Apatite: Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Biomedical Applications

Michele Iafisco, PhD (Editor)
Laboratory of Bioceramics and Bio-Hybrid Composites, CNR – Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, Italy

José Manuel Delgado-López, PhD (Editor)
Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalograficos, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain

Series: Geology and Mineralogy Research Developments
BISAC: SCI048000

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Nanocrystalline apatites constitute the main inorganic part of human hard tissues (bone and teeth), and a growing focus is devoted to prepare synthetic analogs, so-called “biomimetic”, able to precisely mimic the morphological and physical-chemical features of biological apatites. In fact, it is reasonable to hypothesize that by virtue of their high similarity with the biogenic calcium phosphates, synthetic nano-sized and ionic substituted apatite nanocrystals can display better biological performances than coarser and ceramic hydroxyapatite.

For this reason, the study of their crystallization mechanisms and the possibility to tailor the structural and physical-chemical properties of these materials open several possibilities to prepare optimal devices in medical sciences and also to better investigate the biomineralization processes of living organisms. This book is divided in three main parts and is principally devoted to highlight the recent progresses on the preparation and characterization of multifunctional nanocrystalline apatites with tailored properties to be used as healthcare materials (i.e. nanoparticles for drug or gene delivery and materials for bone substitution and regeneration). The first part is intended to be a comprehensive review of the importance and the occurrence of calcium phosphates in nature (geological and biological occurrence) and to underline the peculiar characteristics of nanocrystalline apatites.

The aim of the second part is to show the most important analytical techniques for the characterization of apatite features and to describe the new theories behind the apatite crystallization and dissolution processes. The last part describes the traditional and the most exciting and innovative applications of pure, ionic-substituted, and organic-functionalized apatite as biomaterial. The chapters of this book, written by eminent scientists, will serve as an important and useful reference source for a broad audience that consists of both expert (materials scientists, biomedical engineers and biologists) and non-expert readers to who want to improve their knowledge in the field of apatite based biomaterials. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1 - Calcium Orthophosphates: Occurrence, Properties and Major Applications (pp. 1-48)
Sergey V. Dorozhkin (Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 2 - Nanocrystalline Apatites: Synthesis, Physical-Chemical and Thermodynamic Characterization (pp. 49-80)
Michele Iafisco, José Manuel Delgado-López and Christophe Drouet (National Research Council (CNR). Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC), Faenza (RA), Italy and others)

Chapter 3 - Behind Apatite Formation: An Attempt at Conceptualizing Nature (pp. 81-102)
Marianthi Manda-Guiba, Ioanna Stasinopoulou and Dimitris Christofilos (Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki, Greece)

Chapter 4 - Distribution of Carbonate Ions in Biological Apatite and Excess Fluorine in Francolite (pp. 103-122)
Michael E. Fleet (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 5 - Diagnosis of Apatite Deposits in Skin Calcified Tissues: Biomedical Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy (pp. 123-140)
Shan-Yang Lin (Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan, ROC)

Chapter 6 - The Dissolution Mechanism of Calcium Apatites in Acids (pp. 141-172)
Sergey V. Dorozhkin (Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 7 - High-Temperature In Situ XRD Investigations of Apatites. Structural Interpretation of Thermal Deformations (pp. 173-200)
Evgeny N. Bulanov and Alexander V. Knyazev (Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia)

Chapter 8 - Nanocrystalline Apatites Functionalized with Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Cancer Therapies (pp. 201-224)
Maria Prat, Francesca Oltolina, Luca Gregoletto, José Manuel Delgado-López and Jaime Gómez-Morales (Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, Novara, Italy)

Chapter 9 - Biocompatible Apatite Nanoparticles: A Versatile Tool for Cellular Delivery of Genes, siRNAs, Drugs and Proteins (pp. 225-242)
Sharif Hossain, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Nihad Adnan and Toshihiro Akaike (Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8501, Japan and others)

Chapter 10 - Apatite Enrichment of Hydrogel Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration (pp. 243-260)
Timothy E. L. Douglas (Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Belgium)

Chapter 11 - Functionalized Apatite Nanocrystals for Biomedical Applications (pp. 261-290)
Luis M. Rodríguez-Lorenzo (Polymeric Nanomaterials and Biomaterials. Institute of Polymer Science and Technology-Spanish Research Council (CSIC))

Chapter 12 - Apatite As Biomaterial in Hard Tissue Engineering: An Overview (pp. 291-310)
Chieko Yamagata, Andrea D. Rodas, Olga Z. Higa, Agatha M. Misso, Fernando S. Silva and Signo T. Reis (Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil and others)

Index

Audience: Undergraduate and Ph.D. student in Chemistry, Materials Science, Engineering, Physic, Biology. Academic researchers working in the field of biomaterials, orthopedic, drug delivery, nanotechnology

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