Basilar Artery: A Clinical Review (2 Volume Set)

Tarik F. Massoud, MD, PhD (Editor)
Department of Radiology, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Ramez Kirollos, MD (Editor)
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cambridge and Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK

Lotfi Hacein-Bey, MD (Editor)
Department of Medical Imaging, Sutter Medical Group, Sutter Health, Sacramento, CA, USA.
UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress
BISAC: MED057000

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Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Perhaps no artery in the human body bears as much importance to bodily functions and life as the basilar artery, by virtue of the anatomical territories it serves. This is due to the critical nature of the physiological functions supported by the brainstem, the nearby cerebellum and cerebrum, and the severity of most pathological conditions known to affect this artery, and the risk involved in treating those conditions. This book is a comprehensive resource of knowledge on the anatomical, radiological, developmental, clinical, and technical aspects relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of basilar artery diseases.

Until now, no single book has been available as a wide-ranging resource of clinically relevant information on the basilar artery, its pathology, and various treatment options. The co-editors are experienced academic clinicians with active interests in clinical neurovascular imaging and cerebrovascular surgery, who have worked within vibrant hospital and academic settings at the forefront of the best clinical practices related to diseases involving the basilar artery.

The co-editors’ clinical experience has been acquired in centers of excellence across the USA, Europe, and the Far East. In compiling this book, the co-editors have also called upon many of the world’s best basic and clinical neuroscientists, specializing in knowledge of clinical conditions affecting the basilar artery, for their expert input on the latest clinical management of patients with diseases involving this artery.

This book is intended for neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, neurointensivists, and other physicians and scientists engaged in the study and clinical management of patients with disease of the basilar artery and its vascular territories of the brain. It should also serve as a unique educational and research resource for students and more experienced practitioners alike within this important area of clinical medicine.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Dedication

Preface

Foreword

Volume 1

Section 1: Anatomy, Variants, And Age-Related Changes

Chapter 1. Segmental Anatomy and Embryology of the Basilar Artery
(Jason Neal, MD, PhD, and Jose Gutierrez, MD, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, US)

Chapter 2. Anatomical Variations of the Basilar Artery
(Sandhya Gunnal, PhD, Associate Professor, Rural Medical College, PIMS, Loni, India)

Chapter 3. Variations in the Perforators of the P1 Segments of the Posterior Cerebral Arteries
(Cezary Grochowski, MD, Beata Grochowska, MD, Ryszard Maciejewski. MD, PhD, Neurosurgery and Pediatric Neurosurgery Department in Lublin, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland)

Chapter 4. Basilar Artery Duplications
(Brian M. Corliss, MD, Brian L. Hoh, MD, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Florida Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL, US)

Chapter 5. Age-Related Changes in the Basilar Artery
(Angelija Valančiūtė, PhD, Devika Gudienė, MD, PhD, Rūta Vosyliūtė, PhD, Jolita Palubinskienė, MD, PhD, and Ingrida Balnytė, MD, PhD, Department of Histology and Embryology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania)

Chapter 6. Vascular Territories Subserved by Vertebrobasilar Arterial Branches
(Bhuvic Patel, MD, Eric J. Arias, MD, and Akash P. Kansagra, MD, MS, Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, US)

Section 2: Atherosclerosis, and Extrinsic Abnormalities

Chapter 7. Histopathology of Basilar Artery Atherosclerosis
(Wen-Jie Yang, PhD, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA and Xiang-Yan Chen, PhD, Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong)

Chapter 8. Basilar Artery Displacement or Invasion by Malignant Skull Base Tumors
(Alexandre B Todeschini, MD, Daniel M Prevedello, MD, and Ricardo Carrau, MD, Department of Neurological Surgery, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Columbus, OH, US)

Section 3: Inflammation

Chapter 9. Basilar Artery Vessel Wall Imaging
(Adam de Havenon, MD, Brian Marcus, MD, Matthew Alexander, MD, Joseph Scott McNally, MD, PhD, University of Utah, Department of Neurology, Salt Lake City, Utah, US)

Chapter 10. Infectious Vasculitis Affecting the Basilar Artery
(Masaki Nagamine, MD and Wengui Yu, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, University of California Irvine, California, US)

Section 4: Steno-Occlusion

Chapter 11. Basilar Artery Occlusion Syndromes: An Overview
(Mary Hollist, DO, and Stacie L. Demel, DO, PhD, Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, US)

