Biotechnology and Conservation of Species from Arid Regions (2 Volume Set)


Sardar A. Farooq, Raeid Abed and Senan Baqir (Editors)
Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Series: Biotechnology in Agriculture, Industry and Medicine
BISAC: SCI010000

In the modern strategy of development, biotechnology assumes a major role in every country, more so in the arid regions. In spite of significant contributions to biotechnology by the developed nations, the information available for the arid zones is scant. Combining biotechnology and conservation is a novel idea of the editors of this book, who have collected articles on the species of the arid zones (e.g. Camel, Arabian Oryx, Date palm etc.). The book aims to explore aspects related to the diversity, conservation and biotechnology of bacterial, plant and animal species from arid regions. Having to tolerate extreme environmental conditions, these species have developed unique adaptation strategies that can be utilized for biotechnology and their conservation poses a serious challenge.

Research on plant and animal species from arid environments has received scarce attention in most major biotechnology books. This book is designed to bring together reviews from the biotechnology scientists from universities, government research institutes and private sector laboratories, policy makers and industry leaders who are interested in exploring the biotechnological applications of species from arid regions. It is assured that the chapters will represent various developing countries that fall within the arid zone. The book will be very useful for students, research scholars and scientists from all over the world, who are interested in biotechnology, environmental biology and conservation. (Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Biotechnology and Conservation of Species from Arid Regions. Volume 1

Chapter 1 – Scope of Biotechnology in Oman (pp. 3-22)
Saif N. Al Bahry, Nallusamy Sivakumar and Salma K. Al-Musharafi (Sultan Qaboos University, Oman and others)

Chapter 2 – Stem Cells: Therapeutic Alternatives of Nervous Tissue Injuries in the Neurotmesis of Sciatic Nerve in Rabbits (pp. 23-30)
Karim Al-Jashamy and Hameed Al-Timmemi (Faculty of Medicine/ SEGI University, Malaysia and others)

Chapter 3 – Comparison of Omentum Pedicle and Autogenous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Implantation Effectiveness on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration (pp. 31-42)
H.A. Al-Timmemi, R. Ibrahim, A.Z. Zuki, T.I. Azmi and K. Al-Jashamy (Department of Surgery and Obstatric, College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University and others)

Chapter 4 – Immunolocalisation of Androgen Receptor in the Ovary of the Bedouin Goat Capra hircus in Non-Breeding Season (pp. 43-46)
S. Kassouri, N. Boukenaoui, S. Charallah, Z. Amirat and F. Khammar (University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Research on Arid Zones, Algiers, Algeria)

Chapter 5 – Reference Values for Haematological, Biochemical and Physiological Parameters in Arabian Oryx (pp. 47-64)
Mansoor H. AlJahdhami, J. Anne Brown, Abulaziz Y.A. Alkindi, Khalid AlRasbi and Elias Nikolakopoulose (Office for Conservation of the Environment, Diwan of Royal Court, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman and others)
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Chapter 6 – Trials on Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis in BALB/c Mice. Shedding of Oocysts (pp. 65-70)
Nabeel E. Salih and Seena A.A. Al-Jarjary (Department of Biology, Education College, Mosul University, Iraq)

Chapter 7 – A Microsatellite Population Genetic Analysis of the Small-Scaled Grouper, Epinephelus polylepis, in the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea (pp. 71-92)
W.N. Al-Amry and W.F. Hutchinson (Department of Biological Science, University of Hull, UK, Cottinham Road, Hull. UK)

Chapter 8 – Histopathological Effects of Variable Doses of Hydroxyurea in Male Swiss Rats (pp. 93-100)
Fatima Q. M. Al-Hayyali, Hamad. J. Al-Jumaily and Hafidh. I. Al-Sadi (Department of Biology, Science College, 3Pathology Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mosul University, Mosul. Iraq)

Chapter 9 – Relationship between Age, Breed, Body Weight, Gestational Status and Parity on the Body Condition Score of Omani Breeding Camels (pp. 101-104)
S. Mathan Kumar, E.H. Johnson and D.A. El-Badry, Assayel-Al Fairuz Farm, Al- Suwaiq (Sultanate of Oman and ohters)

