Betel Vine: Nature’s “Green” Gold

Jatindra Nath Bhakta
Associate Professor, Department of Ecological Studies & International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India

Series: Plant Science Research and Practices
BISAC: SCI011000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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This book is a new and innovative book in the agricultural field. The leaf of the betel vine has a vast array of health and medicinal properties for multiple applications in human health. Besides, it is considered as one of the most potential high-yielding and beneficial cash crops, having substantial international demand and playing a significant role in uplifting the socioeconomic status of rural peoples. Due to its various merits, it has been recognized as a “green gold” or “green heart” of nature. Additionally, a farm of betel vines is also popularly known as a “household bank”. Nonetheless, there is no such organized book on the betel vine. The literature concerning the basic concepts, various practical aspects of cultivation and economics of the betel vine are very scanty and scattered. The present book comprises the most current and important information in various aspects of the betel vine in fourteen chapters. Keeping in mind the beneficial aspects of students, farmers, agriculturists, teachers and researchers, the book has been written on the basis of present practical concepts and current research findings of various scientists. It is a useful and unparalleled resource book for the above readers, graduate and post-graduate students of agriculture, botany and plant pathology, and also for researchers, teachers, scientists and farmers to develop a practical concept concerning the various aspects of the betel vine. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Conceptual Overview

Chapter 2. Morphology and Anatomy

Chapter 3. Cultivar and Variety

Chapter 4. Propagation and Growth

Chapter 5. Chemical Properties

Chapter 6. Importance of Betel Vine

Chapter 7. Cultivation Technology

Chapter 8. Farm Management Technology

Chapter 9. Pest and Disease

Chapter 10. Material and Tool

Chapter 11. Production and Economy of Cultivation

Chapter 12. Integrated Betel Vine Farming and Ecological Engineering

Chapter 13. Advancement in Cultivation: Problem and Scope Of Research

Chapter 14. Future Prospect

About the Author

Index

“This is a very practical and new kind of book excellently explored the untold story of a neglected green gold - betel vine possessing great medicinal and economic potential. Farmers, professionals and researchers can benefit from the present book.” - Professor Bana Bihari Jana, International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, India

"This very practical and field oriented book of betel vine is really useful to improve the betel vine cultivation and socioeconomic status of rural farmers. Scientists, researchers, students and concerned professionals will also be benefited, since it includes current research findings." - Professor Paritosh Ghanti (Ex.), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Benagal, India

"I am a great believer in natural products and am happy to read what Dr Jatindra Nath Bhakta has researched. The book powerfully presents to us the basic and practical aspects of betel vine cultivation. This will surely help to bring a new dimension in its cultivation and famers benefit." - Professor Ken Gnanakan, Chancellor, William Carey University, Shillong, ACTS Group of Institutions, Bangalore, India

