Biochemical Techniques: Development and Implementation for Making Differences in Aquaculture and Fisheries Research on Environmental Impact and Climate Change

Krisna Rungruangsak-Torrissen
Principal Research Scientist, Institute of Marine Research, Norway, Matre Research Station, Matredal, Norway

Series: Fish, Fishing and Fisheries
BISAC: TEC049000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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This extraordinary book is the result of over three decades of Dr. Krisna Rungruangsak-Torrissen’s career at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. The book provides new insights into a series of growth mechanisms in aquatic living resources through the digestion and utilization of dietary protein for growth and maturation. Chapter One shows the initial success of the relationships between genetic variations in trypsin phenotypes, growth, and feed efficiency; additionally, the isoelectric focusing technique to differentiate trypsin phenotypes has been developed.

Chapter Two shows the other successes concerning the effects of temperatures and consumption rates on trypsin phenotypes, growth, and feed efficiency, wherein the first evidence of temperature preferences on feed efficiency and growth dependent on trypsin phenotypes of individuals has been observed. The unique studies of digestive efficiency and growth status have been developed through the activity ratio of trypsin to chymotrypsin (T/C ratio) for growth potential, with the new knowledge of chymotrypsin involving limited and reduced growth rates. Chapter Three shows insight into the utilization of dietary protein through absorption and transport of free amino acids (FAA), indicating that the levels of plasma FAA and white muscle FAA are dependent on trypsin phenotypes and dietary protein quality. The new buffers of the HPLC system for differentiating more than 40 physiological FAA in biological tissues have been developed. A possibility of white muscle free-hydroxyproline levels related to growth rate has been observed. Chapter Four explains protein growth efficiency dependent on the genetics of growth capacity and dietary protein levels, whereas a higher level of dietary protein can increase skeletal growth (length) resulting in lower condition factors. The new determinations of RNA and protein by a single separation step have been developed.

Chapter Five shows the first success on studies of maturation rate in females through active oocyte protein breakdown, using the activity ratio of trypsin-like to chymotrypsin-like (T/C ratio) enzymes in the oocytes. Chapters Six and Seven show the in vitro digestibility techniques using dialyzed crude digestive enzyme extracts for quality assessments of dietary protein and carbohydrates, uniquely standardized with respect to the activities of trypsin and amylase, respectively, for comparisons among different enzyme extracts. It is evident that dietary protein is the primary important nutrient while dietary carbohydrates are the secondary important nutrients, regardless of animal feeding habits (carnivores, omnivores, herbivores). Chapter Eight illustrates the uniqueness of the different biochemical techniques for implementations in natural marine ecosystems of the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, including the development of the neural computational model GrowthEstimate through digestive efficiency for future studies of aquatic living resources without knowing their histories concerning food availability, consumption rates, and growth. Chapter Nine concludes the importance and usefulness of the biochemical techniques, and describes how to collect the samples.

The knowledge from this book can be beneficial for lecturers, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, and any readers who are interested in nutritional biochemistry. It will provide new perspectives, ideas, and inspiration for finding a new way to make a difference in doing research.

Preface

Perspectives

Introduction

Chapter 1. Genetic Variations in Food Utilization, Growth, and Immune Responses

Chapter 2. Digestion of Dietary Protein and Growth

Chapter 3. Absorption and Transport of Free Amino Acids

Chapter 4. Protein Growth Efficiency

Chapter 5. Maturation Rate in Female

Chapter 6. Dietary Protein Quality Assessment

Chapter 7. Dietary Carbohydrate Quality Assessment

Chapter 8. Implementation of Biochemical Techniques for Studies in Natural Ecosystems

Chapter 9. Conclusion

References

About the Author

Index

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Keywords: Trypsin (T), Chymotrypsin (C), T/C ratio, Trypsin isozymes, RNA, RNA/protein ratio, protein/lipid ratio, Free amino acids, In vitro digestibility, Dietary quality assessment, Neural computation, Reservoir computing, Recurrent neural networks, Pyloric caeca, Intestine, Digestive gland, Plasma, White muscle, Oocyte, Atlantic salmon, Rainbow trout, Arctic charr, Atlantic mackerel, Northeast Arctic cod, Nile tilapia, Freshwater mussel, Blue swimming crab, Plankton

The information contained in this book will be beneficial for lecturers and researchers as well as students and any readers who are interested in practically nutritional biochemistry, resources management, and those who want to make a difference in aquaculture and fisheries research and on environmental impact and climate change. The book is principally appropriate as an academic book for university courses in fish nutritional biochemistry, fish physiology, aquaculture and fisheries research. It will provide new perspectives and new ideas, so that our new generations can learn and be inspired to find a new way to make a difference in doing research.

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