Chapter 10 – First Report about Growth, Partial Record Egg Production and Morphological Characters of a Newly Characterized Native Saudi Chicken Lines Hajar1 and Hajar2 (pp. 105-114)
A. S. Ahmed and A.H. Al Abbad (Department of Animal and Fish Production, College of Agriculture and Food Science, King Faisal University, Al Ahsaa, Saudi Arabia and others)

Chapter 11 – Lizards Biodiversity in Arid Regions of Iraq (pp. 115-124)
Zohair I.F. Rahemo and Serbaz I. Mohamad (Kurdistan Natural History Museum, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq)

Chapter 12 – Environmental Changes and Their Effects on the Fate of Sea Turtle Reproductive Potential and Conservation (pp. 125-136)
I.Y. Mahmoud, S.K. Al-Musharafi, S.N. Al-Bahry and I.S. Al-Amri (Department of Biological Science and Chemistry, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman and others)

Chapter 13 – Analysis of Heavy Metal in Eggshells of Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas, by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis pp. 137-144
S.K. Al-Musharafi (Department of Applied Biotechnology, Sur College of Applied Sciences, Sur, Oman)

Chapter 14 – Distribution of Rh Blood Group in Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (pp.145-150)
Amal Ibrahim Zair, Ahlaam Rajaa Al Shahrani, Shafiq Hussain and S.A. Farooq (Department of Biology, College of Science for Women, Mahrjan, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA and Department of Biology, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

Chapter 15 – A Comparison between Representative Types of Platyhelminthes in Their Nervous Components (pp.151-160)
Zohair I.F. Rahemo (Department of Zoology and Comparative Physiology, University of Birmingham, UK)

Chapter 16 – Effect of the Nature of the Feeding Resource on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics Using Rumen Fluid of Slaughtered Dromedary (pp. 161-168)
R. Arhab, M. Aggoun and H. Zitouni (Département des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Faculté des Sciences Exactes et des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Larbi Ben Mhidi, Oum El Bouaghi, Algérie and others)

Chapter 17 – Dietary Manipulation of the Fatty Acid Content of Farmed Red Hybrid Tilapia, Oreochromis sp. (pp. 169-180)
Ahmed Al-Souti (Department of Marine Science and Fisheries, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Oman)

Chapter 18 – Determination of the Botanical and Geographical Origins of Honey in Northern Oman (pp. 181-192)
Alia Sajwani and Sardar A. Farooq (Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khoud, Oman)

Chapter 19 – Establishment of Short and Long-Term Storage Protocol for Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Polyembryoids (pp. 193-198)
Uma Rani Sinniah, Sharrmila R. Palanyandy, Maheran A. Aziz and Sreeramanan Subramaniam (Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia and others)

Chapter 20 – ISSR Phylogenetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Accessions from Different Regions in Sudan (pp. 199-208)
Haitham K. A. EL-Amin and Nada B. Hamza (Sudan Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Science & Technology, Khartoum, Sudan and others)

Chapter 21 – Genetic Variability and Molecular Fingerprinting of Some Wild Egyptian Gramineae Plants (pp. 209-222)
Effat, Badra, Hadia A. Heikal, Hossam F. Elwakil, Y. Mabrouk, O. M. Badawy, M. El-Seehy, Y. Moustafa and Sarah Aggag (Department Genetics, Fac. Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alex., Egypt)

Chapter 22 – Genetic Distance and Its Association with F1 Interspecific Hybrids Performance and Heterosis for Yield Components and Fiber Properties in Cotton (pp. 223-236)
Yanal A. Alkuddsi, S.S. Patil, S. M. Manjula, H.L. Nadaf and B.C. Patil (Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Karnataka, India)

Chapter 23 – Biolistic Delivery of Plasmid DNA in Omani Date Palm (pp. 237-240)
S. A. Farooq, S. H. Al Rashdi, and T. T. Farook (Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khoud, Oman)

Chapter 24 – The Genomic DNA Structure in Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by Flow Cytometric, RAPD and AFLP Analysis pp. 241-252
D. Yatta El Djouzi, F. Abed, B. Amara, M.S. Yakhou and F. Benhafsi (I.N.R.A. Laboratoire de Physiologie Végétale CRP Mehdi boualem, BP 37 route de baraki Alger)