Chapter 1

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Ahuja, S.C, Ahuja, U. (2011). Betel Leaf and Betel Nut in India: History and Uses. Asian Agri-History, 15(1):13
Bhakta, B., Bhakta, U. Ghanti, S., Jana, B. B., Ghanti, P., Yamane, S., Bhakta, J. N. (2016) Betelvine: A green gold for sustainable economic upliftment in rural India. Int. J. Env. & Tech. Sc. 3:76-82.
Burkill, I. H. (1966). A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. (pp. 249-260). Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture and Co-Operatives.
Candolle, A. D. (1884). Origin of cultivated plants, London, pp. 13.
Chandra, G. and Sagar, R. L. (2004). Harvesting green gold: cultivation of betelvine in sundarban. Indian Farmers Digest, 37(3): 5-13.
CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (1969). The Wealth of India. 8: 84-94. CSIR, New Delhi, India.
Das, S., Parida, R., Sandeep, I. S., Nayak, S. and Mohanty, S., (2016). Biotechnological intervention in betelvine (Piper betle L.): A review on recent advances and future prospects. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2016: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm. 2016.07.029
Debanath, P. K., Sengupta, K., Sengupta, C. and Chatterjee, B. N. (1985). Betelvine cultivation in West Bengal. Indian Fmg, 25(7): 22-23.
Gorman, C. F. (1970). Excavations at spirit cave, North Thailand, some interim interpretations. Asian Perspectives, 13: 79-107.
Guha, P. (2006). Betel leaf: The neglected green gold of India. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(2): 87-93.
Guha, P. and Jain, R. K. (1997). Status report on production, processing and marketing of betel leaf (Piper betle L.). Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, IIT, Kharagpur, India.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2012). Personal habits and indoor combustions. WHO Press, 20 Avenue Appia, Geneva, Switzerland
Jana, B. L. (1995). Gram Banglar Arthakari Phasal-Paan (in Bengali). [Betel leaf: A Cash Crop of Villages of Bengal], Calcutta, India.
Kumar, N. (1999) Betelvine (Piper betle L.) cultivation: A unique case of plant establishment under anthropogenically regulated miclimatic conditions. Indian journal of History, 34(1): 231-239.
Mishra, D., Mishra, S. K., Acharya, A. and Das. J. N. (1997). Annual Report of All India Coordinated Research Project on Betelvine. Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India.
Peter, K. V. (2004). Handbook of herbs and spices. CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd, NW, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Pradhan, D., Suri, K. A., Pradhan D. K. and Biswasroy, P. (2013). Golden Heart of the Nature: Piper betle L. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1: 147-167.
Rai, M. P., Thilakchand, K. R., Palatty, P. L., Rao, P., Rao, S., Bhat, H. P. and Baliga, M. S. (2011). Piper betel Linn. (Betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 12: 2149-2156.
Ranade, S. A., Soni, A., and Kumar, N. (2011). SPAR profiles for the assessment of genetic diversity between male and female landraces of the dioecious betelvine plant (Piper betle L.). In: Oscar Grillo (Ed.), Ecosystems Biodiversity, pp. 443-464.
Rooney, D. F. (1993). Betel Chewing Traditions in South-East Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press.
Thomas, U. C., Chandini, S. and Thomas, A. (2013). Integrated nutrient management studies in betelvine (Piper betel L.). International Journal of Applied Research and Studies, 2(7): 1-9.

Chapter 2

Balasubrahmanyam, V. R., Johri, J. K., Tripathi, R. D., Chaurasia, R.S. and Rawat, A. K. S. (1994). Economic Botany Information Services, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India, p. 24.
Chibber, H. M. (1913). The morphology and histology of Piper betel Linn. Linn. Soc. 41: 357-383.
Fahn, A. (1997). Plant Anatomy. 4th Edition. Aditya Books Ltd., New Delhi, India 233-234.
Guha P. 2006. Betel leaf: The neglected green gold of India. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(2): 87-93.
Jose, J. and Sharma, A. K. (1984). Chromosome studies in the genus Piper betel L. J Indian Bot Soc., 63:313-319.
Lakshmi, S. B., and Naidu, K. C. (2010). Comparative Morphoanatomy of Piper betle L. cultivars in India. Annals of Biological Research, 1(2): 128-134.
Mubeen, M., Periyanayagam, K. S. and Sathik Basha, S. (2014). Anatomical Investigation on the leaves of Piper betle (L) var. Sirugamani 1(SGM1) links an Ethnomedical important Medicinal plant and its Pharmacognostic relevance. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research, 6(1): 244-251.
Periyanayagam, K., Jagadeesan, M., Kavimani, S. and Vetriselvan, T. (2012). Pharmacognostical and Phytophysicochemical profile of the leaves of Piper betle L. var Pachaikodi (Piperaceae)-Valuable assessment of its quality. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2(2): S506-S510.
Pradhan, D., Suri, K. A., Pradhan D. K. and Biswasroy, P. (2013). Golden Heart of the Nature: Piper betle L. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1: 147-167.
Ranade, S. A., Soni, A., and Kumar, N. (2011). SPAR profiles for the assessment of genetic diversity between male and female landraces of the dioecious betelvine plant (Piper betle L.). In: Oscar Grillo (Ed.), Ecosystems Biodiversity, pp. 443-464.
Rawat, A. K. S., Tripathi, R. D., Khan, A. J. and Balasubrahmanyam, V. R. (1989). Essential oil components as markers for identification of Piper betle L. cultivars. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 17(1): 35-38.
Sharma, M. L., Rawat, A. K. S. and Balasubrahmanyam, V. R. (1987). Studies on essential oil of betel leaf. National Botanical Research Institute, 31(4): 319-324.
Sharma, M. L., Rawat, A. K. S., Balasubrahmanyam, V. R. and Singh, A. (1983). Indian Perfume, 27: 91-92 (Chemical Abstracts, 101, 11993).
Vasuki, K., Senthamarai, R., Kirubha, T. S. V., Balasubramanian, P. and Selvadurai, S. (2011). Pharmacognostical studies on leaf of Piper betle. Der Pharmacia Letter, 3(5): 232-235.
Verma, A., Kumar, N. and Ranade, S. A. (2004). Genetic diversity amongst landraces of a dioecious vegetatively propagated plant, betelvine (Piper betle L.). Journal of Biosciences, 29(3): 319-328.

