Airborne and Biological Monitoring to Assess Occupational Exposure to Isocyanates


Jimmy Hu, PhD – Senior Occupational and Analytical Chemist, SafeWork NSW, Australia

Series: Biochemistry Research Trends; Analytical Chemistry and Microchemistry
BISAC: MED061000; SCI013060; TEC009010

This comprehensive guide is an essential resource for professionals working in industries that use isocyanates in the manufacturing of polyurethanes, foams, coatings, adhesives, and other materials. It provides a thorough understanding of the potential health hazards posed by isocyanates and offers practical insights into reducing occupational exposure to these compounds through effective airborne and biological monitoring techniques.

The book covers the latest policies and occupational exposure standards for isocyanates, making it relevant for an international audience. It also highlights the rapid advances in analytical methods and new technologies, including modern analytical methods used to quantify isocyanate derivatives from both airborne and biological monitoring.

The guide focuses on the latest developments in airborne monitoring methods, including those evaluated based on the latest peer-reviewed journal papers. Additionally, it provides the first substantial review of biological monitoring exposure to isocyanates in the workplace. The book delves into the analytical methods used for better efficiency and quick turn-around, the efficacy of exposure controls, and quality assurance programs used.

This accessible guide will be useful to occupational hygienists, analytical chemists, laboratory chemists, researchers, students, and anyone seeking to manage the risks of isocyanates in the workplace. It covers a range of topics, from exposure routes and risk management to exposure controls, sampling, and laboratory analytical methods. The book concludes with a summary of future work required in the field, research priorities, and predictions of long-term research goals for both airborne and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to isocyanates. Overall, this is an indispensable reference for anyone involved in managing isocyanate risks in the workplace.

Table of Contents


List of Figures




Chapter 1. Isocyanates
1.1. Common Isocyanate Compounds
1.2. Production and Reactivity
1.3. Common Applications
1.3.1. Manufacturing of Isocyanates
1.3.2. Use in Manufacturing of PUs and PU Composite Materials
1.3.3. Use in Manufacture of Foams
1.3.4. Use in Spray Foam Applications
1.3.5. Use in Coatings
1.3.6. Use in Adhesives

Chapter 2. Health and Safety
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Hazard Statements
2.3. Exposure Routes
2.4. Risk Management
2.4.1. Exposure Controls
2.4.2. Exposure Standards
2.4.3. Regulation
2.4.4. Exposure Monitoring
2.4.5. Health Surveillance
2.5. Conclusion

Chapter 3. Laboratory Analytical Methods
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Sample Preparation
3.3. Analytical Techniques
3.3.1. Gas Chromatography
3.3.2. Flame Ionisation Detection
3.3.3. Mass Spectrometer
3.3.4. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
3.3.5. Ultra-Violet/Electrochemical Detections
3.3.6. Tandem Mass Spectrometer
3.4. Examples of Analytical Methods
3.4.1. Method for Assessing Airborne Isocyanates as -NCO Group by LC-UV-ECD
3.4.2. Method for Assessing Airborne Both Isocyanate Monomers and Oligomers by LC-MS-MS
3.4.3. Method for Assessing Biomarkers of Exposure to Isocyanates by LC-MS/MS
3.5. Laboratory Accreditation and Quality Control/Assurance
3.6. Discussion
3.6.1. Ultra/Violet and Electrochemical Detections Versus Mass Spectrometer
3.6.2. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer Versus Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer
3.7. Conclusion

Chapter 4. Airborne Monitoring and Its Applications
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Sampling and Analytical Methods
4.2.1. OSHA and NIOSH Methods
4.2.2. Other Widely Used Methods
4.3. Critical Areas to Focus on Improvement of Methods
4.3.1. Sampling of Isocyanates (Impinger vs Filters)
4.3.2. Derivatisation
4.3.3. Monomers and Oligomers
4.3.4. Detection
4.3.5. Continuous Monitoring Exposure Isocyanates Techniques
4.4. Occupational Exposure to Isocyanates
4.4.1. Manufacturing of Isocyanates
4.4.2. Applications in the Manufacture of PUs and PU Composite Materials
4.4.3. Applications in the Manufacture of Foams
4.4.4. Applications in Spray Foam
4.4.5. Applications in Coatings
4.4.6. Applications in Adhesives
4.4.7. Discussions
4.5. Conclusion and Future Research Goals

Chapter 5. Biological Monitoring and Its Applications
5.1. Introduction
5.2. International Approaches
5.3. Assessing Exposure (Regulation)
5.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Biological Monitoring
5.5. Practical Approaches
5.5.1. Common Media
5.5.2. Sampling
5.5.3. Analytical Methods
5.5.4. Interpretation
5.5.5. Criteria for Selection of a Biomarker
5.6. Applications
5.6.1. Monitoring Exposure to HDI
5.6.2. Monitoring Exposure to TDI
5.6.3. Monitoring Exposure to MDI
5.7. Conclusion


About the Author


Author’s ORCID iD

Jimmy Hu0000-0001-8650-0599

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