Chapter 12. Basilar Artery Occlusion: A Systematic Review
(Joanna Wing-Kiu Ho, Calvin Hoi-kwan Mak, Kwong-yau Chan, Wai-sang Poon, MD, and George Kwok-chu Wong, MD, Department of Neurosurgery, Kwong Wah Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China)

Chapter 13. Cross-Sectional Imaging of Acute Basilar Artery Thrombosis
(Dr James Wareham, FRCR and Alex Mortimer, FRCR, PhD, Department of Neuroradiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK)

Chapter 14. Advanced Imaging of Basilar Artery Occlusion Sequelae
(Sharma Pankaj, Eytan Raz and Yvonne W. Lui, MD, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, US)

Chapter 15. Basilar Artery Causes of Locked-In Syndrome
(Petar M. Nikic, PhD, Sanja Trajkovic-Bezmarevic, MD, and Aleksandar Bezmarevic, MD, Special Hospital for Cerebrovascular Diseases “Sveti Sava”, Belgrade, Serbia)

Chapter 16. Top of the Basilar Syndrome
(Ravi Garg, MD, Jose´ Biller, MD, Department of Neurology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, US)

Chapter 17. Drug Management and Intravenous Thrombolysis for Basilar Artery Steno-Occlusion
(James E. Siegler, MD, and Scott E. Kasner, MD, Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, US)

Chapter 18. Intra-Arterial Interventions for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion
(Kevin N. Sheth, MD, and Amy W. Yu, MD, Yale School of Medicine Department of Neurology, New Haven, CT, US)

Chapter 19. Neuro-Interventional Recanalization for the Acute Vertebro-Basilar Artery Occlusion
(Daisuke Wajima, MD, PhD, Shuta Aketa, MD, PhD, Taiji Yonezawa, MD, PhD, Ichiro Nakagawa, MD, PhD, and Hiroyuki Nakase, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka Police Hospital and Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan)

Chapter 20. Perforator Occlusion after Angioplasty and Stenting of the Basilar Artery
(Waldo R. Guerrero, MD, Sami Al Kasab, MD, Edgar A. Samaniego, MD, and Colin P. Derdeyn, MD, Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, US)

Volume 2

Section 5: Dissection and Perforation

Chapter 21. Dissection of the Basilar Artery
(Lukas Mayer, MD, Michael Knoflach, MD, Johann Willeit, MD, Elke R. Gizewski, MD, Stefan Kiechl, MD, Departments of Neurology and Neuroradiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

Chapter 22. Vessel Wall Imaging of Basilar Artery Dissection
(Jonathan Lee, MD, Jenny Wu, MD, Stephen Jones, MD, PhD, The Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, US)

Chapter 23. Stent Treatment for Basilar Artery Dissection
(Tianxiao Li, MD, PhD, Bowen Yang, MD, PhD, Jiangyu Xue, MD, PhD, Yingkun He, MD, PhD, Interventional Department, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital and Zhengzhou University People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China)

Chapter 24. Complications in Endovascular Treatment of Posterior Circulation Stroke
(Pasquale Mordasini, MD, Johannes Kaesmacher, MD, and Jan Gralla, MD, University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland)

Section 6: Dolichoectasia

Chapter 25. Dolichoectasia of the Basilar Artery
(Fernando Pico, MD, PhD, and Pierre Amarenco, MD, Neurology Department and Stroke Center, Versailles Hospital, France, and others)

Chapter 26. Multimodality Imaging of Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia
(Alireza Radmanesh, MD, and Mohammad Samim, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York University, New York, NY, US)

Section 7: Aneurysms

Chapter 27. Contributions of Vascular Anatomic Features to Basilar Tip Aneurysm Formation and Rupture
(Isaac Ng and Rose Du, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, US)

Chapter 28. Surgical Treatment of Basilar Tip Aneurysms
(Isaac Josh Abecassis, MD, Rakshith Shetty, MD, and Laligam N. Sekhar, MD, Departments of Neurological Surgery, Radiology and Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, US)

Chapter 29. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Aneurysms
(Atallah, Dang, Lang, Varotsis, Chalouhi, Shivashankar, Jabbour, Rosenwasser and Tjoumakaris, Department of Neurological Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience, Philadelphia, PA, US)

Chapter 30. Endovascular Sacrifice of the Basilar Artery
(Albert Ho Yuen Chiu and Constantine Chris Phatouros, Neurological Intervention and Imaging Service of Western Australia, Sir Charles Gairdner, Royal Perth and Fiona Stanley Hospitals, Perth, Australia)