Chapter 3

Balasubrahmanyam, V. R., Johri, J. K., Rawat, A. K. S., Tripathi, R. D. and Chaurasia, R. S. (1995) Betelvine (Piper betle L.). National Botanical Research Institute Publication, Lucknow, India.
Gamble, J. B. (1928). Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, India, Vol. II. (Rep. ed. 1957).
Guha, P. (1997). Paan Theke Kutir Silpa Sambhabana” (In Bengali). In: Krishi, Khadya-O- Gramin Bikash Mela, Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, IIT, Kharagpur, India, pp. 15-19. [Guha, P. (1997). Exploring Betel Leaves for Cottage Industry. In: Festival on Agriculture, food, and development of village, Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, IIT, Kharagpur, India, pp. 15-19.]Guha, P. (2006). Betel leaf: the neglected green gold of India. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(2): 87-93.
Khadke, G. N., Hima Bindu, K. and Ravishankar, K. V. (2012). Development of SCAR marker for sex determination in dioecious betelvine (Piper betle L.). Curr Sci, 103(6): 712-716.
Lakshmi, S. B., and Naidu, K. C. (2010). Comparative Morphoanatomy of Piper betle L. cultivars in India. Annals of Biological Research, 1(2): 128-134.
Maity, S. (1989). Extension Bulletin: The Betelvine. All India Coordinated Research Project on Betelvine, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessarghatta, Bangalore, India.
Patra, A. P., Mukherjee, A. K. and Acharya, L. (2011). Comparative study of RAPD and ISSR markers to assess the genetic diversity of Betel vine (Piper betle L.) in orissa, India. Am. J of Biochem Mol Biol, 1(2): 200-211.
Ranade, S. A., Soni, A., and Kumar, N. (2011). SPAR profiles for the assessment of genetic diversity between male and female landraces of the dioecious betelvine plant (Piper betle L.). In: Oscar Grillo (Ed.), Ecosystems Biodiversity, pp. 443-464.
Ravindran, P. N., Nirmal Babu, K., Sasikumar, B. and Krishnamoorthy, K. S. (2000). Botany and crop improvement of black pepper. In: P N Ravindran (ed.). Black pepper, Piper nigrum. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 23-142.
Rawat, A. K. S. and Balasubrahmanyam, V. R. (1988). Betelvine cultivars need to be classified. Ind. Hort., 32: 4–6.
Samanta, C. (1994). Paan chaser samasyabali-o-samadhan: Ekti samikkha (In Bengali) [A Report on the Problems and Solutions of Betel Vine Cultivation]. In: Adhikari, H. R., Salt Lake City, Kolkata, India.
Verma, A., Kumar, N. and Ranade, S. A. (2004). Genetic diversity amongst landraces of a dioecious vegetatively propagated plant, betelvine (Piper betle L.). Journal of Biosciences, 29(3): 319-328.