Biotechnology and Conservation of Species from Arid Regions. Volume 2

Chapter 25 – AFLP Genotyping for Plant Genetic Resources Use in Crop Improvement – Models for Predicting Hybrid Performance among Accessions from the USDA Alfalfa Core Collection (pp. 255-274)
A.H. Al Lawati, I.M. Ray (The Research Council, P.O. Box 1422, Al-Athiba 130, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman and others)

Chapter 26 – Somatic Embryogenesis from Offshoot of Different Cultivars of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) of Three Regions of Southern Algeria (pp. 275-286)
F. Abed, D. Yatta, B. Amara, M.S. Yakhou and F. Benhafsi (Division Biotechnologies et Amélioration des plantes, INRAA, CRP Mehdi Boualem, Baraki Alger, Algérie)

Chapter 27 – Managing High Altitude Forests for Climate Change Mitigation and Biodiversity Conservation: Lessons for the Management of Forests in Al Jebel Al Akhdar Mountain Range in Oman (pp. 287-302)
Mekuria Argawa, Adugna Feyissaa and Tulu Tola (Addis Ababa University, College of Natural Science, Center for Enviornmental Science, Ethiopia)

Chapter 28 – Adaptive Strategy of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. tlantica Populations: Foliar Epidermal Micromorphology pp. 303-310
M. Tirse, H. Benhassaini, K. Sail and G. Bassou (Laboratory of Plant Biodiversity: Conservation and Valorisation, University Djillali Liabes of Sidi Bel Abbès, Faculty of Science, Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria)

Chapter 29 – Antimicrobial Compounds from Ethano-Medicinal Plants of Oman (pp. 311-326)
Khamis S. Al Dhafri, Sardar A. Farooq, Elsadig Eltayeb and Saif N. Bahry (Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khoud, Oman)

Chapter 30 – Antioxidant Content of Hot Pepper from the USDA National Collection (pp. 327-336)
T.S. Kochhar and G.F. Antonious (Natural Sciences Division, Blue Grass Community & Technical College, Lexington, and College of Agriculture, Food Science, and Sustainable Systems, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY, USA)

Chapter 31 – The Bio-Toxic Effect of Essential Oils of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) on theSchistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775) (Orthoptera-Acrididae) (pp. 337-346)
Kemassi Abdellah, Ould El Hadj-Khelil Aminata, Boual Zakaria, Hamid Oudjani Aicha and Ould El Hadj Mohamed Didi (Ecosystem Protection in Arid and Semi-Arid Laboratory, Kasdi Merbah University, Ouargla, Algeria)

Chapter 32 – Effect of Tannins on In Vitro Gas Production and Digestibility of Feedstuffs From North African Arid Zone pp. 347-362
R. Arhab, D. Macheboeuf, M. Aggoun, D. Viala and J.M. Besle (Natural Sciences and Life Department, Exact Sciences and Natural Sciences and Life Faculty, Larbi Ben Mhidi University, Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria and others)

Chapter 33 – Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Selected Hypotensive Plants in Algeria (pp. 363-370)
Amel Bouaziz, Seddik Khennouf, Assia Bentahar, Saliha Djidel, Saliha Dahamna and Smain Amira (Laboratory of Phytotherapy Applied to Chronic Diseases, Department of Biology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Algeria)

Chapter 34 – Antimicrobial Bioactive Compound Isolated from Podaxis pistillaris in Southern Iraq (pp. 371-380)
Tawfik M. Muhsina, Abdul-Hafiz A. Al-Duboon and Kawther T. Khalaf (Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq)

Chapter 35 – Biocide Effects of Alkaloids and Saponins Extracted from Narcissus broussonetii (Larg.) (Amaryllidaceae) on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) (pp. 381-392)
Mina Moussaid, Chadi Berhal and Hassane Moussaid (Laboratory of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University Hassan, Casablanca, Morocco and others)

Chapter 36 – Existence for Two Ploidy Levels in a Relict Olive Population of Hoggar (Algeria) (pp. 393-400)
D. Baali-Cherif, G. Besnard and MS. Abdellaoui (Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Zones Arides LRZA/USTHB BP 44 16000 Algiers-gare and others)