Chapter 31. Basilar Artery Perforator Aneurysms
(Sudhakar R. Satti, MD, Tim Eden, Sohil N. Golwala, MD, and Pooja SirDeshpande, MD, Department of Neurointerventional Surgery, Christiana Care Health System, US)

Chapter 32. Giant Fusiform Basilar Artery Aneurysms: Endovascular Management
(Caroline C. Hadley, Visish M. Srinivasan and Peter Kan, Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, US)

Chapter 33. Giant Fusiform Basilar Artery Aneurysms: Combined Surgical and Endovascular Treatment
(Osman Kizilkilic, MD, Yasemin Kayadibi, MD, Naci Kocer, MD, Civan Islak, MD, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Neuroradiology Department, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 34. Vertebrobasilar Junction Aneurysms: Microsurgical Treatment
(Ihsan Dogan, MD and Mustafa K. Baskaya, MD, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, US)

Section 8: Fenestration

Chapter 35. Basilar Artery Fenestration Aneurysms
Jason Liew, BA, Wuyang Yang, MS, MD and Judy Huang, MD
Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, US)

Chapter 36. Treatment of Basilar Artery Fenestration Aneurysms
(Shunichi Tanaka, MD, Hitoshi Yamahata, MD, PhD, Jun Sugata, MD, and Kazunori Arita, MD PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan)

Section 9: Vasospasm

Chapter 37. Basilar Artery Vasospasm
(Nicolas Bruder, MD, and Salah Boussen, MD, PhD, CHU Timone, AP-HM, Marseille, Marseille University, France)

Chapter 38. Basilar Artery Vasospasm: The Role of Transcranial Doppler Evaluation
(Gill E Sviri MD, Department of Neurosurgery, The Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel)

Index

“Patients with pathology involving the basilar artery are some of the most desperate in all of neurology and neurosurgery, and the treatment of this pathology is among the most challenging. The dolichoectatic basilar artery aneurysm is an example of a lesion that I have struggled with for decades, trying various clipping techniques to reconstruct the artery, different bypass strategies to occlude or thrombose the aneurysm, and transposition techniques to decompress the brainstem. This quixotic journey has led to humbling morbidity/mortality and a profound respect for this artery and its critical perforators. In this remarkable book, Drs. Massoud, Kirollos, and Hacein-Bey direct their full attention to this artery. These accomplished authors and their contributors explore the anatomy of the basilar artery, its responses to atherosclerosis and inflammation, associated ischemic syndromes, injuries from dissection and perforation, and treatments of aneurysms and dolichoectasias. The result is a deep dive to the very center of the cranium and to the one artery most responsible for our survival. The result is an appreciation of its mysteries and how much more we must do if we intend to advance the treatment of these diseases. All of us in the fields of neurology, neurosurgery, and neuroradiology owe it to our patients to study the basilar artery and find new ways to fight its afflictions.” - Michael T. Lawton, MD, President and CEO, Professor and Chair, Neurosurgery, Chief, Neurovascular Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute , Phoenix, USA

“Drs. Massoud, Kirollos, and Hacein-Bey’s book entitled Basilar Artery: A Clinical Review is a didactic tour de force in the field of Clinical Neurosciences. Their work is a major contribution to the understanding of the basilar trunk, its pathologies, and the key concepts behind state-of-art clinical management; it is a must have for every clinician and medical student interested in the subject. Their encyclopedia basilaris finally fills a blatant void in the literature on the most mysterious, yet vital, artery of the human vasculature. Their opus work gathers contributions from five-star-only physicians, scientists, and educators. This “MKH” seminal book is the reference on topics related to the Basilar Artery.” - Professor Francis Turjman, MD PhD, Division of Internventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of Lyon School of Medicine, Pierre Wertheimer Hospital , Lyon, France

“Basilar disease has long been a challenge, not only in diagnosis of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke subtype, but far too often daunting in management, often to the despair of the clinical team. That this remarkable book justifies publication is a sign of the degree of advances in highly-focused stroke diagnosis and management for this subset of clinical stroke. A distinguished group of justly-famous international authors have been assembled to provide the information needed for modern diagnosis and management. The details painstakingly assembled in these chapters will repay the efforts of readers and offer the chances greatly to improve the clinical outcomes for patients.” - JP Mohr, MS MD, The New York Neurological Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA

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