Chapter 4

Agri Farming (2015). http://agrifarming.in/betel-leaf-farming-information.
Chandini, S. (1989). Management practices for betelvine (Piper betel L.). Ph.D thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur. India, p p. 130.
CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (1969). The Wealth of India. 8: 84-94. CSIR, New Delhi, India.
Guha P. 2006. Betel leaf: The neglected green gold of India. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(2): 87-93.
Guha, P. and Jain, R. K. (1997). Status report on production, processing and marketing of betel leaf (Piper betle L.). Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, IIT, Kharagpur, India.
Kumar, N. (1999). Betelvine (Piper betle L.) cultivation: A unique case of plant establishment under anthropogenically regulated miclimatic conditions. Indian journal of History, 34(1): 231-239.
Thomas, U. C., Chandini, S., and Thomas, A. (2013). Integrated nutrient management studies in betelvine (Piper betel L.). International Journal of Applied Research and Studies, 2(7): 1-9.

Chapter 5

Ali, I. et al., (2010). In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob., 9: 7.
Amonkar, A. J., Nagbhushan, M., D’Souza, A. V. and Bhide, S. V. (1986). Hydroxychavicol: a new phenolic antimutagen from betel leaf. Food Chem. Toxicol., 24: 1321–1324.
Amonkar, A. J., Padma, P. R. and Bhide, S. V. (1989). Protective effect of hydroxychavicol, a phenolic component of betel leaf, against the tobacco-specific carcinogens. Mutat. Res., 1989, 210: 249–253.
Arambewela, L. S. R., Arawwawala, L. D. A. M., Kumaratunga, K. G., Dissanayake, D. S., Ratnasooriya, W. D. and Kumarasingha, S. P. (2011). Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka. Pharmacogn Rev., 5(10): 159–163.
Arambewela, L., Kumaratunga, K. G. A. and Dias, K. (2005). Studies on Piper betle of Sri Lanka. J.Natn.sci.Foundation Sri Lanka, 33(2): 133-139.
Bajpai, V., Sharma, D., Kumar, B. and Madhusudanan, K. P. (2010). Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique. Biomedical Chromatography, 24(12): 1283-1286.
Bissa, S., Bohra, A. and Songara, D. (2007). Traditions in oral hygiene: Chewing of betel (Piper betle L.) Leaves. Scientific correspondence, 92(1): 24-28.
Chandra, V., Tripathi, S., Verma, N. K., Singh, D. P., Chaudhary, S. K. and Roshan, A. (2011). Piper betel: phytochemistry, traditional use & pharmacological activity-a review. IJPRD, 4(4): 216 -223.
Chang, M. C. et al., (2007). Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization. Br. J. Pharmacol., 152: 73–82.

Chang, M. C., Uang, B. J., Wu, H. L., Lee, J. J., Hahn, L. J. and Jeng, J. H. (2002). Inducing the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of oral KB carcinoma cells by hydroxychavicol: roles of glutathione and reactive oxygen species. Br. J. Pharmacol., 135: 619–630.
Chaurasia, S., Kulkurni, G. T. and Setty, L. N. (2010). Phytochemical studies and invitro cytotoxicity. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 1(1): 384-391.
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CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi) (1969). The Wealth of India, CSIR, New Delhi, 8:

