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 607-624.<br>Yoshimoto, T. (2007), Business strategy by sections and modularity in cathode-ray tube television: Decentralization management of integrated firms,</i></b></u><i> Doshisha Commercial Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 58, No. 4-5, pp.27-52. (In Japanese)<br>Youn, S, Hong, P and Nahm, A. (2008), Supply chain partnerships and supply chain integration: the mediating role of information quality and sharing, </i></b></u><i>International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, </i></b></u>Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 437-456.<br>Zaheer, S. and Manrakhan, S. (2001), Concentration and Dispersion of Global Industries: Remote Electronic Access and the Location of Economic Activities, </i></b></u><i>Journal of International Business Studies</i></b></u>, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 667-686.<br>Zaheer, S. and Manrakhan, S. (2001), Concentration and dispersion of global industries: Remote electronic access and the location of economic activities,</i></b></u><i> Journal of International Business Studies, </i></b></u>Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 667-686.<br>Zander, U. and Kogut, B. (1995), Knowledge and the Speed of the Transfer and Imitation of Organizational Capabilities: An Empirical Test,</i></b></u><i> Organization Science, </i></b></u>Vol. 6, pp. 76-91.<br>Zeschky, M., Widenmayer, B. and Gassmann, O. (2011), Frugal innovation in emerging markets: The case of Mettler Toledo, Research Technology Management, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp.38-45.<br>Zhao, X. D., Huo, B. F., Selen, W. and Yeung, J.H.Y. (2011), The impact of internal integration and relationship commitment on external integration, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 29, Nos. 1-2, pp. 17-32. <br>Zhou, H., Benton, W.C. (2007), Supply chain practice and information sharing, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp.1348-1365.

Additional information