Brucellosis in Goats and Sheep: An Endemic and Re-Emerging Old Zoonosis in the 21st Century

João Carlos Caetano Simões
Veterinary Science Department, School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
Maria José Saavedra
Veterinary Science Department, School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
Pamela A. Hunter
Veterinarian Manager, Small Ruminants and Swine, Division of Animal Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, USA

Series: Animal Science, Issues and Research
BISAC: SCI070030

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Brucellosis is a millenary disease caused by several Brucella species which can affect animal and human populations. Brucella melitensis causes a severe debilitating illness in people. It is primarily carried by goats and sheep; the non-zoonotic B. ovis is found in sheep. During outbreaks, high morbidity levels with low mortality rates can be observed in small ruminant populations. The survivors spread the bacteria throughout the environment by contaminated abortion products and milk, infecting new hosts and establishing an environment where the disease becomes endemic. Concomitantly, the World Health Organization estimates that there are around 500,000 human cases of brucellosis per year, mainly in countries with poor socioeconomic status.

This open access eBook explores and summarizes the most relevant information regarding brucellosis in small ruminants. An up to date discussion of the worldwide epidemiological situation regarding B. melitensis, as well interactions within and between animal populations and human populations or the environment is also done. All these aspects are supported by a significant description of the Brucella genus, pathogenesis, host immunity and laboratorial diagnosis. The final chapter outlines several concepts for strategies to control and eradicate brucellosis in small ruminant flocks. The authors hope that this eBook can provide an integrated overview regarding this zoonosis and be valuable for students, professionals and academics working with small ruminants at different levels.
(Imprint: Nova)

Foreword 1. One Health Approach for Small Ruminants Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)
(Anjum V. Sherasiya)

Foreword 2. Climate Change and Brucellosis in Small Ruminants
(Veerasamy Sejian)

Preface. Eradicating Brucellosis to Promote Animal and Human Welfare
(João Simões, Maria José Saavedra, and Pamela Hunter)

Chapter 1. Introduction: History and Importance of Brucellosis
(João Simões, Maria José Saavedra, and Pamela Hunter)

Chapter 2. Etiology: the Genus Brucella
(Maria José Saavedra, Andressa Ballem, Cristina Queiroga, and Conceição Fernandes)

Chapter 3. Transmission of Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis
(João Simões, Humberto Tavares, Ana Cláudia Coelho, Hélder Quintas, Cristiana Castelo, and Adosinda Coelho)

Chapter 4. Worldwide Epidemiology of Brucella melitensis and Brucella ovis
(João Simões, Humberto Tavares, Ana Cláudia Coelho, Hélder Quintas, Cristiana Castelo, and Adosinda Coelho)

Chapter 5. Pathogenesis of Brucella
(Ana Cláudia Coelho, Adosinda Coelho, Hélder Quintas, Conceição Fernandes, Maria José Saavedra, and João Simões)

Chapter 6. Imunological Response to Brucella
(Ana Cláudia Coelho, Adosinda Coelho, Hélder Quintas, and João Simões)

Chapter 7. Symptoms, Lesions and Clinical Evolution of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants
(Hélder Quintas, Justina Prada Oliveira, Humberto Tavares, Ana Cláudia Coelho, Adosinda Coelho, and João Simões)

Chapter 8. Laboratory Diagnosis of Brucellosis
(Maria José Saavedra, Conceição Fernandes, and Cristina Queiroga)

Chapter 9. Control and Erradication of Brucellosis
(Pamela Hunter and João Simões)

Index

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