84-94.
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Dwivedi, B. K. and Mehta, B. K. (2011). Chemical investigation of aliphatic compounds of Piper betle (leaf stalk). J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 1(2): 18-24.
Dwivedi, B. K., Kumar, S., Nayak, C. and Mehta, B. K. (2010). Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of the hexane and benzene extracts of the Piper betle (leaf stalk) (Family: Piperaceae) from India. Journal of MedicinalPlants Research, 4(21):.2252-2255.
Fong, Y. S., (2009). Chemical constituents and biological activities of Garcinia mangostana and Piper betle. Master’s thesis, University Putra Malaysia, pp. 22.
Ghosh, K. and Bhattacharya, T. K. (2005). Chemical Constituents of Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) roots. Molecules, 10: 798-802.
Gopalan, C., Ramasastri, B. V. and Balasubramanian, S. C. (1984). Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, India, pp. 108.
Guha, P. 2006. Betel leaf: the neglected green gold of India. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(2): 87-93.
Guha, P. and Jain, R. K. (1997). Status Report On Production, Processing and Marketing of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L.). Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, IIT, Kharagpur, India.
Kanjwani, D. G., Marathe, T. P., Chiplunkar, S. V. and Sathaye, S. S. (2008). Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Piper betel”, Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 67: 589–593.
Kumar, N., Misra, P., Dube, A., Bhattacharya, S., Dikshit, M. and Ranade, S. (2010). Piper betle Linn. a maligned Pan-Asiatic plant with an array of pharmacological activities and prospects for drug discovery. Current science, 99(7): 922-932.
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Mubeen, M., Periyanayagam, K. and Sathik Basha, S. (2014). Anatomical Investigation on the leaves of Piper betle (L) var. Sirugamani 1(SGM1) links an Ethnomedical important Medicinal plant and its Pharmacognostic relevance. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research, 6(1): 244-251.
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Pradhan, D., Suri, K. A., Pradhan, D. K. and Biswasroy, P. (2013). Golden Heart of the Nature: Piper betle L. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1: 147-167.
Rai, M. P., Ramdas, K., Princy, L. P., Rao, P., Rao, S., Bhat, H. P. and Baliga, M. S. (2011). Piper Betel Linn (Betel Vine), the Maligned Southeast Asian Medicinal Plant Possesses Cancer Preventive Effects: Time to Reconsider the Wronged Opinion. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 12: 2149 – 2156.
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Chapter 6

Agarwal, T. and Singh, R. (2012). Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Piper betel cultivars. Novus International Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, 1(1): 50-58.
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Bhakta, B., Bhakta, U. Ghanti, S., Jana, B. B., Ghanti, P., Yamane, S., Bhakta, J. N. (2016) Betelvine: A green gold for sustainable economic upliftment in rural India. Int. J. Env. & Tech. Sc. 3:76-82.
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Chapter 7

Alam, M. K. and Mahiuddin, M. (1995). Conservation of the diversity through betel-leaf (Piper betle L.) based agroforestry in Sylhet. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science, 24(2): 49-53.
Bhakta, B., Bhakta, U. Ghanti, S., Jana, B. B., Ghanti, P., Yamane, S., Bhakta, J. N. (2016) Betelvine: A green gold for sustainable economic upliftment in rural India. Int. J. Env. & Tech. Sc. 3:76-82.
Bhattacharya, R. Mondal, B., Ray, S. K. and Khatua, D. C. (2012). A study on bacterial disease of betelvine in West Bengal, India. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management, 3(2): 211-216.
Costa, T., Datta, A (2007). The Khasia of Bangladesh; A socioeconomic survey of Khasia people. Society for Environment and Human Development (SHED), Dhaka, Bangladesh, 59.
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Haider, M. R., Khair, A., Rahaman, M. M. and Alam, M. K. (2013). Indigenous management practices of betel-leaf (Piper betle L.) cultivation by the Khasia community in Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 12: 231-239.
Kumar, N. (1999). Betelvine (Piper betle L.) cultivation: a unique case of plant establishment under anthropogenically regulated miclimatic conditions. Indian Journal of History, 34(1): 231-239.
Nath, T. K., Mokoto, I., Islam, M. J. and Kabir, M. A. (2003). The Khasi tribe of North Eastern Bangladesh: Their socioeconomic status, hill farming practices and impact on forest conservation. Forest tree and livelihoods 13: 279-311.
Thomas, U. C., Chandini, S. and Thomas. A. (2013). Integrated Nutrient Management Studies in betelvine (Piper betel L.). International Journal of Applied Research and Studies, 2(7).

