Biomass Gasification: Fundamentals, Experiments, and Simulation

Yaning Zhang (Editor)
Associate Professor, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China

Bingxi Li (Editor)
School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China

Series: Energy Science, Engineering and Technology
BISAC: SCI024000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Biomass gasification has received tremendous research attention all over the world because (a) biomass is abundant, diverse, renewable, and environmentally friendly, (b) the produced biogas/syngas is clean, versatile, efficient, and easily controllable, and (c) the system used is generally simple. This book aims to present up-to-date research on biomass gasification. The content of this book is divided to three parts or sections: the fundamentals of biomass gasification as presented in chapters 1 to 4, experimenting of biomass gasification as presented in chapters 5 and 6, and simulation of biomass gasification as presented in chapters 7 to 8.

In chapter 1 (An introduction to biomass), biomass is introduced, and these mainly include biomass resources, biomass and energy, biomass and environment, benefits of biomass, etc.

In chapter 2 (Biomass properties), the properties of biomass are introduced, and these include structural compositions (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, extractives, proteins, etc.), physical properties (moisture content, particle size, bulk density, porosity, etc.), chemical properties (elemental compositions, chemical compositions, heating value, etc.) and the other properties (thermal conductivity, ignition temperature, specific heat, etc.).

In chapter 3 (Biomass gasification technologies), biomass gasification technologies are classified and introduced according to the gasification agents used (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, supercritical water, carbon dioxide and the combination of the above gases), and some factors that have significant impacts on gasification technologies (or performances) are also discussed. Then the emerging gasification technologies (microwave gasification, solar gasification and plasma gasification) using new heat sources are also detailed, and the effects of heat source on biomass gasification are also discussed.

In chapter 4 (Biomass gasifiers), the main gasifier structures are introduced, and these include fixed bed gasifiers (updraft and downdraft), fluidized bed gasifiers (bubbling fluidized bed, circulating fluidized bed and dual fluidized bed), entrained flow gasifiers (Koppers-Totzek (K-T) gasifier, shell gasifier and Gas Schwarze Pumpe (GSP) gasifier and Colin gasifier). The other gasifier structures are also presented, and these include solar gasifier, microwave gasifier and plasma gasifier, etc.

In chapter 5 (High-temperature gasification of biomass), the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass on high-temperature gasification are analyzed, and these mainly include high-temperature pyrolysis of biomass, thermal cracking of biomass tar, and high-temperature gasification of biomass char.

In chapter 6 (Supercritical water gasification of biomass), the properties of SCW (supercritical water) are detailed and the effects of different operating parameters on CE (carbon conversion efficiency) and GE (gasification efficiency) are summarized. The operating parameters include feedstock characteristics, biomass concentration, gasification temperature, reactor pressure, residence time and catalyst types and concentration.

In chapter 7 (Simulation of biomass gasification using thermodynamic equilibrium model), the two thermodynamic equilibrium models of stoichiometric thermodynamic equilibrium models and non-stoichiometric equilibrium models (using Gibbs free energy minimization approach) are initially introduced, and the simulation results obtained from biomass gasification using thermodynamic equilibrium models based on Aspen Plus are then presented.

In chapter 8 (Simulation of biomass gasification using intrinsic reaction rate submodel), the numerical simulation of biomass gasification using the intrinsic reaction rate submodel was introduced. The kinetic model for char-gas reaction as well as the intrinsic kinetic data for various biomass materials are detailed. A CFD (computational fluid dynamic) model based on the intrinsic kinetics is developed for biomass entrained flow gasification, and the effects of operating conditions including gasification temperature, equivalence ratio, CO2/biomass mass ratio and average particle size on the gasification performances in a lab-scale entrained flow reactor are investigated. Multi-objective optimization of biomass gasification based on response surface method is then studied to improve the gasification performances.

Hopefully, the content of this book can supply a helpful guide to the up-to-date research on the fundamentals, experimental, and simulation of biomass gasification.
(Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Biomass
(Bingxi Li, Yaning Zhang and Baocheng Jiang, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China)

Chapter 2. Biomass Properties
(Bingxi Li, Pingfei Xu, Wenming Fu and Yaning Zhang, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China)

Chapter 3. Biomass Gasification Technologies
(Yunlei Cui, Yaning Zhang, Kun Hong and Bingxi Li, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, and others)

Chapter 4. Biomass Gasifiers
(Cunfeng Ke, Hongtao Li, Yaning Zhang and Bingxi Li, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, and others)

Chapter 5. High-Temperature Gasification of Biomass
(Ming Zhai, Haoxuan Qi, Yao Xu, Xuesong Li, Xun Zou, Xinyu Wang and Peng Dong, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, and others))

Chapter 6. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass
(Hui Jin, Cui Wang and Wen Cao, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China)

Chapter 7. Simulation of Biomass Gasification Using Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model
(Qingang Xiong, Kun Hong and Yaning Zhang, IT Innovation Center, General Motors, Warren, MI, US, and others)

Chapter 8. Simulation of Biomass Gasification Using Intrinsic Reaction Rate Submodel
(Xiaoyan Gao, Fubing Bao, Yaning Zhang and Bingxi Li, College of Metrology and Measurement Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, China, and others)

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