Biomass Processing, Conversion and Biorefinery

Bo Zhang (Editor)
Biological Engineering Program Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA

Yong Wang (Editor)
Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University
Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

Series: Renewable Energy: Research, Development and Policies, Energy Science, Engineering and Technology
BISAC: TEC031010

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Volume 10

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Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Biomass presents an attractive source for the production of fuels and chemicals, mainly due to the concerns over the depleting fossil fuel, growing awareness of environmental issues associated with fossil fuel consumption, and increasing world energy demand. Biomass resources include agricultural and forest residues, energy crops, livestock residues as well as municipal solid waste. These biomass resources are first processed into a conversion-friendly form, followed by the transformation to a wide range of energy and/or chemical products using two primary biorefinery platforms: biochemical and thermochemical. This book covers the most recent advances in biomass processing, biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies, and thus, serves as a useful reference to agriculture engineers, chemical engineers, biotechnology engineers and engineering students.

The contents of the book are divided into three sections: biomass overview and processing, biomass thermochemical and biochemical conversion technologies, and integrated biorefinery processes.
Section 1 provides an overview of biomass concepts, supply logistics, and processing technologies. This section begins with a chapter on different biomass sources along with their compositions and properties (Chapter 1), followed by discussions on lignocellulosic feedstock supply logistics (Chapter 2), biomass resources in Canada and U.S. (Chapter 3), the harvesting system for biomass and drying (Chapter 4), and biomass size reduction (Chapter 5). This section ends with a chapter on techniques for biomass pelletization (Chapter 6).

Section 2 focuses on biomass conversion technologies and biomass-derived fuels/products. This section starts with the overview of three primary thermochemical conversion technologies: pyrolysis (Chapter 7), liquefaction (Chapter 8), and gasification (Chapter 9). Steam gasification of biomass is used as an example for hydrogen production (Chapter 10). Three chapters (Chapters 11-13) in this section provide different aspects of pyrolysis oil/biofuel upgrading, including hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking of pyrolysis oils. Recent advances in bio-diesel production from seed oil and microalgae are summarized in Chapters 14-16. Chapter 17 summarizes the current status in the thermochemical conversion of fermentation-derived oxygenates to fuels. Biochemical conversion includes microbial conversion of bio-based chemicals (Chapter 18), pretreatment technologies (Chapter 19) for the conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol (Chapter 20), and biodegrading lignocellulosic feedstocks using thermophilic and anaerobic bacteria (Chapter 21).

Section 3 emphases the importance of integrated biorefinery concept and applications. The issues covered in this section are economic analysis of municipal solid waste to power (Chapter 22), process design for biological conversion of cattails to ethanol (Chapter 23), and green biorefining of green biomass (Chapter 24). (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Section 1. Biomass Overview and Processing

Chapter 1. Biomass - An Overview on Classification, Composition and Characterization
(Sonil Nanda, Janusz A. Kozinski and Ajay K. Dalai, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University, Ontario, Canada, and others)

Chapter 2. Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock Supply Logistics and System Integration
(Zewei Miao, Yogendra Shastri, Tony E. Grift and K.C. Ting, Energy Biosciences Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA, and others)

Chapter 3. Lignocellulosic Biomass: Feedstock Characteristics, Pretreatment Methods and Pre-Processing for Biofuel and Bioproduct Applications, U.S. and Canadian Perspectives
(Kingsley L. Iroba and Lope G. Tabil, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada)

Chapter 4. Biomass Harvest and Drying
(Bo Zhang, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei, China, and others)

Chapter 5. Biomass Size Reduction
(Bo Zhang, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei, China, and others)

Chapter 6. Biomass Pelletization for Energy Production
(Hui Wang, Lijun Wang and Abolghasem Shahbazi, Biological Engineering Program, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA)

Section 2. Biomass Thermochemical and Biochemical Conversion Technologies

Chapter 7. Biomass Pyrolysis for Bio-Oil
(Hui Wang, Lijun Wang and Abolghasem Shahbazi, Biological Engineering Program, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA)

Chapter 8. Biomass to Bio-Oil by Liquefaction
(Huamin Wang and Yong Wang, Pacific Northwest National Labortatory, Richland, WA, USA, and others)

Chapter 9. Biomass Gasification: Process Overview, History, and Development
(Daniel T. Howe, Pacific Northwest National Labortatory, Richland, WA, USA)

Chapter 10. Hydrogen Production from Catalytic Steam Co-Gasification of Waste Tyre and Palm Kernel Shell in Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier
(Suzana Yusup, Reza Alipour Moghadam, Ahmed Al Shoaibi, Murni Melati, Zakir Khan, Lim Mook Tzeng, and Wan Azlina A.K. GH., Department of Chemical Engineering, Biomass Processing Laboratory, Centre of Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 11. Review of Upgrading Researches of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil to Improve its Fuel Properties
(Junming Xu, Jianchun Jiang and Kang Sun, Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, Nanjing, China)

Chapter 12. Bio-Oil Upgrading
(Ying Zhang and Jianhua Guo, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Biomass Clean Energy, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China)

Chapter 13. Biofuel and Bio-Oil Upgrading
(Changjun Liu and Yong Wang, The Gene & Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA, and others)

Chapter 14. Biodiesel Production
(Oscar Marin-Flores, Anna Lee Tonkovich and Yong Wang, Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA, and others)

Chapter 15. Utilization of Ceiba Pentandra Seed Oil as Potential Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
(S. Yusup, M.M. Ahmad, Y. Uemura, S. Abu Bakar, R. Nik Mohamad Kamil, A.T. Quitain and S. Shari, Biomass Processing Laboratory, Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Green Technology Mission Oriented Research, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 16. Microalgae for Biodiesel Production and Wastewater Treatment
(Rifat Hasan, Lijun Wang and Bo Zhang, Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA)

Chapter 17. Thermochemical Conversion of Fermentation-Derived Oxygenates to Fuels
(Karthikeyan K. Ramasamy and Yong Wang, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA, and others)

Chapter 18. Microbial Conversion of Bio-Based Chemicals: Present and Future Prospects
(Huibin Zou, Guang Zhao and Mo Xian, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong, China)
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Chapter 19. Pretreatment Technologies for Production of Lignocellulosic Biofuels
(Bo Zhang, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei, China, and others)

Chapter 20. Biochemical Conversion of Ethanol from Lignocellulose: Pretreatment, Enzymes, Co-Fermentation, and Separation
(Xian-Bao Zhang and Ming-Jun Zhu, School of Bioscience & Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangdong Province, P.R. China)

Chapter 21. Bioprocessing: The Use of Thermophilic and Anaerobic Bacteria
(Jing-Rong Cheng and Ming-Jun Zhu, School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangdong Province, P.R. China)

Section 3. Integrated Biorefinery Processes

Chapter 22. Economic Analysis of Waste to Power: A Case Study of Greensboro City
(Ransford R. Baidoo, Abolghasem Shahbazi, Matthew Todd and Harith Rojanala, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design,
North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA)

Chapter 23. Process Design for Biological Conversion of Cattails to Ethanol
(Bo Zhang, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei, China, and others)

Chapter 24. Green Biorefining of Green Biomass
(Shuangning Xiu and Abolghasem Shahbazi, Biological Engineering Program, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA)

Index

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