Chapter 37 – Kinetic Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Starch Isolated from Sorghum Grain Cultivars by Various Methods (pp.401-410)
Rachid Souilah, Nadia Boudries, Djaffar Djabali, Badreddine Belhadi and Boubekeur Nadjemi (Laboratoire de Recherche sur Les Produits Bioactifs et Valorisation de la Biomasse, Département de Chimie, Ecole Normale Supérieure Kouba, Alger, Algeria)

Chapter 38 – Effect of Starch Isolation Methods on Starch Recovery and Physicochemical Properties for Algerian Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) (pp. 411-418)
B. Belhadi, D. Djabali, R. Souilah, M. Yousfi and B. Nadjemi (Laboratoire de recherche sur les produits bioactifs et valorisation de la biomasse, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Bp 92, vieux kouba, Algiers, Algeria)

Chapter 39 – Growing Tomato in Salty Soil: Screening (pp. 419-430)
Ahmed Al-Busaidi, Salim Al-Rawahy and Mushtaque Ahmed (College of Agricultural & Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Oman)

Chapter 40 – Vinblastine Production Induced by Tryptophan in Callus Culture of Catharanthus Roseus L. pp. 431-440
Hana S. Al-Salih (Biology Department, College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq)

Chapter 41 – Antimutagenic Potential of Olive Oil on Chromosomal Aberrations in Vicia faba Root Tip (pp. 441-446)
Galawezh O. Othman and Kazhal M. Sluiman (Department of Biology, Collage of Education, University of Salahaddin Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq)

Chapter 42 – Reduction of Water Stress Effect by Seaweed Liquid Extract Used As Foliar Spray of Triticum durum Variety Karim (pp. 447-454)
Salma Latique, Mounir Mansori, Halima Chernane and Mimoun El Kaou (Department of Biology, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Valorization and Protection of Agro-Resources, Marrakech, Morocco)

Chapter 43 – Indigenous Bacterial Consortia from Oil Wells and Their Role in In-Situ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery pp. 455-470
Ratiba A. Al-Maainia, Saif N. Al-Bahry, Abdulkader E. Elshafie, Yahya M. Al-Wahaibi, Ali S. Al-Bimani, Sanket J. Joshi, Wafa J. Al-Alawi (College of Science, Department of Biology, and College of Engineering, Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

Chapter 44 – Biosurfactant Mediated Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Potential for Application in Some Omani Oil Fields (pp. 471-488)
Yahya M. Al-Wahaibi, Saif N. Al-Bahry, Abdulkader E. Elshafie, Ali S. Al-Bemani and Sanket J. Joshi (College of Engineering, Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

Chapter 45 – Improving the Catalytic Properties of Pectinase from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE IB 21 by Entrapment in Calcium Alginate Beads (pp. 489-494)
Haneef Ur Rehman, Shah Ali Ul Qader and Afsheen Aman (The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan)

Chapter 46 – Potential of Microbial Biotechnology in Heavy Oil Enhanced Recovery (pp. 495-506)
Balqees S. Al-Hinai, Saif N. Al-Bahry, Abdulkader E. Elshafie, Yahya N. Al-Wahaibi, Ali S. Al-Bimani and Sanket J. Joshi (The Research Council, and Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman)

Chapter 47 – Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Strains Isolated from Extreme Ecosystems of Algeria (pp. 507-514)
M. Kitouni and L. Oulmi (Laboratoire de Biologie appliquée et santé. Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la vie. Université de Constantine 1. Route Ain-El-Bey 25000 Constantine, Algerie)

Chapter 48 – Microbial Cellulases and Its Potential Applications in Oman (pp. 515-526)
Amira A. Al Zadjali, Saif N. Al Bahry and Nallusamy Sivakumar (Higher College of Technology, Alkuwair, and Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman)

Chapter 49 – Application of Molecular Biology Methods in Identifying Biosurfactant Producers from Oil Contaminated Sites (pp. 527-540)
Asma K. Al-Bahri, Saif N. Al-Bahry, Abdulkadir E. Elshafie, Yahya M. Al-Wahaibi, Ali S. Al-Bemani, Sanket J. Joshi (College of Science, Department of Biology; College of Engineering, Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department, and Central Analytical and Applied Research Unit, College of Science, Department of Biology, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman)

Chapter 50 – The Influence of Bacterial Solution on the Mineral Surface Characterization (pp. 541-554)
Mahvash Karimi, Maziyar Mahmoodi, Ali Niazi and Shahab Ayatollahi (School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran)


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