African Civilization in the 21st Century

Tseggai Isaac (Editor)
Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, USA

Andrew Targowski (Editor)
Western Michigan University, MI, USA
President Emeritus of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (2009-2013)

Series: Focus on Civilizations and Cultures
BISAC: POL053000

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This book took the task of conceptualizing the change of African Civilization in the 21st century. It examines African Civilization and its encounters in view of the last 500 years of European and American slavery, exploitation and diplomatic paralysis. In post-colonial Africa (1960-2014), foreign powers have more influence on Africa. However, Africa cannot claim to have the diplomatic prestige to influence European, American or Asian powers. The overwhelming challenges that Africa has been experiencing did attract global reaction ranging from military intervention, diplomatic push or pull (rarely in between), and frequent humanitarian involvements. It is still inconclusive if global attention on Africa has had impact as much as it has been a stomping ground for advisors, donors, politicians, international agencies and a phalanx of well-meaning NGOs. However, their impact can be exemplified by the fact that in Sub-Saharan Africa, every second individual still does not have access to fresh water and electricity in the 21st century.

In this book, the focus is put on Sub-Saharan Africa, where every other habitant has no access to fresh water and electricity. In this book, the following modernization strategies are recognized and discussed in Africa today: Westernizatio, Africanization, Chinezation, and Globalization. The evaluation of these policies is done with the civilization approach which is characterized by a big-picture view of the integration of society, culture (including religion), and infrastructure over a long period of time on a large territory. Furthermore, in the 21st century, global civilization are forming and penetrating contemporary civilizations such as: Western, Eastern, Chinese, Japanese, Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, and African enforcing the development of large scale global businesses and capital. In such a context, should African Civilization follow the questionable policy of Westernization and Globalization? Or should it not follow these challenges and avoid the temptations of fast development and look rather towards the Africanization approach, which could make it last longer than the so called more modern, mentioned civilizations. These kinds of considerations are debated in this book. (Imprint: Nova)

Foreword
Andrew Targowski and Tseggai Isaac

Chapter 1. The Civilization Approach to Analytical Orthodoxy: Solution for or Conveyer of Political Decay to Africa's Post-Colonial Struggles in the 21st Century?
Tseggai Isaac (Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, US)

Chapter 2. Africa As the Hub of Mankind and Its Civilizations
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Chapter 3. The Civilizations of Africa
David Wilkinson ( University of California, Los Angeles, CA, US)

Chapter 4. Making the Case for Ethiopian Civilization
Tseggai Isaac (Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, US)

Chapter 5. The Civilization Index and African Civilization in the 21st Century
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Chapter 6. The Impact of Religion on African Civilization in Light of the 21st Century
Tseggai Isaac (Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, US)

Chapter 7. Language and Education in African Civilization in the 21st Century
Tseggai Isaac (Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, US)

Chapter 8. Globalization and the Fate of African Traditional Institutions: The Case of the Bashingantahe Order in Burundi, in the 21st Century
Herménégilde Rwantabagu (University of Burundi, Burundi)

Chapter 9. The Impact of Global Geopolitics on the Ethiopian Civilization, One of the Earliest in the World
Sisay Asefa (Director of the Center for African Development Policy Research, Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Chapter 10. African Civilization and Infrastructure in the 21st Century
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Chapter 11. The Impact of Agriculture on African Civilization in the 21st Century
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Chapter 12. The African Governance Challenges in Global Economy and Society in the 21st Century, the Case of Ethiopia
Sisay Asefa (Director of the Center for African Development Policy Research, Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Chapter 13. African Civilization versus Global Waves and Civilization in the 21st Century
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Chapter 14. Where Is Africa Heading?
Andrew Targowski (Western Michigan University, MI, US)

Index

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