Chapter 8

Chandra, G. and Sagar, R. L. (2004). Harvesting green gold: cultivation of betelvine in Sundarban. Indian Farmers Digest 37(3): 5-13.
Das, J. N., Das, S. C. and Acharya, A. (1989). Effect of nitrogen on yield and incidence of diseases in betelvine, Orissa. Orissa J. Agric. Res. 2: 177-179.
Mandal, B. K., Choudhuri, S. K., Sengupta, K. and Dasgupta, B. (1994). Response of betelvine varieties to organic manure and prilled urea. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 64: 297-301.
Rahman, O., Babu, S. H. C. and Rao, S. N. (1990). J. Agric. Sci. 100: 251-253.
Thomas, U. C., Chandini, S. and Thomas. A. (2013). Integrated Nutrient Management Studies in betelvine (Piper betel L.). International Journal of Applied Research and Studies, 2(7).
Thomas, U. C., Chandini, S., Anil Kumar, S., Thomas, A. and Satyanarayana, T. (2010). Evaluation of Different Nutrient Management Options for Leaf Yield, Quality, and Economics of Betel Vine Cultivation. Better Crops – South Asia, 16-17 (http://www. ipni.net/publication/bca.nsf/0/B553675FA4561866852579A4007A4B4B/$FILE/BCSA%202010%20pg%2016-17.pdf).

Chapter 9

Bhattacharya, R. Mondal, B., Ray, S. K. and Khatua, D. C. (2012). A study on bacterial disease of betelvine in West Bengal, India. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management, 3(2): 211-216.
Chaurasia, J. P. (2002). Betelvine Cultivation and Management of Diseases. Scientific Publishers, India.
CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi) (1969). The Wealth of India, 8:

84-94.
CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi) (1984). The Wealth of India, 8: 87.


https://colloque4.inra.fr/var/epidemiology_canopy_architecture/storage/fckeditor/file/6_Betelvine-DAS-2007.pdf.
Jane, N. S., Deshmukh, A. P. and Joshi, M. S. (2014). Review of study of different diseases on betelvine Plant and control measure. International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management, 3: 560-563.
Sengupta, D. K., Dasgupta, B., and Datta, P. (2011). Management of foot rot of betel vine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica. Dastur Journal of Crop and Weed, 7(2): 179-183.
Vijayakumar, J. and Arumugam, S. (2011). Foot rot disease identification for the betelvine plants using digital image processing. Journal of Computing, 3(2): 180-183.
Wasnikar, A. R., Khatik, S. K., Nayak, M. L., Vishwakarma, S. K. and Punekar, L. K. (1993). Effect of phosphorus on bacterial leaf spot disease incidence, and chemical composition and storage quality of Piper betle leaves. Phytoparasitica, 21: 75. doi:10.1007/ BF02980874.

Chapter 11

Balasubrahamanyam, V. R. (Ed.). (1994). Betel vine. National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, pp. 6-7.
Balasubramanian, S., Sharma, R., Gupta, R. K. and Patil, R. T. (2011). Validation of drying models and rehydration characteristics of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(6): 685-691.
Bhakta, B., Bhakta, U. Ghanti, S., Jana, B. B., Ghanti, P., Yamane, S., Bhakta, J. N. (2016) Betelvine: A green gold for sustainable economic upliftment in rural India. Int. J. Env. & Tech. Sc. 3:76-82.
Bhowmick, S. (1997). Paan: Anadrita Laxmi (In Bengali). [Betel leaf: The Neglected Goddess of Wealth]. Moyna Prakashani, Calcutta, West Bengal, India.
Guha, P. (2006). Betel leaf: the neglected green gold of India. Journal of Human Ecology, 19(2): 87-93.
http://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/too-costly-to-grow-33173.
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Islam, Q. M. S., Matin, M. A., Rashid, M. A., Hoq, M. S. and Moniruzzaman (2015). Profitibility of betel vine leaf (Piper betle L.) cultivation in some selected sites of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 40(3): 409-420.
Jana, B. L. (1995). Gram Banglar Arthakari Phasal-Paan (In Bengali). [Betel Leaf: A Cash Crop of Villages of Bengal]. Calcutta, India.
Jana, B. L. (1996). Improved technology for betel leaf cultivation. A paper presented in the “Seminar-cum-Workshop on Betel leaf Marketing”, held at State cashew nut farm, Directorate of Agricultural Marketing, Digha, Midnapur, West Bengal, India.

