Balancing Economic, Legal, and Social Macrosystems Based on Modelling Decision Processes


Lidiya V. Zhukovskaya, Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.) – Chief Researcher, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Series: Economic Issues, Problems and Perspectives
BISAC: BUS069040; MAT011000

In recent years, numerous works have been published, reflecting the results of scientific research on the modeling of decision processes in the socio-economic, socio-legal, and economic-legal systems at the firm (enterprise, organization) level.  However, this book by L.V. Zhukovskaya posed and solved the problem of balancing the economic, legal, and social macrosystems for the first time in the literature. The author formalized equilibrium models for these macrosystems using the Golden Rule of ethics as a new economic doctrine. Therefore, the practical and scientific relevance are beyond doubt. The key to the book is developing the concept and models of metasystem equilibrium of the economic, legal, and social macrosystems to determine effective strategic decisions under uncertainty and modeling decision processes at the macro level in the socio-economic sphere. On the one hand, this concept allows decomposing the equilibrium problem into several formal problems; on the other hand, it organically integrates the optimization and game-theoretic methods and models developed by the author. Of particular interest to readers may be the concept of equilibrium in sanctions and countersanctions, the author’s economic and legal model, based on the legal definition of sanctions as a measure of responsibility for violating the social contract. This class of problems arises in applications, e.g., environmental regulation of socio-economic ecosystems.” – Georgy B. Kleiner, Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Cand. Sci. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of the Mesoeconomics, Microeconomics, and Corporate Economics Research at Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

The author considers the interaction of three national macrosystems (economic, legal, and social) within a national public metasystem, justifying and solving the problem of their balancedness using the concept of Berge equilibrium. This equilibrium mathematically expresses the Golden Rule of ethics (GR), one of the most ancient, specific, and widespread moral generalizations that appear in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. It instructs: “Do to others as you would like them to do to you.” The author studies the influence of morality (in the sense of Kant’s imperative or the GR) on strategic decision-making in the national public metasystem. The Nash equilibrium of the three macrosystems reflects the neoliberal economic doctrine widespread currently. An alternative moral-philosophical economic doctrine based on the GR is substantiated using systems theory and game theory.

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Table of Contents



About the Author


Chapter 1. Features of Strategic Decision-Making in Stationary and Nonstationary Macrosystems

Chapter 2. Equilibrium Models of the Complex National Metasystem

Chapter 3. Modelling Decision Processes in the Social Sphere at the Macrolevel

Chapter 4. Guaranteed Solutions and Risks in Multicriteria Choice and Conflict Systems under Uncertainty

Chapter 5. The Guaranteed Berge Equilibrium in Payoffs and Risks for a Noncooperative N-Player Game under Uncertainty

Chapter 6. The Concept of Equilibrium in Sanctions and Countersanctions in a Differential Game of N 2 Players

Chapter 7. Structural Analysis of Intelligent Decision Support Systems under Uncertainty

Chapter 8. A Mechanism for Implementing Berge Equilibrium of the Complex Metasystem Based on Modelling Decision Processes


Basic Notations and Abbreviations



Author’s ORCID iD

Lidiya V. Zhukovskaya –