Jeng, J. H., Chen, S. Y., Liar, C. H., Tung, Y. Y., Lin, B. R., Hahn, L. J. and Chang, M.C. (2002). Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: Roles of relative oxygen species and cyclooxygenase. Free Radical Biologyand Medicine, 32(9):

860-871.
Kumar, N. (1999). Betelvine (Piper betle L.) cultivation: a unique case of plant establishment under anthropogenically regulated microclimatic conditions. Indian journal of History, 34(1): 231-239.
Samanta, C. (1994). Paan chaser samasyabali-o-samadhan: Ekti samikkha (In Bengali) [A Report on the Problems and Solutions of Betel Vine Cultivation]. In: A booklet Adhikari, H. R., Eds. Calcutta, West Bengal, India.
Singh, K. K, Balasubrahamanyam, V. R. and Kochhar, V. K. (1990). Effect of different packing methods, temperature conditions, treatment with chemicals on the senescence and storage behaviour of betel (Piper betle L.) leaves. Journal of Plantation Crops, 18(1): 23-28.
Thomas, U. C., Chandini, S. and Thomas. A. (2013). Integrated Nutrient Management Studies in betelvine (Piper betel L.). International Journal of Applied Research and Studies, 2(7).

Chapter 12

Chandra, G. and Sagar, R. L. (2004). Harvesting green gold: cultivation of betelvine in Sundarban. Indian Farmers Digest, 37(3): 5-13.
Mitsch, W. J. (1996). Ecological Engineering: a new paradigm for engineers and ecologists. In: Schulze, P. C. (Ed.), Engineering Within Ecological Constraints. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 114-132.
Odum, H. T. (1989). Ecological Engineering and Self-Organization. In: Mitsch, W. J. and Jørgensen, S. E. (Eds.), Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to Ecotechnology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 79-101.
Mitsch, W. J., and Jorgensen, S. E. (1989). “Introduction to Ecological Engineering.” In: W.J. Mitsch and S.E. Jorgensen (Editors), Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to Ecotechnology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 3-12.


Chapter 13

Balasubramanian, S., Sharma, R., Gupta, R. K. and Patil, R. T. (2011). Validation of drying models and rehydration characteristics of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(6): 685-691.
Bhakta, B., Bhakta, U. Ghanti, S., Jana, B. B., Ghanti, P., Yamane, S., Bhakta, J. N. (2016) Betelvine: A green gold for sustainable economic upliftment in rural India. Int. J. Env. & Tech. Sc. 3:76-82.
Das, S., Parida, R., Sandeep, I. S., Nayak, S. and Mohanty, S., (2016). Biotechnological intervention in betelvine (Piper betle L.): A review on recent advances and future prospects. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2016: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm. 2016.07.029.
Madan, A., Balan, N. and Barma, R.D. (2014). Reducing postharvest losses of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves by various preservation techniques. Journal of AgriSearch, 1(4): 251-256.
Thomas, U. C., Chandini, S. and Thomas, A. (2013). Integrated nutrient management studies in betelvine (Piper betel L.). International Journal of Applied Research and Studies, 2(7): 1-9.


Chapter 14

Bhakta, B., Bhakta, U. Ghanti, S., Jana, B. B., Ghanti, P., Yamane, S., Bhakta, J. N. (2016) Betelvine: A green gold for sustainable economic upliftment in rural India. Int. J. Env. & Tech. Sc. 3:76-82.
Das, S., Parida, R., Sandeep, I. S., Nayak, S. and Mohanty, S., (2016). Biotechnological intervention in betelvine (Piper betle L.): A review on recent advances and future prospects. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2016: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm. 2016.07.029.
Madan, A., Balan, N. and Barma, R. D. (2014). Reducing postharvest losses of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves by various preservation techniques. Journal of Agri Search 1(4): 251-256.

Audience: Graduate and post graduate students of Agriculture, Botany and plant pathology as a reference book and researcher teachers, scientists and farmers are audiences of the present book

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